남명학연구 제47권 (p.69-94)

倻溪 宋希奎의 生涯와 文學

The Life and Literature of Ya-gye Song Hui-gyu
키워드 :
송희규,이언적,조식,이황,을사명인,Song Hui-gyu,Yi Eon-jeok,Yi Hwang,Jo Sik,a massacre of Confucian scholars in 1545.

목차

Ⅰ. 머리말
Ⅱ. 家系와 生涯
1. 家系
2. 生長과 師友淵源
3. 出仕 이후의 활동
4. 晩年의 고향에서의 생활
Ⅲ. 문학세계
1. 孝敬忠信의 體化
2. 浴沂風雩의 憧憬
Ⅳ. 󰡔默齋日記󰡕 所載 倻溪 記錄의 意義
Ⅴ. 맺음말

초록

倻溪 宋希奎(1494-1558)는 佔畢齋 金宗直, 寒暄堂 金宏弼, 新堂 鄭鵬, 松堂 朴英, 杏亭 都衡 등의 인물이 영향을 끼친 星州에서 태어나 고 자라서 출사하고 만년을 보냈던 인물이다. 야계와 사마시 동년이었 던 晦齋 李彦迪 및 7년 연하인 南冥 曺植과 退溪 李滉 등이, 학문적 역량을 크게 드러내었던 시대에 이들과 같이 살면서, 어떠한 삶을 살면 서 어떠한 작품세계를 구축하고 있는지 살펴보는 일은, 성주의 학술사 를 이해하는 데 있어서도 반드시 필요한 일이거니와, 영남의 유학사 및 나아가 우리나라 조선초기의 유학사 내지 정신사를 이해하는 데 중요한 작업이라 하지 않을 수 없다. 1816년에 초간 목활자본이 나오고 1924년 중간 목판본이 나올 때까 지 남아 전하는 작품이 많지는 않지만, 그렇다고 하여 그냥 묻어두기에 는 우리 유학사 내지 정신사의 한 부분을 빠뜨려 두는 일인지라, 이에 대한 연구는 꼭 이루어져야 할 것임은 말할 필요가 없다. 이 논문에서의 논의를 요약하여 정리해 보면 대체로 다음과 같다. 첫째, 야계의 가계는 시조로부터 9세에 이르기까지는 합천 야로 지역 에 世居하다가 야계의 6대조인 관찰사 宋構가 성주로 이거함에 따라 성주 사람이 되었다. 야계는 대대로 중앙 관직을 역임한 유력한 가문의 후예로서 어릴 적에 杏亭 都衡으로부터 학업을 익혀 20세에 진사가 되고, 26세에 문과에 급제하여 중앙의 청현직을 두루 거치고 지방직으 로는 상주목사, 김해부사, 대구부사 등을 역임하였다. 그러나 상주목사에 재임 때 문과 동년인 金光準이 사욕을 부리려는 일에 동조해주지 않음으로 해서 그의 원한을 사게 되었고, 명종 즉위 초에 司憲府 執義로 있으면서 文定王后의 밀지에 따라 尹任·柳寬·柳仁 淑 등의 세 대신을 처형토록 하는데 합의하자는 大司憲 閔齊仁과 大司 諫 金光準의 견해에 목숨을 걸고 반대한 것으로 인해, 54세 때 대구부 사로 재직하던 중에 良才驛 壁書事件이 일어나자 乙巳名人들이 다시 대거 화를 당하였는데, 이 때 야계도 전라도 高山으로 유배되었다. 58 세 때 放還되어 高山亭을 지어두고 65세까지 유유자적하게 살았다. 둘째, 야계의 문학은 그의 삶이 보여주는 것과 같이 孝敬忠信을 체득 하여 실천하는 면모를 여실히 보여주고 있으며, 한편으로는 공자의 제 자 曾晳에게서 보이는 유유자적함과 물아일체를 만끽하는 浴沂風雩의 삶을 추구하였음도 확인하였다. 이 두 가지 면모는 조선 초기 유자로서 의 전형적인 삶의 양식이었던 것으로 이해된다. 요컨대 야계는 관직 생활에서 사림으로서의 확고한 자세를 일관되게 유지함으로써 이른바 을사명인으로서 후세에 널리 알려지게 되었고, 퇴처한 뒤 향리의 생활에서는 효제충신과 욕기풍우의 자세를 지니고 유유자적함으로써, 15세기 전반기 사림의 한 전형을 보여주었다고 할 만하다.
Neo-Confucianism was introduced into Korea in the middle of Goryeo Dynasty, started to establish its presence at the end of Goryeo Dynasty, and adopted as the national ideal envisioned at the time of the foundation of Joseon Dynasty, in which Neo-Confucianism enjoyed an immobile position and all scholars were pushing on Neo-Confucianism. However, they were more focused on practicing Neo-Confucianism speculations in the realities rather than exploring into Neo-Confucianism theories, until Hoe-jae Yi Eon-jeok and Toe-gye Yi Hwang greatly displayed their academic capabilities. Ya-gye Song Hui-gyu (1494-1558) was born and brought up and afterwards went into government service and spent his later years in Seongju which was influenced by such figures as Jeom Pil-jae Kim Jong-jik, Hanhuwon-dang Kim Goeng-pil, Sindang Jeong Bung, Songdang Park Yeong, and Haeng-jeong Do Hyeong. He lived in the period when academic capabilities were also displayed brilliantly by Hoe-jae Yi Eon-jeok who passed the primary state examination in the year when Ya-gye did, Nam-myeong Jo Sik who was 7 years younger than him, Toe-gye Yi Hwang and others. So, investigating how he enjoyed his life and what kind of writings he produced is essential and important to understand the history of arts and sciences in the Seongju area and the history of Confucianism and the history of mentality