단단한 자구를 가진 적색 비모란선인장 ‘Gangjeok’ 품종 은 ‘Isaek’품종을 모본으로, ‘Suyeon’ 품종을 부본으로 하여 2018년에 교배하여 육성하였다. 교배 후 획득한 종자는 조직 배양실에서 기내파종하여 획득한 유묘를 기내에서 삼각주선 인장에 접목하여 ‘1802001’ 등 20계통을 양성하였다. 2019 년에 기내에서 양성한 20계통을 온실에서 삼각주선인장 대목 에 접목하여 재배하면서 ‘1812005’ 계통을 1차 선발하였다. 2020년부터 2022년까지 3차에 걸쳐서 특성을 검정한 후, 농 산물직무육성품종 심의회에서 최종 선발하여 ‘Gangjeok’으 로 명명하였다.‘Gangjeok’ 품종은 편원형의 적색 구를 가진 다. 혹(tubercle)이 돌출된 형태의 모구는 8.4개의 능(rip)을 가지며, 3.5mm 짧은 회색 가시가 발생한다. 정식 10개월 후 ‘Gangjeok’ 품종의 직경은 46.1mm이며, 자구는 평균 18.3 개 발생한다. 2022년 육성계통 평가회에서 ‘Gangjeok’ 품종 은 높은 기호도 점수 4.0을 받았다.
The slaughter of livestock is inevitably required to obtain meat products from livestock. Since slaughter means pain and death for animals, reducing the pain and distress of animals during slaughter is very important from a perspective of animal welfare based on the principle of respect for life. Generally, two stunning methods, CO2 stunning and electrical stunning, are used for slaughter. When the carotid arteries of the lungs are cut off for bleeding, the bronchial tubes are also severed. To determine the degree of blood inflow into the lungs through the severed bronchial tubes, the prevalence rates of pulmonary diseases and pulmonary congestion in slaughtered pigs were analyzed. In this study, the prevalence of pneumonia was 24.9% in Slaughterhouse A using the gas method, but it was decreased by about 10% to 15.7% and 12.6%, respectively, in Slaughterhouses B and C using the electric method. On the other hand, the prevalence of pulmonary congestion in Slaughterhouses A, B, and C was 4.24%, 14.10% and 16.40%, respectively. In other words, the prevalence of pulmonary congestion was higher by about 10% in the groups of pigs slaughtered by the electric method (Slaughterhouses B and C) than in the group of pigs slaughtered by the gas method (Slaughterhouse A). These results indicate that blood inflow into the pulmonary alveoli led to a diagnosis of pulmonary congestion instead of pneumonia in some pigs with pneumonia. In short, it was found that about 10% of pigs stunned by the electric method were not in a state of complete unconsciousness but in a partially conscious state during slaughter. It is suggested that slaughterhouses should be equipped with gas stunning equipment instead of applying the electric method due to lower costs.
The global biopesticide market was estimated to become about 4% of the total crop protection market in 2015, mainly due to variability of their efficacy, narrow spectrum or difficulties in long-term storage. Therefore, many people focus on overcoming these issues as a big trend. Suggested solutions include the investigation of synergy between microorganisms, the use of genetic engineering, improving the pesticide life shelf, etc. As a result, biopesticides market has grown by more than 17% over the last decade. In this context and aiming to develop new entomopathogenic fungi–based pest management tools, we constructed a fungal library by isolating insect pathogenic fungi from soil. A total of 581 isolates belonging to 35 species were isolated and characterized. Beauveria bassiana was the most abundant, representing 38.55% of the total strains, followed by Metharizium anisopliae (22.55%) and bubillosa (8.6). …% of the total isolates were highly virulent against Tenebrio molitor killing most of the treated insects in 2 to 3 days.
과일이나 농작물의 부패 및 발효 환경에서는 Methanol, Ethanol, Acetic acid을 비롯한 다양한 화학물질들이 생산된다. Drosophila melanogaster는 이러한 발효·부패 환경에 서식하면서 일정 농도 이상의 다양한 화학물질에 지속적으로 노출되어 생존하도록 적응되어온 것으로 생각된다. 다양한 화학물질이 포함한 환경에 안정적으로 서식하기 위해서는 D. melanogaster는 화학물질에 능동적으로 반응하여 해독 유전자나 대사 관련 유전자의 발현량을 변화 시킴으로써 발효·부패 환경에서 생성되는 화학물질에 대한 높은 내성을 가지고 있을 것으로 판단된다. 현재까지 유전자의 발현량 측정을 위해 real-time PCR를 이용하여 reference gene의 발현량을 기준으로 정량화하는 방법이 가장 널리 사용되고 있다. 그러나 조직별, 환경별, 발달단계를 비롯한 다양한 조건에서 안정적으로 발현되는 reference 유전자 선정이 필수적으로 선행되어야 하므로 본 연구에서는 발효·부패 환경에서 생산되는 두 화학물질인 Methanol과 Ethyl Acetate에 노출된 D. melanogaster에서 안정적으로 발현되는 reference gene을 찾는 연구를 실시하였다. 본 연구에서는 다양한 농도의 Methanol과 Ethyl Acetate을 D. melanogaster에 노출시킨 후 RNA 추출과 cDNA 합성을 실시였고, 5가지 후보 reference gene (hsp22, nd, rpL18, tbp and ef-1b)의 안정적 발현 여부를 qRT-PCR을 통해 조사하였으며, 유전자 발현의 안정성을 측정하는 3가지 프로그램(geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper)을 이용해 비교·분석하였다. 본 학회에서는 연구의 과정과 그 결과를 발표하고자 한다.
The composition of the deicer sprayed on the highway is spreading over the highway by the scattering or snow removal activity, or car movement and consequently affecting the vegetation environment around the highway. These are the cause of the damage of fruit trees and crops, and also the cause of corrosion of highway structures. The goal of this study is to estimate the detected range of deicer components from a highway. The concentration of the deicer components in gauze and soil were investigated according to the crossing distance from the highway. The data collected were then used to estimate the concentration range of deicer components in a rage of distance up to 100 m from the highway where the deicer was spread. The sample time and weight of gauze were measured before and after installation, and the soil was collected at more than three points in parallel with the highway at the gauze installation point. The components in gauze and soil were investigated in addition to the deicer components (Ca2+, Na+, Cl-) as well as Mg2+ and K+. As Ca2+ and Cl- components of deicer were affected by agricultural use, Na+ component was selected as a tracer and further SAR (Sodium Adsorption Ratio) of soil was analyzed to examine the degree of influence on vegetation indirectly. The gauze concentration was evaluated by the concentration of the deicer ingredient at the background concentration of the blank gauze. The total amount of the deicer sprayed in the study road for 4 months (winter season) was about 93 ton/km. In the gauze test, the spread of the deicer was detected at a distance of 100 m in study area, but the concentration of the deicer in the gauze by distance decreased rapidly within 10 m from the highway. And concentration of the deicer components in gauze and soil came down after rainy season (August ~ Sep.). The results showed that the components of the deicer could be spread widely by the wind. The effective range of the deicer on vegetation based on SAR in soil was estimated to be less than 20 m from the highway. This study examines the concentration changes of the deicer components in gauze and soils and shows that deicer components sprayed on the highway are accumulated and moved over time by wind, snow removal, terrain, water system and land use around the highway.
The purpose of our study was to determine the effect of Maitland orthopedic manual therapy, Silver Spike Point, dietary fiber and gymnastic exercise on the improvement of constipation. Forty patients with constipation participated in the study (Maitland Orthopedic Manual Therapy Group(n=10), Silver Spike Point Therapy Group(n=10), Dietary Fiber Group(n=10) and Gymnastics Exercise Group(n=10)). The assessment scale and weekly bowel frequency were measured before and after the experiment. Assessment scale was significantly increased in Silver Spike Point Therapy, Maitland orthopedic therapy, gymnastic exercise compare to dietary fiber. Weekly bowel frequency was significantly increased in gymnastic exercise compared to dietary fiber. The results of this study suggest that Silver Spike Point Therapy, Maitland orthopedic therapy, gymnastic exercise improve the symptom in patients with constipation.
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of feedback breathing exercise on respiratory muscle activity. Thirty stroke patients were randomly and equally assigned to an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group received rehabilitation exercise treatment for 30 minutes and feedback respiratory exercise for 30 minutes and the control group received rehabilitation exercise treatment for 30 minutes and conducted motomed exercise for 30 minutes. All of them conducted exercises five times per week for four weeks. Respiratory muscles including the upper trapezius(UT), longissimus dorsi(LD), rectus abdominis(RA), external abdominal oblique(EAO) and, internal abdominal oblique(IAO) were measured using MP 150WSW prior to and after the experiment. Regarding pulmonary functions prior to and after the experiment, the experimental group showed significant differences in all sections but the control group did not show significant differences in any sections. As for in-between group differences after the experiment, there were significant differences in the UT, LD, RA, and IAO but no significant differences in the EAO. In conclusion, respiratory muscle activity was more effective for the experimental group than the control group. It is considered that feedback respiratory exercise may induce improvement in respiratory muscles in stroke patients through feedback breathing exercise.
This study is to examine the effects of a feedback breathing device exercise and diaphragm breathing exercise on pulmonary functions of chronic strokes patients. The selection of 20 subjects was divided equally and placed into a experiment group and a control group and the intervention was applied four times per a week for five weeks. In each session, both groups received rehabilitative exercise treatment for 30 minutes, and a feedback breathing device exercise for 15 minutes. In addition, experimental group conducted a combination of diaphragm breathing exercise for 15 minutes. Prior to and after the experiment, patients’ pulmonary functions were measured using a spirometer. The pulmonary function tests included FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, PEF, VC, TV, IC, ERV, IRV. With respect to changes in the pulmonary functions of both groups, the experimental group significantly differed in FVC, FEV1, TV, ERV but did not in PEF, FEV1/FVC, VC, IRV. The control group did not significantly differ in any of the tests. There were significant differences in FEV1, FEV1/FVC, TV, ERV between the two groups, but no significant differences in FVC, PEF, FEV1/FVC, VC, IRV between them after the experiment. The experimental group, which conducted a combination of a feedback breathing device exercise and diaphragm breathing exercise, saw their respiratory ability increase more significantly than the control group. The breathing exercise was found to improve pulmonary function in chronic stroke patients.
본 연구는 환경스트레스 저항성이 증진된 페튜니아를 개발하기 위하여 NDPK2유전자 도입 형질전환 계통 NDPK2-7-1와 SOD2 유전자 도입 형질전환 계통 SOD2- 2-1-1-35간의 교잡에 의해 획득된 후대들의 비생물적 스트레스 저항성을 조사하기 위해 수행되었다. 비 생물적 스트레스 유발원인 메틸바이올로젠(methyl viologen, MV) 100 μM과 200 μM 처리에서 교잡후대들은 그들의 교배 모본 SOD2 유전자나 NDPK2 유전자가 단독으로 도 입된 형질전환 계통이나 비형질전환체 보다 메틸바이 올로젠에 의한 피해를 적게 받았다. 이는 SOD2 유전 자나 NDPK2 유전자가 단독으로 도입된 형질전환 계 통간 교잡에 의해 획득된 후대들이 그들의 교배모본 (SOD2 유전자나 NDPK2 유전자가 단독으로 도입된 형질전환 계통)이나 비형질전환체 보다 산화적 스트레 스에 대한 저항성이 증진되었음을 증명해 준다고 할 수 있다. 이들 교잡후대들은 초장 등 11종류의 양적형질의 특성이 비형질전환체에 비해 약간 길거나 짧긴 하였지 만 비형질전환체와 거의 유사하였으며, 꽃 색갈이나 모양 또한 그들의 교배모본 (SOD2 유전자나 NDPK2 유전 자가 단독으로 도입된 형질전환 계통)이나 비형질전환 체와 차이가 없었다.