Feral cats are widely considered to be leading the potential impacts on public health. This study aimed to provide estimates of vital data for feral cats relating Trap-Neuter-Return (TNR) to establish strategies effectively to manage feral cats in Pyeongtaek. Thus, this study focused on estimating feral cat population in Pyeongtaek and conducted a comparative analysis of the data for feral cats in Seoul (2013). The number of feral cats was estimated from 23,069 to 26,655 in Pyeongtaek, 2019. In relation to human population, when comparing the number of feral cats of Pyeongtaek and Seoul, it ranged from 4.57% to 5.28%, and from 1.97% to 2.55% respectively. This showed that Pyeongtaek was higher than Seoul. Fewer kittens were found in high-density areas, which the TNR project is believed to be generally effective in controlling the number of feral cats. In conclusion, in urban and rural complexes such as Pyeongtaek City, the number of feral cats compared to the population was higher than that of Seoul City, and the TNR program is believed to be somewhat effective in controlling the number of feral cats. When implementing TNR, it is necessary periodically to investigate the population and reflect them in policymaking.
경기도농업기술원에서는 2016년 백색 대형 스탠다드 장미 ‘Fascinar’을 육성하였다. 2011년 ‘Splash’ 품종을 모본으로, 향기가 강한 연보라색 장미 ‘Charming Easies’ 품종을 부본으로 교배하였고 5개월 후에 성숙한 꼬투리를 획득하여 암면배지에 파종하여 후대를 얻었다. 2012년 화색, 화형, 향기 유무 등의 특성검정을 통하여 G11-338 계통을 선발하였다. 선발된 계통을 2013년부터 2016년까지 1차, 2차, 3차 특성검정을 통하여 품종의 안정성과 균일성을 확인하여 ‘Fascinar’로 명명하였고 2017년에 국립종자원에 품종보호출원(제2017-198호) 한 후 2019년에 품종보호권이 등록(제7795호)되었다. 화색은 백색(RHS, N155D)으로 대조품종보다 짙은 백색이며, 화형은 스탠다드이며 고심형인 대형 장미이다. 향기는 대조품종 ‘화이트라임’ 보다 매우 강하며 주요향기 성분은 GERMACRENE-D, Nerol 등 테르펜류와 phenylethyl Alcohol이다. 잎의 형태는 타원형이고 가시가 적은 편이다. 연간 절화수량은 172.2본이고, 꽃잎수는 38.4매이며 절화품질 중 절화장은 75.0cm 절화경경은 6.2mm 절화중은 10.6g 이다. 절화수명은 11일, 화폭 9.2cm, 화고 5.2cm이다. 기존에 육성된 품종에 비해 향기 성분 함량이 높고 화형과 화색이 우수 하여 품종으로서 가치가 높은 품종이다.
Toll and IMD pathways play an important role in producing antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) through NF-κB in insects. The functions of IκB kinase (IKK) complex regulating the NF-κB signaling cascade have not yet been investigated in Tenebrio model. Here, we identified TmIKK-β (or TmIrd5) which contains 2,112 bp encoding 703 amino acid residues. Domain analysis shows that TmIKK-β contains one Serine/Threonine protein kinases catalytic domain. Developmental expression patterns indicate that TmIKK- β gene was highly expressed in early pupal (P1) and adult (A5) stages. Tissue specific profiles show that TmIKK-β was highly expressed in the integuments in last instar larvae, and fat body and hemocytes in 5 day-old adults. TmIKK-β1 transcripts were strongly induced at 3 and 12 h-post injection of E. coli, and 3 h-post injection of S. aureus or C. albicans in hemocytes. In gut, TmIKK-β transcripts were slightly induced by E. coli (at 6, 9 and 24 h) and C. albicans (at 24 h), while it was not induced by S. aureus challenge. Moreover, it was highly induced at 6 h-post injection of E. coli and then it was gradually decreased in the fat body. To understand the immunological role of TmIKK-β, gene specific RNAi and mortality assay was performed. Depletion of TmIKK-β mRNA leads to increase microbial susceptibility of larvae against E. coli, S. aureus and C. albicans. In addition, induction patterns of fourteen AMP genes in response to microbial challenge was tissue specifically investigated in TmIKK-β–silenced T. molitor larvae. The results suggest that expression of ten AMP genes out of fourteen genes were drastically decreased by TmIKK-β RNAi in fat body, suggesting that TmIKK-β plays an important role in antimicrobial innate immune responses.
