This study aimed to investigate the effect of smartphone size and use on fatigue of the extensor pollicis longus and abductor digiti minimi, and digiti minimi deformity. The 40 people assigned to the experimental group spent at least 6 hours using the smartphone and used the digiti minimi for support. The control group spent at least 3 hours using the smartphone, however did not use digiti mini for support. Questionnaires were used to measure smartphone usage, daily use duration, and method of holding the smartphone device. X-rays of distal interphalangeal joint angle deformity of the digiti minimi were assessed. Surface electromyography was used to analyze muscle fatigue. The angle deformity was significantly different between the experimental group and the control group, and fatigue of the extensor pollicis longus and abductor digiti minimi of the large smartphone users were high. The muscle fatigue was reduced when the smartphone size fit well with the user's hand. This study suggests that the size of the smartphone influence the fatigue of the hand muscles.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of strengthening and stretching exercises on forward head angle and static·dynamic balance ability. 21 adults with the forward head posture were participated in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to strengthening exercise group I(n=11) and stretching exercise group II (n=10) respectively. Each group were underwent six intervention over the period of 2 weeks, each session lasting 30 minutes. During a preliminary examination, forward head angle and static∙dynamic balance were measured, and a post examination was conducted that involved same procedure as preliminary examination. There were significant differences in forward head angle after exercise in both groups. In the strengthening group, center of gravity total sway distances was significantly changed under all conditions. In the stretching group, center of gravity total sway distances was significantly changed when subjects had their eyes open while standing on an foam surface. There were significant changes in center of gravity sway velocities in the strengthening group under all conditions, and the same was true in the stretching group only when the subjects had their eyes open while standing on an foam surface. In the comparison between groups, eyes closed while standing on a firm surface was significantly different. There was a significant difference in dynamic balance of the stretching group when the subjects tilted their bodies forward, and there was a statistically significant difference between groups under the same condition. The results of this study suggest that forward head posture can be corrected through therapeutic exercise, and muscle strengthening exercise more effective in improving static balance of forward head posture more than stretching exercise.
The purpose of this study is to verify a correlation between flexi-bar exercise and improvement of trunk strength and body composition in juvenile soccer players. The subjects were 11 teenager juvenile soccer players who conducted flexi-bar exercise half an hour daily three times a week for eight weeks. They were tested for trunk muscles strength, body composition and correlation. The result showed that trunk muscles strength improved significantly( p<.01) and weight, Rt. arm muscle mass, Rt. leg muscle mass, and Lt. leg muscle mass(p<.05), Lt. arm muscle mass, trunk muscle mass, and body muscle mass(p<.01) improved significantly as well while Lt. arm fat mass, Rt. leg fat mass, and Lt. leg fat mass decreased significantly(p<.05). In the correlation analysis, the more trunk muscle mass and trunk muscles strength increased, the more muscle mass of body regions increased, which was a positive correlation whereas fat mass of body regions decreased, which was a negative correlation. It was verified that there was a correlation between flexi-bar exercise and improvement of trunk muscles strength and body composition for juvenile soccer players.
The goal of this study was to assess the effect of a group exercise program on cognitive function of elderly people. Subjects were chosen to be elders with dementia having minor to moderate degrees of cognitive function. Study was started out by randomly dividing the 16 subjects into two groups, each with 8 people; the group exercise group and the control group. The group exercise group performed 8 weeks of group exercise program and general physiotherapy while the control group only performed general physiotherapy. Cognitive function was measured by Korean version mini-mental state examination. The study group's attention and calculation statistically significantly improved but the control group saw no statistically significant change. The group exercise program affected improvement in cognitive function of elderly people with dementia and in particular, was effective for enhancing their attention and calculation.
