The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the Silver Spike Point (SSP) on functional constipation. The subjects were 14 female students who attended a university located in Gyeonggi province and consent to participate in this study. The inclusion criteria were the fulfillment of two or more diagnostic criteria of Rome III or scoring four or more points in Constipation Assessment Scale (CAS). The CAS score was significantly decreased in the experimental group (from 14.29±1.38 to 6.86±2.91) (p<.05), however, there was no significant change in the control group (from 14.29±1.49 to 14.14±1.21). The present study suggests that SSP intervention is effective in mitigating constipation.
This research was conducted to investigate the effect of continuous antagonistic muscle strengthening exercise and Evjenth-Hamberg stretching on the pulmonary function of university students with abnormal transformation of forward head posture(FHP). The results of study subject to the continuous antagonistic muscle strengthening(CAS) group(n=10) and Evjenth- Hamberg stretching(EHS) group(n=10) that was conducted 3 times a week for 6 weeks are as follow. FVC, IVC, and MVV all were shown to be significant in the pre·post comparison between the CAS group and EHS group(p<.05), and significant difference was shown for MW between the two groups(p<.05) in which the CAS group showed better effect. Based on the results above, it is considered that combining continuous antagonistic muscle strengthening exercise has better effect on pulmonary function compared to application of only Evjenth-Hamberg stretching.
첨단 기술, 네트워크 등의 발전과 지능기반 사회의 변화로 인 간형 로봇 개발이 활발하게 진행 중에 있다. 특히 일상생활에 서 인간과 자연스럽게 상호 작용할 수 있는 인간 지향적인 개 인서비스 로봇에 대한 연구가 중요해지고 있다. 하지만 국내의 개인서비스 로봇 연구를 살펴보면 기반기술 개발에 치중한 정 부의 지원과 연구로 인간이 진정으로 원하는 로봇의 기능이나 형태 등의 로봇 디자인에 대한 연구가 미흡한 실정이다. 이에 본 연구는 개인서비스 로봇 디자인 방향을 제시하는 것을 목적 으로 하며, 이를 위해서 로봇의 시장 요구사항 분석, 로봇 시장 트렌드 분석, 소비자 인식 및 요구 분석을 진행하였다. 그 결과 개인서비스 로봇이 인간의 일상생활에서 활용 가능한 기능 디 자인과 감성 디자인을 중심으로 개인서비스 로봇의 디자인을 위한 방향을 제시하였다. 이러한 결과를 통해서 본 연구는 개 인서비스 로봇의 콘셉트, 기능, 콘텐츠, 외형 등을 디자인하거 나 새로운 아이디어를 제안하는데 기여할 수 있을 것이다.
The purpose of this study is to verify a correlation between flexi-bar exercise and improvement of trunk strength and body composition in juvenile soccer players. The subjects were 11 teenager juvenile soccer players who conducted flexi-bar exercise half an hour daily three times a week for eight weeks. They were tested for trunk muscles strength, body composition and correlation. The result showed that trunk muscles strength improved significantly( p<.01) and weight, Rt. arm muscle mass, Rt. leg muscle mass, and Lt. leg muscle mass(p<.05), Lt. arm muscle mass, trunk muscle mass, and body muscle mass(p<.01) improved significantly as well while Lt. arm fat mass, Rt. leg fat mass, and Lt. leg fat mass decreased significantly(p<.05). In the correlation analysis, the more trunk muscle mass and trunk muscles strength increased, the more muscle mass of body regions increased, which was a positive correlation whereas fat mass of body regions decreased, which was a negative correlation. It was verified that there was a correlation between flexi-bar exercise and improvement of trunk muscles strength and body composition for juvenile soccer players.