It has been well known that IKK-β, -ε and –γ play a pivotal role in IMD pathway. In this study, TmIKK-ε was identified and their functions in countering pathogenic infections were investigated. We identified TmIKK-ε gene which including 2,196 bp nucleotides (encoding 731 amino acid residues). Domain analysis of TmIKK-ε indicates that there is one Serine/Threonine protein kinases catalytic domain. TmIKK-ε gene was highly expressed in 2 day-old pupal stage and the expression was gradually decreased until 1 day-old adults. Then the expression was slightly increased until 4 day-old adult stage. Tissue specific expression of TmIKK-ε mRNA was high in the gut, integuments and hemocytes in last instar larvae, and fat body, Malpighian tubules and testis in 5-daysold adult. In hemocytes, TmIKK-ε was drastically induced by E. coli injection after 3 h and by S. aureus at 3 and 12 h-post injection. In gut, expression level of TmIKK-ε was high at 6 h-post injection of microbial injection. Expression of TmIKK-ε in fat body was drastically induced by E. coli at 3 and 24 h-post injection while it was not significantly induced by S. aureus and C. albicans. To understand the immunological role of TmIKK-ε, gene specific RNAi and mortality assay were performed. TmIKK-ε RNAi caused increased larval mortality against E. coli, not S. aureus and C. albicans. Finally, to investigate the induction patterns of Tenebrio fourteen AMP genes in response TmIKK-ε RNAi, three microorganisms were treated into TmIKK-ε-silenced T. molitor larvae. Nine out of fourteen AMP genes were not induced by microbial challenge in TmIKK-β dsRNA-injected group. Taken together, our results indicate that TmIKK-ε may regulates nine antimicrobial peptide genes in response to microbial challenge in T. molitor fat body.
Autophagy is an important self-eating process to eliminate damaged or unused organelles. We identified nine autophagy-related genes (Atg) including AaAtg-1, -3, -4b, -4d, -5, -6, -8, -12 and -13 from the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus. Developmental expression patterns indicate that mRNA levels of AaAtg-1, -3, -4b, -4d, -5, -6, -12 and -13 were highly expressed in egg, whereas expression of AaAtg8 was high in 1stand3rdinstarlarvalstages. TissuespecificexpressionofthesegenesindicatesthatAaAtg1 was highly expressed in thorax and midgut in blood-fed adult female mosquitoes (BF), and head and thorax in sugar fed adult female mosquitoes (SF). Transcript level of AaAtg3 was high in thorax in BF, but head, thorax and Malpighian tubules in SF. AaAtg4b, -4d mRNA levels were significantly high in Malpighian tubules in BF, and head in SF, respectively. AaAtg-5 and -6 transcripts were highly expressed in head in BF, and expression of AaAtg-8 was high in Malpighian tubules in BF. Levels of AaAtg-12 and -13 mRNAs were significantly high in head and midgut in BF. Induction patterns of AaAtg genes against pathogens showed that AaAtg-1, -3, -4b, -8, -12 and -13 were strongly induced at 6 h-post injection of S. aureus, and mRNA levels of AaAtg-1, -3 and -13 were significantly induced by E. coli challenge after 3 h-post injection in SF abdominal carcass. In SF midgut, AaAtg-1, -3, -4b, -4d, -5, -6, -12 and -13 transcripts were drastically induced at 9 h-injection of E. coli and S. aureus, while expression of AaAtg-8 was highly induced by S. aureus and C. albicans at 9 h-post injection. Each AaAtg gene was slightly induced by E. coli, S. aureus or C. albicans at different time points in abdominal carcass in BF. Interestingly, AaAtg-8 was not induced by microbial challenge. While eight other Atg genes except AaAtg-8 were highly influenced by S. aureus at 6 and 9 h-post injection, E. coli at 3 h-post-treatment, and 3, 6, and 9 h-post inoculation. In the future, we will characterize the functional roles of autophagy during mosquito-microbes interaction.