in the Yeongnam region and in the early part of Joseon Dynasty. Many of his extant works were not found till 1816 when wood-printed books of his were first published and 1924 when wood-engraved books were again published. But since keeping those books in tact will be partly indifferent to the history of Confucianism and the history of mentality in Korea, they must be researched without fail. The following are the general summary of what this thesis discusses and considers. First, the family of Ya-gye had resided generation after generation in the region of Hapcheon Yaro from the time of its founder till Ya-gye reached the age of 9. After that, he lived in Seongju to which governor Song Gu who was his 6th forefather moved. Ya-gye was a son of a prominent family, from which many brilliant figures came and held central government posts generation after generation. He learned studies from Haeng-jeong Do Hyeong when he was young, passed the primary state examination at the age of 20, passed the civil service examination at the age of 26, and then held high and privileged posts in the central government. Also he kept such local government posts as Sangju magistrate, Kimhae magistrate, and Daegu magistrate. Nevertheless, while serving as Sangju magistrate, Ya-gye incurred the ill will of Kim Gwang-jun who passed the civil service examination in the same year as Ya-gye did and who was pursuing after self-interest, because Ya-gye did not agree with him. While he was at the age of 54 and was serving as Daegu magistrate. He was exiled into Go-san in Jeolla Province in the year of 1545 when a massacre of Confucian scholars took place again, because he resolutely resisted the opinions of chief inspector Min Je-in and chief remonstrator Kim Gwang-jun who suggested that 3 state ministers like Yun Yim, Yu Gwan and Yu In-suk should be executed according to secret orders from Queen Mun-jeong during the early part of the reign of King Myeong-jong when Ya-gye was serving as an official in the Office of Inspectors. After he was released from exile at the age of 58, he built Go-san Pavilion where he had stayed free from worldly cares till he reached the age of 65. Second, the literature of Ya-gye clearly demonstrates his life, which was set to realize and practice 'filial duties to parents and loyalty to the state' and 'living free from worldly cares and being immersed in the beauty of all creations' which is also reflected in the life of Zeung-seok who was a disciple of Confucius. It is recognized that thee said two traits were typical features of a Confucian scholar in the early part of Joseon Dynasty. In a word, it is understood that Ya-gye strongly maintained a consistent attitude as a Confucian scholar while he was holding a government post, recognized by later generations as one of prominent scholars among those who were massacred in the year of 1545, living free from all the worldly care and avarice after retiring into his hometown, and showing an example and model for Confucian scholars in the first half of the 15th century.