문화와예술연구 제12집 (p.185-211)

비학의 선성, 완원의 남북서파론

A Pioneer of Studying Calligraphy through steles, Yuan Ruan’s Theory of Dividing the Calligraphy into Southern and Northern Factions
키워드 :
阮元,南北書派,北碑南帖,碑學,帖學,Yuan Ruan,Southern and Northern Calligraphy Faction,Northern steles and Southern Manuscripts,Studying Calligraphy through steles,Studying Calligraphy through Manuscripts

목차

국문초록
Ⅰ. 들어가는 말
Ⅱ. 남북서파론의 기저
Ⅲ. 남북서파론의 대요
Ⅳ. 상북폄남론의 근거
Ⅴ. 정리하는 말
참고문헌
Abstract

초록

阮元이 자신의 고증학적 지식을 바탕으로 금석 탐구에도 온 힘을 기울여 작성한 논술이 그 유명한 「南北書派論」과 「北碑南帖論」이다. 그 논지는 한마디로 남첩의 고운 글씨를 버리고 북비의 굳센 글씨를 쓰자는 것이다.
완원이 남북서파론을 제기한 원인은 먼저 건륭 ․ 가경연간에 금석학이 흥기함에 따라 북비의 출토가 날로 증가했으며 이것들에 대한 인식도 또한 점차 그 문헌적 가치를 중시하는 것에서 그 예술적 가치를 긍정하기에 이르렀기 때문이다. 다음으로 고증학풍의 영향으로 乾嘉學派가 考據工夫를 제창한 데에 있다. 완원의 실천 강조는 고증학에서 진리를 추구하던 실사구시가 무실적 실천으로 향한 청대의 학풍의 변화를 반영한 것으로 한예를 포함한 북비에 대한 탐구를 통해 당시 첩학으로 인해 쇠약해진 당시 서단을 타파하고 서예의 새로운 방식을 구축하는 것이었다. 완원은 고금의 서예를 남과 북 두 파로 나누었을 뿐 아니라 두 파의 대표적인 서가들을 나열하였다. 그리고 상세하고 확실한 자료를 가지고 두 파 서풍의 통서와 성쇠를 묘사하였다. 그는 남파는 대부분 척독에 많이 썼기 때문에 전예의 유법이 쇠퇴했으며 북파는 비석과 편액에 많이 응용했기 때문에 비교적 많은 전예 ․ 팔분 ․ 초서 필법을 보존하고 있다고 보았다. 완원이 서예가 남북 두 파로 나눠진 사실을 제기한 목적은 당 ․ 송이래 성행한 첩학의 기풍을 바로잡는 데에 있었다. 그가 북비가 남첩보다 우수하다고 여긴 이유를 다음과 같이 정리할 수 있다. 남북서파의 연원으로 보면, 그는 북파의 서는 비를 위주로 해서 고법을 간직할 수 있었고 곧바로 한대 예서에 근원한다고 보았다. 후세에 대한 영향으로 보면, 완원은 당인들의 글씨는 북파로부터 얻은 것이 많다고 보았다. 또 다른 이유는 남북 서법 풍격상의 고하의 구별이다. 완원은 북파의 글씨는 강건함을 장점으로 여겼으며 남파의 글씨는 자태가 아름답다고 여겼으므로 둘 사이의 고하는 자명하다고 여겼다.
완원의 남북서파론은 아무래도 극단적이며 서체 발전의 불균형 현상을 소홀히 했다고 할 것이다. 그렇지만 당시 새로 발견된 금석 문자에 광분하고 있던 학자들이나 서가들을 자극하기에 충분했다. 그리하여 그의 남북서파론은 만청시기 ‘重碑抑帖’의 풍조를 일으켰으며 현대의 몇몇 ‘二王’의 서예를 부정하는 견해까지도 완원의 이론에서 비롯되었다고 말할 수 있겠다.
The theory of dividing the calligraphy into southern and northern factions and the theory of northern steles and southern manuscripts are the essays written by Yuan Ruan with all his strengths in his quest for the epigraphy, based on his documental archaeological knowledge. In a word, to abandon the pretty handwriting of the southern manuscripts and to pursue the tough handwriting of the northern steles.
The first reason why Yuan Ruan raised the theory of dividing the calligraphy into southern and northern factions was that the excavation of the northern steles increased with the rise of the epigraphy in the period of Qianlong and Jiaqing, and that the perception of these had gradually changed to affirming the artistic value rather than emphasizing the literary value. The second was that the school of Qianlong and Jiaqing, under the influence of the documental archaeology, advocated the study based on the historical evidence. Yuan Ruan’s practical emphasis reflected the academic change that scholars in the Qing Dynasty started to pursue the practice of nothing rather than learning the truth on the basis of facts through the documental archaeology. Through the inquiry into the northern steles including the clerical script of Han Dynasty, it was to break the calligraphic field of the time which was collapsed due to the trend of studying calligraphy through manuscripts and to build a new way of studying calligraphy.
Yuan Ruan not only divided the old and new calligraphy into southern and northern factions, but also, he listed representative calligraphers of the two factions. He also described the line and fluctuations of the two factions with detailed and definitive data. He believed that the south lost the techniques of seal script and clerical script because they mostly spending on writing manuscripts and that the north preserved the techniques of seal script, clerical script and cursive script because they applied a lot of steles and monuments. The purpose that Yuan Ruan raised the fact that the calligraphy was divided into southern and northern factions was in correcting the ethos of studying calligraphy through manuscripts which had been going on since Tang and Song Dynasty.
We can summarize the reasons why he thought the northern steles were better than the southern manuscripts. Firstly, in terms of the origin of the southern and northern factions of calligraphy, he saw that the northern faction was able to hold the old law with the emphasis on the steles, and it was originated from the clerical script of Han Dynasty. Secondly, as for the influence on the future, Yuan Ruan thought that people learned a lot from the northern faction. The last reason was the distinction of the class between the southern and northern factions. He regarded the strength of the calligraphy of the northern faction as virility and that of the southern faction as prettiness, so he thought it was obvious that the northern steles were better than the southern manuscripts.
It can be said that Yuan Ruan’s theory of dividing the calligraphy into southern and northern factions was quite radical and neglected the phenomena of imbalanced development of calligraphic scripts. However, it was enough to stimulate the scholars and calligraphers who were flourishing with the newly discovered epigraphic characters. Thus, it can be said that his theory caused the trend of emphasizing steles and disparaging manuscripts in late Qing Dynasty, and even some views that deny the calligraphy of Wang Xizhi and Wang Xianzhi in modern times are derived from Yuan Ruan’s theory.