Peroxiredoxin1 (Prdx1) is an antioxidant enzyme belonging to the peroxiredoxin family of proteins. Prdx1 catalyzes the reduction of H2O2 and alkyl hydroperoxide and plays an important role in different biological processes. Prdx1 also participates in various age-related diseases and cancers. In this study, we investigated the role of Prdx1 in pronephros development during embryogenesis. Prdx1 knockdown markedly inhibited proximal tubule formation in the pronephros and significantly increased the cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which impaired primary cilia formation. Additionally, treatment with ROS (H2O2) severely disrupted proximal tubule formation, whereas Prdx1 overexpression reversed the ROS-mediated inhibition in proximal tubule formation. Epistatic analysis revealed that Prdx1 has a crucial role in retinoic acid and Wnt signaling pathways during pronephrogenesis. In conclusion, Prdx1 facilitates proximal tubule formation during pronephrogenesis by regulating ROS levels.