독립형 VR기기가 활발히 개발되기 전 스마트폰을 HMD로 만들려는 움직임이 있었고 구글의 카드보드와 삼 성의 기어 VR이 그 예이다. 하지만 독립형 VR기기의 출시와 모바일 기기의 한계로 현재는 대부분 AR로 전 환되어 사용되었다. 그렇지만 지난 10년간 모바일 VR과 AR의 기술도 발달했지만, 그동안 모바일 기기의 성 능도 향상되었다. 따라서 발달한 기술들을 바탕으로 손 추적을 뛰어넘어 손동작 분류를 모바일 기기에서 기 존의 VR과 AR 콘텐츠와의 상호작용에 활용할 수 있다. 본 논문에서는 Manomotion을 이용하여 2D 또는 3D 의 골격을 추적하고 손동작 분류를 구현했으며 게임을 사용하여 검증하였다.
Wrinkles are an outward sign of cutaneous aging appearing preferentially on ultraviolet B (UVB)-exposed areas. The anti-wrinkle effects of herbal extracts were investigated in an animal model. Female albino hairless mice (HR/ICR) were randomly allocated to the control group (non-irradiated vehicle), positive control group (UVB irradiated-vehicle), and two herbal extract mixture groups (HE-1 and HE-2). HE-1 included Glycyrrhizae radix, Rhei Rhizoma, Cornus officinalis, and Sesami semeni, and HE-2 included Swertia pseudo-chinensis, Sophora flavescens, Scutellaria baicalensis, and Salvia miltiorrhiza. The herbal extract mixtures were pre-treated dorsally with 0.2 ml per individual five times per week for four weeks prior to the start of UVB irradiation. At the fifth week, the animals were exposed to UVB irradiation for a subsequent eight weeks, three times per week. The intensity of irradiation showed a gradual increase, from 30 mJ/cm 2 to 240 mJ/cm2 (1 MED: 60 mJ/cm2 ). Dorsal skin samples were stained with H&E in order to examine the epidermal thickness. In addition, Masson-Trichrome staining was performed for determination of the amount of collagen fiber. Treatments with HE-1&2 resulted in an increase in the amount of collagen fiber, a better appearance, and fewer wrinkles, compared with the positive control. As determined by hydroxyproline assay, treatments with HE-1&2 led to a significant increase in the amount of collagen, compared with the positive control group (p<0.05). Chronic UVB irradiation to skin of hairless mice resulted in an increase in expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), however, treatments with HE-1&2 tended to decrease the expression of MMP-1. These results indicate that the herbal extracts used in this study have a preventive effect on UVB-induced wrinkle formation in a hairless mouse model, due in part to inhibition of MMP-1 expression and increment of collagen amount.
Iron catalyzes the production of free radicals, which can be related to a variety of pathological events, such as cancer and aging. The effect of dietary iron was investigated on formation of colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) induced by azoxymethane in male F344 rats. Animals were fed three different diets, including iron-deficient (3 ppm Fe), iron-normal (35 ppm Fe), and iron-overloaded (350 ppm Fe) diets for eight weeks. During the first and second weeks of the experiment, animals received two subcutaneous injections of azoxymethane (AOM, 15 mg/kg body weight) to induce ACF. After staining with methylene blue, the total numbers of ACF and aberrant crypts (AC) were counted on the colonic mucosa. Analysis of blood and serum was performed using a blood cell differential counter and an automatic serum analyzer. Iron-deficient diets induced a significant decrease in red blood cell counts and the values of hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular volume, while an iron-overloaded diet did not affect these values. The iron-overloaded diet induced an increase in deposits of iron in the liver of rats, as determined by the ICP method and Perl’s staining. The numbers of ACF per colon showed a slight increase in iron-overloaded or iron-deficient rats, without statistical significance, compared to iron-normal rats. The number of total AC per colon in iron-overloaded rats was significantly higher than that in iron-normal rats (p<0.05). The number of large ACF (≥ 4 AC per ACF) in iron-overloaded rats was also significantly higher than that in iron-normal rats (p<0.05). These results suggest that dietary iron intake may play an important role in colon carcinogenesis in humans and animals.
Although hair disorders are not life threatening, a lot of people who suffer hair loss and/or hair thinning is increasing in accordance with changes in lifestyle and nutritional balance. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of herbal extracts on hair regrowth in C3H/HeJ mice. There were 6 experimental groups including distilled water (D.W.), 50% ethanol (a vehicle control), 3% minoxidil (a positive control), and 3 kinds of herbal extracts mixtures (C, D & E). The test compounds included followings; C : Glycyrrhizae radix, Rhei Rhizoma, Cornus officinalis and Sesami semeni, D : Viticus fructus, Pulsatilla chinensis, Gardenia fructus and Artemisiae argyi herb, E : Swertia pseudo-chinensis, Sophora flavescens Scutellaria baicalensis and Salvia miltiorrhiza. The animals were shaved with an electric clipper. The test compounds were daily treated to dorsal skin with 0.2 ml per mouse for 3 weeks. The topical application of the E test solution accelerated hair regrowth after 10 days faster than that of the positive and vehicle controls. The activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase significantly were increased in all the treatment groups after 3 weeks, compared with D.W. group. Especially, the E test solution notably increased ALP activity compared with positive or vehicle control group. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were increased in all the treatment groups after 3 weeks compared with D.W. group. These results suggest that the herbal extracts have hair regrowth effect by increasing enzyme activities and growth factors and it can be useful for treatment for alopecia in humans.
This study was carried out to investigate effect of herbal extracts mixtures on hair growth in an alopecia model of C57BL/6 mice. There were 4 experimental groups including distilled water (DW, negative control), 25% ethanol(EtOH, vehicle control) and two herbal extract mixtures (HE-1 and HE-2). HE-1 included Polygonum and Brassica campestris extracts and HE-2 included Mulberry root and Gardenia extracts. The 6 weeks-old C57BL/6 male mice were shaved with an electric clipper and the test compounds were topically treated with 0.2 ml per mouse daily for 3 weeks. The hair re-growth was photographically determined at days 0, 4, 7, 10, 14, 17, and 21. The number of mast cells which is an important modulator of hair growth was counted in 1 cm of dorsal skin section of mice. There were no clinical signs in all experimental groups. As the results of photometric analysis, the topical application of the herbal extracts (HE-1 & 2) for 2 weeks to dorsal skin accelerated hair re-growth remarkably faster than that of DW group (p＜0.05). Activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was significantly increased in EtOH group compared to DW group (p＜0.05). Both herbal extract mixtures also increased the ALP activity, but it was not significantly different from DW. Treatment of mice with HE-2 significantly increased mast cell population compared to EtOH. Taken together, these results suggest that herbal extract mixtures used in this study may have hair-growth promoting activities and can be useful for treatment for male pattern baldness or alopecia in humans.