The purpose of this study is to provide the case of influence of myofacial release(MFR) and cryotherapy in acute whiplash injury. The subjects were consisted of 3 adults(2 males, 1 female) who had been diagnosed with whiplash injury. The performance period was 1 weeks, 6 times and 1 time is 40min(MFR: 20min, cryotherapy: 20min). We measured neck pain(Visual analogue scale, VAS) and cervical alignment(cervical curvature & line of gravity). All measurements of each subject were measured at pre-treatment and post-treatment. The results are listed below. The neck pain(VAS) index decreased from 7.54cm to 4.11cm. The cervical curvature increased from 23.62°to 29.76°. The line of gravity decreased from 8.03mm to 3.66mm. Based on the results, it can be suggested that both MFR and cryotherapy can be used to neck pain and alignment in acute whiplash injury.
The purpose of this study was to test the effect of Gastrocnemius and Low Back-muscle isotonic exercise on static•dynamic standing balance during the period of 4 weeks. This study was two groups pretest-posttest design. Nineteen subjects who were over 22 years old were randomly assigned to either the experimental group that received the Gastrocnemius muscle exercise(n=9) or the low back muscle exercise(n=10) : The former group performed isotonic exercise(plantar flexion), the latter group performed isotonic exercise(trunk extension) a total of 18 times for three times per week for four weeks. Two groups also performed static and dynamic balance before the exercise and 4weeks after the exercise. The data were analyzed by using the paired t-test and independent t-test. The results were as follows: As compared with change of dynamic balance performance capacity at two groups, a significant difference was shown in the test(p<.05), but not in static balance(p>.05). Also, a significant difference of balance between groups was not shown in the test. In this study indicated that gastrocnemius and low back muscle isotonic exercise will have positive impact on standing balance.
This study has investigated the effect of isometric contractile force and muscle activity applying sperficial heat according to the time from the biceps brachii muscle. In this study, 20 university students participants without musculoskeletal and neurological disorders. By applying a hot pack 5min, 10min, 20min and 30min respectively. After that measurement are skin temperature, contractile force and muscle activity. Skin temperature of the hot 5 min applied that rapidly changing. Increasing the time it takes to apply a variance has been reduced(p<.001). Isometric contractile force was not statistically significant but highest when applying the hot pack 5 minutes and lowest when applying the hot pack 30 minutes(p<.001). Muscle activity and median frequency was highest when applying the hot pack 5 minutes. To analyze the above results, it was found that isometric contractile force and muscle activity changed according to the applying time. These result lead us to the conclusion that this study will be more evidence for changes in muscle contraction to apply hot pack on clinic.
This study aims to address the effect of interferential current therapy and thereby to provide basic resources to physical therapies for internal medicine by identifying symptoms for functional dyspepsia and serum gastrin level that shows gastric motility. Following results were obtained by performing interferential current therapy to 16 subjects composed of 8 for functional dyspepsia group and 8 for control group for 20 minutes a day, 3 days a week, for 6 weeks. In control group, serum gastrin level was significantly( p<.01), lowered after the therapy whereas there was no significant difference observed in all questions from questionnaire for symptoms of functional dyspepsia between before and after the therapy. In functional dyspepsia group, serum gastrin level was significantly(p<.01), lowered after the therapy and there was also significant(p<.01) reduction in every question from questionnaire for symptoms of functional dyspepsia between before and after the therapy. There was more significant decrease in serum gastrin level and reduction in questionnaire for symptoms of functional dyspepsia in the functional dyspepsia group compared to the control group(p<.01). This study confirms the interferential current therapy as an effective therapeutic method for internal diseases including functional dyspepsia since it not only improves the symptoms of functional dyspepsia but also allows the gastric motility close to normal.
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the exercise on elderly balance ability by using hippotherapy and therapeutic ball exercise. 10 patients were assigned to the hippotherapy group and they got with 30 minutes of hippotherapy. Another 10 elderly were assigned to the therapeutic ball group and they got with 30 minutes of therapeutic ball exercise. All procedures were repeated 5 times a week for the total of four weeks. To investigate the participants balancing abilities, the Time“ Up & Go”(TUG) and One Leg Stand Test(OLST) were evaluated. The results of study were significant differences between pre-test and post-test of TUG and OLST(p<.05), and there were no significant differences between hippotherapy and therapeutic ball exercise(p>.05). The conclusion showed that both the hippotherapy and the therapeutic ball exercises were effective on elderly balancing ability. Consequently, it would be better to practice therapeutic ball than hippotherapy for elderly exercise because the more economical and there is less restriction of space than the hippotherapy.