This study investigated the effects of changes to the pulsation factor of pulsed direct currents on wound healing. Patients with a pressure ulcer at a care hospital for the elderly were randomly divided into three groups: Group 1 involved the application of 100㎲ in pulse duration, 10 ㎳ in pulse period, 100 pps in a pulsation factor, 15 ㎃ in pulse amplitude, and polarity red+ by using pulsed direct currents; Group 2 involved a change of pulse period to 8 ms; and Group 3 received general wound management. Although there were no statistically significant differences in the changing stages of pressure ulcers among the groups, all the groups dropped in numerical stages. In the two groups to which pulsed direct currents were applied, there was a statistically significant reduction in the stages of pressure ulcers from the initial assessment to the 12-week assessment (p<.05). Even though there were no statistically significant differences in changes to the area of pressure ulcers among the groups, a statistically significant decrease was found in pulsed direct current group 2 whose pulse period was shortened (p<.05). There was no difference in the healing rate of pressure ulcers among the groups, but it made a numerical increase in pulsed direct current group 1 and group 2 and a numerical decrease in group 3. There were no significant differences in the characteristics of those who had a full recovery among the groups. Those findings indicate that pulsed direct currents have positive effects on the wound healing of patients with a pressure ulcer and that a treatment with pulsed direct currents whose pulsation factor is raised by reducing the pulse duration is especially effective.
The goal of this study was to assess the effect of a group exercise program on cognitive function of elderly people. Subjects were chosen to be elders with dementia having minor to moderate degrees of cognitive function. Study was started out by randomly dividing the 16 subjects into two groups, each with 8 people; the group exercise group and the control group. The group exercise group performed 8 weeks of group exercise program and general physiotherapy while the control group only performed general physiotherapy. Cognitive function was measured by Korean version mini-mental state examination. The study group's attention and calculation statistically significantly improved but the control group saw no statistically significant change. The group exercise program affected improvement in cognitive function of elderly people with dementia and in particular, was effective for enhancing their attention and calculation.
This study is a cross-sectional study for conscripts with chronic low back pain, where it is designed to investigate general characteristics that conscripts with chronic low back pain carry, and it is also aimed to analyze the correlation as well as discrepancy within pain, depression and body mass index depending on their ranks. In this study, 90 Korean conscripts with chronic low back pain participated. And in order to analyze general characteristics as well as pain, depression and body mass index of the subjects, this study adopted a survey questionnaire upon general characteristics, and it also employed Visual Analogue Scacle(VAS) and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression(CES-D) Scale which have proven their credibility, where BMI values for the subjects were calculated based on 'Asian Pacific standard' Body Mass Index(BMI). From the general characteristics exhibited by the subjects through this study, average age and average height of the subjects were 20.78±1.41 and 175.97±5.34 respectively; and corporals displayed the highest ratio of 42% with the chronic low back pain while 40% of the total subjects experienced the duration of the illness less than 6 to 9 months. Moreover, 57.8% of all subjects were reportedly suffering moderate pain, and 48% exhibited depression while 49% carried BMI value between 18.5 and 22.9kg/m2(normal range). Based on the analysis of correlation among pain, depression, discrepancy of BMI depending on the ranks and each independent variable, it appears that there is no significant difference amongst the ranks, and there is no correlation between independent variables; however, it was obvious that all groups divided by the ranks had a moderate pain(45-74mm), depression(≥16) and BMI value in normal range(18.5-22.9).
The purpose of this study is to provide the case of influence of myofacial release(MFR) and cryotherapy in acute whiplash injury. The subjects were consisted of 3 adults(2 males, 1 female) who had been diagnosed with whiplash injury. The performance period was 1 weeks, 6 times and 1 time is 40min(MFR: 20min, cryotherapy: 20min). We measured neck pain(Visual analogue scale, VAS) and cervical alignment(cervical curvature & line of gravity). All measurements of each subject were measured at pre-treatment and post-treatment. The results are listed below. The neck pain(VAS) index decreased from 7.54cm to 4.11cm. The cervical curvature increased from 23.62°to 29.76°. The line of gravity decreased from 8.03mm to 3.66mm. Based on the results, it can be suggested that both MFR and cryotherapy can be used to neck pain and alignment in acute whiplash injury.
