中國學 제69집 (p.119-134)

副词“简直”的句法特征与语义功能研究

A study on the Syntactic Feature and Semantic Function of the adverb “Jianzhi(简直)”
키워드 :
句法特征;语义功能;非真值;边界功能;简直,Syntactic Feature,Semantic Function,Non-truth-value,Boundary Function,Jianzhi

목차

【摘要】
1. 引言
2. 副词“简直”的句法特征
   1)“简直”+动词性结构
      (1)“简直+是/像” 结构
      (2)“简直+比” 结构
   2)“简直”+形容词性结构
      (1)“简直”+形容词+得+程度补语
      (2)“简直”+形容词+“极/坏/透”
3. 副词“简直”的语义功能
   1)非真值标记功能
   2)边界功能
4. 结语
【参考文献】
【논문초록】

초록

副词“简直”在现代汉语中使用频率比较高,但关于其语义功能,大部分既往研究主要集中 于“主观化”上,为突破这一局限,本文围绕着副词“简直”的语法特征和主要语义功能,进行了 详细考察。首先在句法特征上,通过梳理与“简直”结合频率较高的结构,发现在动词性结构中呈 现出的共同特点是关注事物的性质,而在形容词性结构中呈现出主要修饰高程度补语的特点。同 时,本文深度挖掘了“简直”的语义功能,提出“简直”具有“非真值标记功能”和“边界功 能”。前者指使用了“简直”的句子中,说话人提醒听话人“简直”句中的中心意思并非真值;后 者是指“简直”在修饰程度成分时,为其设立边界,标示出该程度的界限。这两大语义功能的共同 语义特征是【+默认】,因此“简直”的主要语义可以归纳为暂且默认达到(实际未达到)某种数 量或达成某种结果、情状。
The adverb “Jianzhi” is used frequently in modern Chinese, but most of its previous research focused on “subjectiveness”. To break through this limitation, this paper focused on the syntactic features and main semantic functions of the adverb “Jianzhi”. Firstly, in syntactic features, by organizing the structure with high frequency of “Jianzhi”, it is found that the common feature presented in the verb structure is to pay attention to the characteristics of the nature of the things, and in the adjective structure is to show that mainly modifies the high degree of complements. Secondly, we found that “Jianzhi” has two main semantic functions. The first one is “non-true value marking function” and the other one is “boundary function”. The former means the speaker reminds the listener that the central meaning in the “Jianzhi” sentence is not true, and the latter means when “Jianzhi” is modifying the degree component, it will set a boundary for the component, indicating the degree limit. The commonality of these two semantic functions is [+ default], so the main semantics of “Jianzhi” can be summarized as a temporary default to reach a certain amount or form a certain result, situation.