남명학연구 제25권 (p.297-342)

신라 초·중기 弗矩內 뉘 연구

Study in Bulgnae Nui84) in Early and Middle ages of Silla
키워드 :
弗矩內,Bulgnae

목차

Ⅰ. 말머리
Ⅱ. 건국신화와 弗矩內의 출생지향
Ⅲ. 금관과 弗矩內의 죽음여행
Ⅳ. 납작머리와 弗矩內의 환생염원
Ⅴ. 마무리

초록

이 논문은 󰡔삼국유사󰡕 ‘신라시조 혁거세왕’에 나오는 弗矩內의 의미와 상징을 밝혀 신라인의 내세관과 우주관을 해명하는 데 그 목적이 있다. 신라 천하관의 밑바디인 弗矩內는 출생과 죽음 그리고 재생·부활이라는 우주 관인 ‘뉘’에도 그대로 투영된다. 여기서 弗矩內 뉘란 혁거세와 김알지가 자주빛 알이나 자주빛 구름에 싸인 황금 궤에서 출생하여 대릉원의 주인공들처럼 금관 을 쓰고 죽음여행을 하며 다시 우주새가 되어 천상으로 갔다가 난생으로 재생· 부활하는 순환 고리를 말한다.
The purpose of this study is to make clear the meaning and symbol of Bulgnae from 'the founder of Silla, King Hyeokgeose' and to explain the view of the next world and the universe. Bulgnae, the base view of world in Silla, is reflected on Nui, that is the view of the universe - birth, death and revival or rebirth. Here, Bulgnae Nui is a kind of cycling link that has three stages - in the first stage, Park Hyeokgeose and Kim Alji were born from purple eggs or from golden chests surrounded with purple cloud, in the second stage, they took a tip after death with golden crown, such as ones buried in Daereongwon which is the royal mausoleum, and became the bird of universe to go to heaven, and in final stage, they were reborn from eggs. The white horse which took Hyeokgeose to Najeong(a fountain) was Park-horse. Gye-ryong85), which took Alyoung to Ariyoung fountain, had a Park-rooster's head. The white rooster, which took Kim Alji, was also Park-rooster. The golden chest (from which Kim Alji was born) hung on a tree, that was a white birch, Park-tree. The person who used a golden crown for a dead mask climbed Park-tree, or flew to the heaven with riding on Park-deer or Park-horse. And the spirit of the dead became a Park-rooster then took a trip of death. All who used a gold crown for a dead mask wore a gold belt and a belt ring. A decorative fish and a jade dragon on this belt has functions as defeating the evil and guide for the trip of death. People of Silla enbody and ensoul the Park-rooster. They wanted to copy the Park-rooster and to transform themselves in to Park-rooster. Their first representation was head transformation (flat head). It was authenticated that each Gangsu and Seok Talhae had a transformed head and that King Beobheong had a flat head. The flat head was excavated by museum of Pusan University in Ye-an-ri Gimhae, Gyeongsangnam-do from 1976 to 1980. Its forehead is lie back, the shoot out vertex shape a bulging head, and it has a shapely nose. It just looks like the head of Gye-ryong which has the great red crown on the top with lifted eye, pecking with sharp roosterbill. The flat head is reflection of rooster totem of Silla. The flat head means not only longevity in this life but eternal life with being a humanhead bird and fly to the world of Seo wangmo who has the elixir of life after death. There was a jar with eggs in an iron pot, which was found in Chunmachong. The egg is a symbol of revival or rebirth from Oviparous Myth86) of Silla. People of Silla believed that the oviparous mysterious force of Park-rooster isn't realized as revival or rebirth until encounter with vitality of water. It is also seen as Silla's faith in water to make 'Pottery Statue of Man Riding Horse' into a jug. They also believed Park-rooster as wealth, fecundity, and strong, lasting life like fish with wings. It is difficult to explain the splendid grave of northern queen with just political situation that the Gaksibachi or the strengthening of women's right of Silla royal family. The kingly power which had political authority was the most powerful in this world, but the queen's authority became more powerful in the world beyond. It seems that the queen's character of being Shaman is the absolute one as the head priest. It was the queen, so to speak, that more close to Bulgnae Nui, not the king.