Host defense against pathogen invasion highly relies on immune defense machinery that is controlled by the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) of transcription factors. The Toll pathway are well known as an insect innate immune mechanism to protect host itself from invaded pathogens. Basically, in the edible insect, Tenebrio molitor, the Toll pathway is primarily activated by polymeric Lys-type peptidoglycans (PGNs), and components of fungal cell walls, β-1,3-glucan. Based on the current studies, the tremendous study has been focused on recognition and subsequent activation of spätzle in haemolymph, hence, there is a grave gap for intracellular event. Herein, in order to understand intracellular event of Toll signaling pathway, the Dorsal gene were identified. Moreover, domain analyses of TmDorsal2 gene indicate that there are two major domains such as Rel homology domain (RHD), ig-like, plexins, and transcription factors (IPT) domains. Based on the achieved results, TmDorsal2 mRNA was highly expressed in 1-day old pupa. Furthermore, TmDorsal2 was highly expressed in Malpighian tubules and fat body in last instar larvae (LL), and likewise mainly expressed in Malpighian tubules during adult 5-day old period, also the lowest expression of TmDorsal2 was observed in gonads. Moreover, TmDorsal2 mRNA levels after infection with E. coli appreciably went up at 6 and 9h time points. To investigate the effects of TmDorsal2 RNAi on larval susceptibility against various pathogens namely E. coli, S. aureus or C.albicans, dsRNA of TmDorsal2 has been synthesized the larvae dissected after 24h. As a result, TmAttacin1a, 1b and 2, TmDefencine1 and 2, TmTenecin1, 2, 3 and 4, TmCecropin2, TmColeoptericin1 and 2, Thaumatin-like protein 1 and 2 markedly reduced in the gut after injecting all mentioned microbes. In contrast, TmTenecin 2, Thaumatin-like protein 1 and 2 strikingly increased after microbe injection in the fat body. Interestingly, the most AMPs gene expression in whole body experimental case were upregulated. On the horizon, we will investigate effects of TmDorsal1 RNAi on larval susceptibility against various pathogens. Taken together, our studies may aid to understand insect innate immunity.
IKK-γ is an essential protein to form IKK complex which regulate NF-κB. We identified TmIKK-γ (or TmKenny) gene which has 1,521 bp of nucleotides encoding 506 amino acid residues. Domain analysis of TmIKK-γ shows that there are one NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO) domain and a leucine zipper domain. Expression of TmIKK-γ gene was gradually increased from egg to 2-day-old pupal stage, dramatically decreased until 7 day-old pupal stage, and then it was gradually increased. TmIKK-γ transcripts were highly expressed in fat body and hemocytes in late instar larvae and integuments, fat body and Malpighian tubules in 5 day-old adult. TmIKK-γ was drastically induced by E. coli after 3 h challenges and by S. aureus at 3 and 12 h-post injection in hemocytes. TmIKK-γ was not induced by C. albicans although it was significantly induced by E. coli (at 3, 6 and 24 h) and S. aureus (at 9 h) in gut. In fat body, expression of TmIKK-γ was drastically induced by E. coli at 3 and 24 h-post injection while it was not significantly induced by S. aureus and C. albicans. To understand the immunological role of TmIKK-γ, gene specific RNAi and mortality assay was performed. larval mortality against microbial challenge was dramatically increased by TmIKK-γ RNAi. Furthermore, we investigate the tissue specific induction patterns of fourteen AMP genes in response TmIKK-γ dsRNA-treatment. In fat body, ten AMP genes out of fourteen was not significantly induced by microbial challenge in TmIKK-γ dsRNA-treated group. Based on these results, TmIKK-γ might play an important role in antimicrobial innate immune responses in Tenebrio molitor.
