中國學 제71집 (p.131-151)

先秦汉语否定词系统及其演变试说

A Brief Description of the Systematization and Evolution of the Privatives of the HAN Language in the Pre-historic QIN Dynasty Era
키워드 :
否定,,不+N,没有,时间,空间,Negative,Bu(不),Bu(不)+N,MeiYou(没有),Time,Space

목차

摘要
1. 问题的提出
2. 不+NP
   1) 之前的解释
   2) 我们的观点
3. 上古汉语的否定词系统
   1) 否定与时间性
   2) 表性质否定的否定词
   3) 表时间否定的否定词
4.否定词系统的演变
   1) 性质否定词的演变
   2) 时间否定词的演变
5. 结论与余论
参考文献
논문초록

초록

本文以“不+N”结构的性质为切入点,根据时间性和空间性的区分,把先秦汉语的否 定词分为两大类五小类,并梳理了汉语否定词系统从先秦到现代汉语的演变。本文还重点 说明了两个问题:(一)“不+名”是否定词“不”对名词的否定,“不”和名词之间既 没有隐含一个动词,名词也没有活用为动词;(二)现代汉语中的“没有”有两个来源, 先来源于名词否定标记“无”,再来源于动词否定标记“未”。
Based on the nature of "Bu (不)+ N" structure, this paper divides the negative words in pre-Qin Chinese into two categories and five sub-categories according to the distinction of time and space, and combs the evolution of Chinese negative word system from Pre-Qin to modern Chinese. This paper also focuses on two problems: (1) whether "Bu(不) + N" is the negation of noun by the determiner "bu(不)", and whether there is no implied verb between "Bu(不)" and noun, nor is the noun used flexibly as a verb; (2) there are two sources of "MEIYOU(没有)" in modern Chinese, first from the negative sign of noun "WU (无)", then from the negative sign of verb "WEI(未)". Traditionally, the negation words of pre-Qin Chinese are divided into four categories: (1) The "Bu(不)" category, which means simple negation. (2) The"Wei (未)"category, indicating a negative attitude towards the past. (3) The "Fei(非)" category, which conveys negation of judgment. (4) The "Mo(莫)" category, signifying prohibition. Such classification, though comes with a certain degree of rationality, but embraces unscientific elements. For example, the "Bu(不)" category as a notion of simple negation is not a scientific explanation. This paper attempts to apply the research results of negative words in modern Chinese to the study of negative words in ancient Chinese. Professor Nie Renfa聂 仁发 (2001) believes that the time significance of the "Bu(不)" and "Meiyou(没有)" categories in modern Chinese is reflected in the "Object(体)" rather than "time (时)" and summarizes their differences as: "Bu(不)" :【+Negation】[-Realization] Or“Mei(没)“:【+Negation】[+Realization] Professor Nie”s belief is truly inspirational. Hence we pursue further, by judging from the time elements of the pre-Qin Chinese negation word system, to try to divide them into two main categories as well as five small sub-categories. We shall be deeply obliged to receive feedbacks in any forms as well as criticisms as to determine whether this classification is appropriate, correct and in particular with reference to the negation of judgment as a [-Time elements]; while the negation of the imperatives as a [+Time elements].