The purpose of this study was to examine the degree of knowledge of care workers working at long term care hospitals and nursing homes on pressure ulcer. A total of 81 care workers including 34 at long term care hospitals and 47 at nursing homes were surveyed. 24 questions were used to evaluate their degree of knowledge on pressure ulcer. Their knowledge on pressure ulcer scored 12.84 out of the total score of 24 points(SD=3.40), which was equal to 53.50 (SD=24.23) out of 100 points. Their knowledge on the prevention of pressure ulcer was highest among the subareas of evaluation. Their knowledge on pressure ulcer statistically significantly differed according to education on pressure ulcer(P<.05). A pressure ulcer is a skin disorder that may be prevented and cured. At this point when long term care facilities are rapidly increasing, care workers highlevel knowledge on and good management of pressure ulcer is very important. Practically educating them on pressure ulcer including the provision of recent, updated relevant knowledge will be necessary.
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of gait training using functional electrical stimulation on the improvement of hemiplegic patients' functions for balance and gait velocity. The subjects of the experiment were determined to be 10 each hemiplegic patients who had been diagnosed with stroke or brain damage six months or longer earlier assigned to an experimental group and a control group respectively. The subjects were evaluated before the experiment using Tetrax and 10M gait tests, received gait training five times a week for four weeks using functional electrical stimulation and were evaluated after the experiment in the same method as used in the evaluation before the experiment. In order to examine differences between the experimental group that received gait training using functional electrical stimulation and the control group that was treated by functional electrical stimulation and received gait training thereafter, differences between before and after the experiment were analyzed using paired sample t-tests and differences in changes after the experiment between the experimental group and the control group were analyzed using independent sample t-tests in order to compare the two groups with each other. Experimental results showed significant differences in weight bearing, balance and gait velocity between before and after the experiment in the experimental group(p<.05). In the control group, whereas weight bearing and gait velocity did not show any significant difference between before and after the experiment(p>.05), balance showed significant differences(p<.05). Weight bearing, balance and gait velocity change rates showed significant differences between the experimental group and the control group(p<.05). In conclusion, it was indicated that gait training using functional electrical stimulation is effective for enhancing stroke patients' weight bearing rates, balance abilities and gait velocity.
The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there are differences in physique characteristics between the excellent domestic player groups in each sport player's, to prevent epidemiologic damage of musculoskeletal system and to provide fundamental data to improve performances for players. This study has performed for total 60 student players from Y University in Yongin, Gyeonggi-do, consists of 20 Kendo players, 20 Judo players and 20 Taekwondo players. We measured the length and circumference of arm, leg, body using Martin anthropometer to collect the data for 3 groups. There was significant difference in lower left arm length between player groups(p<.01), and Kendo players' right side femoral were longer than other 2 groups for leg length measurement(p<.01). Judo players' circumference for right/left stretched arm/bent upper arm were thicker than other 2 groups(p<.01). Taekwondo players' chest circumference were smaller than other 2 groups(p<.01), and Taekwondo players' right/left femoral circumference were thinner than other 2 groups(p<.05). From this study, it was found that there are physique characteristics differences between the Kendo, Judo and Taekwondo player groups. This indicates that repeated exercise for each sport player causes physique change, and it may cause epidemiologic damage of musculoskeletal system. It is recommended to perform balancing exercise prior to main exercise.
This study is intended to examine the tDCS and Montoya stair task(MST) on sensorimotor recovery and glial scar expression in MCAo induced stroke model of rat. To achieve this goal, this study selected 80 SD rats of 8 weeks. The experiment groups were divided them into four groups, and assigned 20 rats to each group. GroupⅠ was a experimental control group; GroupