한국환경생태학회 학술대회논문집 제25권 2호 (p.37-38)

몽골의양서 파충류상과보전이슈a

Amphibians and reptiles of Mongolia and Coservation issues a

초록

Amphibians and reptiles are included in two independent classes which are upper units of animal kingdom and inseparable members of biodiversity in Mongolia as well as important part of ecosystem. If these animals are taken from the ecosystem, that normal natural substance nutrient cycle and energy flow will be destroyed. In order to keep the ecosystem balance, there is a need to study and protect the herpetologcal species same as with other biological groups. When amphibians dominating in Nothern region which has more lakes, streams and ponds, as a true terrestrial animal reptiles are mainly occur in Gobi Desert region of the country. There are 6 species of amphibians in Mongolia belongs to 4 families of 2 orders and 21 species of reptiles in Mongolia belongs to 13 genera 6 families of 2 suorders. Our diversity is low, comparing with the Middle Asia, Northeast Asia and Central Asian herpetoligical species, due to harsh continental climate of Mongolia. From the viewpoint of evolution, whole class of amphibians and reptiles could be a relict and since they are cold-bloooded animal, its very difficult to live in dry and cold climate. Even species diversity is poor, Mongolian herpetological composition is unique, highly adopted in country’s harsh climate and originated a long time ago. There are two main characteristic in herpetilogical species composition of Mongolia. First, marginal population of widely distributed Palearctic species entered. Second, core zone of species originated in Central Asia is Mongolia. Based on these two characteristic, objective and future trend of herpetoligical study might determined. Recently climate changes and human impacts on environment negatively influencing on the marginal population species in Mongolia. In mongolia, totally 6 species of amphibian species are recorded; from class Amphibia, order Urodela, family Hynobiidae one species distributed- Hynobius keyserlingii, from order Anura, family Bufonidae two species: Bufo raddei and Bufo pewzovi, from Hylidae family: Hyla japonica, from Ranidae family 2 species: Rana amurensis and Rana chensinensis. Recently some study including Hynobius keyserlingii in Salamandridae family, but we are preffering previous classification which including the species in independent family “Hynobiidae”. The origin of Mongolian amphibian fauna divided into Central Asia-Mongolia, Siberian - Europe, Eastern and Middle Asia (Munkhbayar, 1973). There are total of 21 species of reptiles in two suborders (snake, lizard) of a order (Squamata) distributed in Mongolia, from these 13 species of 13 genera of 6 families are lizards, as follows Kaspischer even-fingered gecko – Alsophylax pipiens, Przewalski’s wonder gecko – Teratoscincus przewalskii, Gobi naked-toed gecko – Cyrtopodion elongates, Mongolian agama – Laudakia stoliczkana altaica, Toad-head agama – Phrynocephalus versicolor, Sunwather toadhead agama – Ph.helioscopus, Sand lizard – Lacerta agilis, Viviparous lizard – L.vivipara, Mongolian racerunner – Eremias argus, Variegated racerunner – E.vermiculata, Stepperunner – E.arguta, Multiocellated racerunner – E.multiocellata and Gobi racerunner – E.przewalskii, and 8 species are snakes as follows Tatar sand boa – Eryx tataricus, Slender racer – Coluber spinalis, Steppes ratsnake – Elaphe dione, Amur rat snake – E.schrenckii, Grass snake – Natrix natrix, Steppe ribbonracer – Psammophis lineolatus, Northern viper – Vipera berus and Halys pit viper – Gloydius halys. The origin of Mongolian reptilian fauna divided into three complex groups (Peters, 1982): West Palearctic forest centered originated species (Viviparous lizard, Grass snake and Northern viper), East Palearctic forest centered originated species (Mongolian racerunner, Halys pit viper and Steppes ratsnake), and Desert centered originated species. Desert centered originated species divided into as complex of Turan (Sunwather toadhead agama, Squeaky pygmy gecko, Stepperunner, Tatar sand boa and Steppe ribbon racer) complex of Tuvd (Mongolian agama), and complex of Mongolia (Plate-tailed gecko, Tuva toad-head agama, Gobi racerunner, Variegated racerunner and Slender racer). Also some researchers divided the fauna as follows Euro-Siberian cool zone, Manjuur, Central Asian, South Palearctic (Asian) and Palearctic and then these species included in Central Asian complex such as Sunwatcher toadhead agama, Mongolian agama, Plate-tailed gecko, Gobi naked-toed gecko, Mongolian racerunner, Multiocellated racerunner, Gobi racerunner and Slender racer (Orlova et al., 1986). At the second International Mongolian Biodiversity Databank Workshop (11-15 September, 2006), participants assessed the status of 27 Mongolian reptile and amphibian species using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. The assessments revealed a number of trends affecting the amphibians and reptiles of Mongolia. Six Mongolian reptile and amphibian species were identified as regionally threatened. Of these, four species are amphibians and two are reptiles. One species, the stepperunner (Eremias arguta) is categorized as Data Deficient. This does not necessarily imply that it is facing a lower risk of extinction than those identified as threatened, but highlights a requirement for more extensive research (Terbish et al.,2008). Steppes ratsnake and Halys pit viper are in 8 biotopes, Mongolian toad is in 6 biotopes, Mongolian racerunner is in 5 biotopes, Siberian salamander, Siberian wood frog, Asiatic grass frog are in 2 biotopes, European grass snake, Steppe ribbon racer are in a biotope. Also lets discuss results of some sites’ estimation. About 60 Asiatic grass frogs are estimated from the 1000 m transect at bank of Dagsh River in Dariganga. While 14 Asiatic grass frogs are estimated from the 1000 m transect at bank of Nariin River in head of Nomrog. Three hundred Mongolian toads are estimated from a hectare at some sites of Mongol Daguur preserve (Munkhbaatar, 2004). Conservation of Mongolian amphibians and reptiles are being held as follow : Register and conserve in the Mongolian Red Book. There are 9 species of gerpetofauna have been registered in the Mongolian Red Book, and these are Siberian salamander, Pewzow’s toad, Japanese tree frog, Asiatic grass frog, Gobi naked-toed gecko, Sunwatcher toadhead agama, Stepperunner, Tatar sand boa and Slender racer. Amphibians and reptiles have been conserved at Special Protected Area Network. In 2008, 61 areas from Mongolian land, which are about 14% or 21.9 million hectares, have been protected as Protected Area.