This study aims to reveal the impact of continuous antagonist strengthening( CAS) and Evjenth-Hamberg stretching(EHS) on the cervical mobility in the university students with abnormal transformation of forward head posture( FHP). Our experiment was conducted 3 times a week for 6 weeks in a total of 20 individuals : continuous antagonist strengthening(CAS) group(n=10) & Evjenth-Hamberg stretching(EHS) group(n=10). In a pre and post comparison, both CAS group and EHS group appeared significantly in mSBI and SBA(p<.05) and the two-group comparison showed a significant difference(p<.05) : CAS group showed better effects. Thus, it is considered that the combined use with continuous antagonist strengthening(CAS) had better effects for cervical mobility than Evjenth-Hamberg stretching(EHS) alone.
Experts of medicine, philosophy and psychology found that human somatotypes were related to personality or physical characteristics and classified somatotypes into various forms. This study explored the changes and types of somatotyping methods from Before Christ to present day and identified the status of studies of somatotypes in the area of physical therapy. This study covered the methods applied in various majors with a focus on those provided in books and papers of Heath BH. and Carter JEL. Based on the results, there are officially twelve assessment methods. Currently, the method of Heath & Carter is most widely applied. Somatotypes are studied in many areas. It is actively explored in the area of pain physical therapy, thermotherapy and integumentary physical therapy. Also, the soft tissue physical therapy area seeks interdisciplinary studies. This study found that there were various assessment methods in diverse areas. It is likely that continuous studies will develop new assessment methods. It is hoped that in the area of physical therapy, somatotypes shall be applied more amply.
This study aims to address the effect of interferential current therapy and thereby to provide basic resources to physical therapies for internal medicine by identifying symptoms for functional dyspepsia and serum gastrin level that shows gastric motility. Following results were obtained by performing interferential current therapy to 16 subjects composed of 8 for functional dyspepsia group and 8 for control group for 20 minutes a day, 3 days a week, for 6 weeks. In control group, serum gastrin level was significantly( p<.01), lowered after the therapy whereas there was no significant difference observed in all questions from questionnaire for symptoms of functional dyspepsia between before and after the therapy. In functional dyspepsia group, serum gastrin level was significantly(p<.01), lowered after the therapy and there was also significant(p<.01) reduction in every question from questionnaire for symptoms of functional dyspepsia between before and after the therapy. There was more significant decrease in serum gastrin level and reduction in questionnaire for symptoms of functional dyspepsia in the functional dyspepsia group compared to the control group(p<.01). This study confirms the interferential current therapy as an effective therapeutic method for internal diseases including functional dyspepsia since it not only improves the symptoms of functional dyspepsia but also allows the gastric motility close to normal.
This study aims to examine the effects of taping of the ankle joint on the static and dynamic balance and gait ability of stroke patients. Twenty-six stroke patients receiving physical therapy at a hospital located in Gyeonggi-do were divided equally into a group that had taping in physical therapy and an ordinary physical therapy group. They exercised for 30 minutes each, 3 times per week for 8 weeks from June to August 2011. Romberg’s eye open and eye closed tests, limits of stability(LOS), forward and back test, timed up and go test(TUG) and 10-meter gait velocity test were performed to evaluate static balance, dynamic balance, and gait ability, respectively, prior to and 8 weeks after the intervention. Differences within each group in relation to the lapse of time were compared by a paired t-test. Differences between the two groups were compared by an independent t-test. Regarding comparison of differences within each group, all tests resulted in significant changes in both groups after the intervention (p<.05). Comparison of differences between the two groups showed that taping in the physical therapy group had significantly better test results than the ordinary physical therapy group in all measured items(p<.05). The after effects of ankle taping on stroke patients are more efficient and effective than ordinary physical therapy alone in improving balance and gait ability.