The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, possesses a cholinesterase expressed exclusively in the salivary gland (ClSChE). In this paper, we investigated the molecular structure, tissue distribution patterns, and biochemical properties of ClSChE and showed that ClSChE exists as a soluble monomeric form or a soluble dimeric form connected by a disulfide bridge. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed that ClSChE was expressed in the epithelial cells of both the salivary gland and the duct. In addition, the secretion of monomeric ClSChE through the proboscis during feeding was detected by western blotting using a ClSChE-specific antibody. To predict the role of ClSChE injected into the tissue of an animal host, we analyzed the extent of sequestration and hydrolysis of acetylcholine (ACh)/choline (Ch) by ClSChE by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Kinetic analysis revealed that ClSChE possesses extremely low Km (high affinity to ACh) and Vmax values. These findings suggest that ClSChE functions as a sequestering enzyme specific to ACh (not to Ch) by having a very strong affinity to ACh but an extremely long turnover time.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of core strengthening training on baseball throwing. A total of 14 subjects were recruited from among middle school baseball players. The main outcome measures were as follows: speed guns were used to measure the velocity of baseballs thrown; scored targets were used to measure throwing accuracy; and 50m measuring tapes were used to measure throwing distances. It was found that core strengthening training improved the velocity of baseballs thrown and throwing accuracy and distance. Thus, core strengthening training is effective for improving the throwing ability of baseball players.
The purpose of this study is to understand the relationship between female college students’ stress level and premenstrual syndrome so that it can provide baseline data on how to cope with the syndrome. The study subjects are 250 female college students in Gyungbook area. This study chose 199 appropriate subjects and collected data. As per general menstrual phases, this study investigated the age when one had her first period, regularity and duration of period, and amount of bleeding. It used a measurement tool to measure stress level and premenstrual syndrome. Most of the subjects experienced their first period before the age of 13. The menstrual period was irregular with the duration of less than 7 days. 123 subjects had normal amount of bleeding. 121 subjects were experiencing high level of stress over 2.4. The correlation between the level of stress and premenstrual syndrome factors showed significant static correlation for each factor. Especially, the correlation between digestive system and response of autonomic nervous system was .996 and negative emotion and behavioral change was .635, and negative emotion and pain was .614 which were relatively high. The regression analysis of factors of premenstrual syndrome depending on the subjects’ stress level indicated that response of autonomic nervous system had the biggest effect in the low stress group while behavioral change, negative emotion, pain, decreased concentration, water congestion, response of autonomic nervous system, and skin change had the biggest effect in the high stress group with statistical significance. Based on the result, it can be said that higher premenstrual stress is closely related to the premenstrual syndrome one experiences for some female college students.
This study was conducted to evaluate the attractiveness of the sex pheromone trap of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenée as a forecasting tool from 2006 to 2008 in Suwon, Gyeong-gi province and Seosan, Chung-nam province, Korea. The sex pheromone lure was composed of Z11-18:Ald (55㎍): Z13-18:Ald (500㎍): Z11-18:OH (120㎍): Z13-18:OH (180㎍): Z13-18:Ac (55㎍) per a rubber septum, which set in a cylindrical cone trap. The trap catches of male moths was counted on a weekly basis and the lures were renewed every two weeks. The flight activity of C. medinalis moths monitored by the sex pheromone trap revealed two distinct peaks a year in both experimental areas from 2006 to 2008. Degree-days accumulation was calculated using lower developmental threshold (13.3℃) and degree-days (386.4DD) since adults had been first recorded. Estimated adult peak of the first generation was almost coincident with that observed by sex pheromone trap except in Suwon in 2008.
The PepMoV has been considered the most frequently detected potyvirus. When it co-infects with CMV or PMMoV, it gives severe impact to total pepper harvest in Korea. Since F1 hybrid that resistant to PepMoV has not been developed, we have developed transgenic peppers using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with a Hc-Pro gene of the PepMoV. A large number of GM peppers were tested for resistance to the PepMoV, and after consequent self-crossing up to T4 generation, a highly tolerant pepper to PepMoV called T20 was selected. So far, BC4F1 lines have been selected by back-crossing with 4 elite lines through a breeding program. Very recently, based on molecular analysis, we have selected another event, #10-2, which is also resistant to PepMoV. Horticultural difference was investigated for both GM lines, #T20 and 10-2, and no significance was found comparing to non-GM lines.