This study was carried out to identify how a self-stretching exercise program affects pain for each body area, pain relief and job satisfaction for care workers. 20 of 40 care workers with musculoskeletal symptom were randomly selected and participated a self-stretching exercise program consisting of 15 motions. The intervention was done five times or more per weeks for 8 weeks and 1 session lasted within 15 minutes. 'Musculoskeletal symptom survey table' of the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency(KOSHA) and JDI(Job Descriptive Index) was used for pain on the musculoskeletal symptom and job satisfaction. Survey were done twice before and after the program. The result of this study showed that self-stretching exercise program group(SSPG) relieved from pain significantly in the shoulders(p<.01) and lumbar(p<.05), comparing to the non selfstretching exercise program group(NSPG). Although no significant difference on variations in the JDI appeared in SSPG, the significant reduction appeared from the colleague relationship and organization in NSPG(p<.05). SSPG showed the significant increase on variations in JDI from the job and organization comparing to NSPG. Especially, the improvement on satisfaction for the organization was shown(p<.05). Accordingly, the self-stretching exercise program for care workers can be said to positively affect the overall pain relief and increase on the JDI.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of handicraft activities on hand promptness and grasp in the elderly. Subjects were comprised of 14 senior citizens between the ages of 70-85, with 7 subjects in the experiment group and 7 in the control group. Subjects in the experiment group practiced various handicrafts twice a day, while those in the control group did not participate in any special activity. The Jebsen Taylor Hand Function Test was used to evaluate the results, while a dynamometer and pinch gauge were used to measure hand promptness and grasp. The 7 senior citizens in the experiment group were able to increase their hand promptness and grasping skills. Conclusively, handicrafts can help improve hand promptness and grasp in the elderly. Furthermore, the development and improvement of such skills can have a positive influence on the daily lives of senior citizens. Such skills are expected to improve the overall neuro-function in the elderly population.
The purpose of this study was to comparatively analyze the active stability of shoulder joints according to the frequency of overhead motions, such as serving and spiking, engaged in by female professional volleyball athletes who play different positions, and to provide the results as the basic data for developing exercise programs to prevent shoulder joint injuries. The subjects of this study were 50 Korean female professional volleyball players and positions were as follows: left and right attackers, centers, setters, and liberos. The external rotation and internal rotation muscle strength and muscle strength ratios of the dominant and non-dominant arms of all subjects were measured using Biodex. The results of this study are as follows: Frist, no significant differences were found in the internal and external rotation muscle strength of the dominant and non-dominant arms between positions. Second, for the shoulder joint muscle strength ratio of the dominant arm, by position, the setter showed significantly greater stability compared to the other positions. Third, for the shoulder joint muscle strength ratio of the non-dominant arm, by position, no significant difference in stability between positions was found. Fourth, it was found that the dominant arm had significantly greater instability of the shoulder joint than the non-dominant arm for attackers and centers, but no significant difference was found for setters and liberos. This study comparatively analyzed the muscle strength ratios of the external/internal rotations and dominant/non-dominant arms, which can determine the stability of the shoulder joints between female professional volleyball playing positions that engage in jumps and spikes using only the dominant hand and positions that do not.
In this case report, we investigated the effects of robot-assisted gait therapy in a chronic stroke patient using motor assessment and gait analysis. A patient who suffered from the right hemiparesis following the left corona radiata and basal ganglia infarction received 30 minutes of robot-assisted gait therapy, 3 times a week for 4 weeks. Outcome was measured using Motoricity index(MI), Fugl-Meyer assessment(FMA), modified motor assessment scale(MMAS), isometric torque, body tissue composition, 10-meter gait speed and gait analysis. After robot-assisted gait therapy, the patient showed improvement in motor functions measured by MI, FMA, MMAS, isometric torque, skeletal muscle mass, 10-meter gait speed. In gait analysis, cadence, single support time, double support time, step length, walking speed improvement in after robot-assisted gait therapy. The results of this study showed that robot-assisted gait therapy is considered to facilitate locomotor recovery of the chronic hemiparetic stroke patient.
The majority of strokes are caused by ischemia and result in brain tissue damage, leading to problems of the central nervous system including hemiparesis, dysfunction of language and consciousness, and dysfunction of perception. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase(PARP) on necrosis in neuronal cells that have undergone needle electrode electrical stimulation(NEES) prior to induction of ischemia. Ischemia was induced in male SD rats(body weight 300g) by occlusion of the common carotid artery for 5 min, after which the blood was reperfused. After induction of brain ischemia, NEES was applied to Zusanli(ST 36), at 12, 24 and 48 hours. Protein expression was investigated using immuno-reactive cells, which react to PARP antibodies in cerebral nerve cells, and Western blotting. The results were as follows: In the cerebral cortex, the number of PARP reactive cells after 24 hours significantly decreased(p<.05) in the NEES group compared to the GI group. PARP expression after 24 hours significantly decreased(p<.05) in the NEES group compared to the GI group. As a result, NEES showed the greatest effect on necrosis- related PARP immuno-reactive cells 24 hours after ischemia, indicating necrosis inhibition, blocking of neural cell death, and protection of neural cells. Based on the results of this study, NEES can be an effective method of treating dysfunction and improving function of neuronal cells in brain damage caused by ischemia.
This study is intended to examine the motor skill learning and treadmill exercise on motor performance and synaptic plasticity in the cerebellar injured rats by harmaline. Experiment groups were divided into four groups and assigned 15 rats to each group. GroupⅠ was a normal control group(induced by saline); GroupⅡ was a experimental control group(cerebellar injured by harmaline); GroupⅢ was a group of motor skill learning after cerebellar injured by harmaline; GroupⅣ was a group of treadmill exercise after cerebellar injured by harmaline. In motor performance test, the outcome of groupⅡ was significantly lower than the groupⅢ, Ⅳ(especially groupⅢ)(p<.001). In histological finding, the experimental groups were destroy of dendrities and nucleus of cerebellar neurons. GroupⅢ, Ⅳ were decreased in degeneration of cerebellar neurons(especially groupⅢ). In immunohistochemistric response of synaptophysin in cerebellar cortex, experimental groups were decreased than groupⅠ. GroupⅢ's expression of synaptophysin was more increased than groupⅡ, Ⅳ. In electron microscopy finding, the experimental groups were degenerated of Purkinje cell. These result suggest that improved motor performance by motor skill learning after harmaline induced is associated with dynamically altered expression of synaptophysin in cerebellar cortex and that is related with synaptic plasticity.
Supposing that somatotype evaluation results would have significant differences between the public group with less amounts of exercises and the special group with intensive exercises for three to four times a day, this study aimed at comparing the mutual consistency between the results determined by somatotype evaluation tools such as visually calculated index(VCI), Rohrer's Index(RI) and Body Mass Index(BMI). The public, taekwondo players and judo players groups were com˗ posed of fifty persons, taekwondo players and judo players passed through VCI determination, respectively. Their height and weight were examined and analyzed with somatotype evaluation tools. Comparison of somatotype dispersion of RI and VCI showed that most women were determined by VCI as lean type but were deter˗ mined by RI as normal type. And that women were determined by VCI as fat type but were determined by RI as normal type. Therefore both men and women showed significant differences in VCI and RI. Comparison of somatotype dispersion of VCI and BMI showed that both men and women were overestimated or underestimated by VCI rather than by BMI. Comparison of somatotype dispersion of RI and BMI showed that men were less determined by BMI as lean type compared with women; both men and women less determined by BMI rather than by RI as normal type; and both men and women, in particular, were more determined by BMI as fat type but men were more determined by BMI rather than by RI as fat type. Total somatotype consistency by tools showed that VCI has the greatest possibility of determining the public group, compared with other groups as lean type and that the consistency of the three tools were relatively higher for the taekwondo players and judo players groups, compared with the public.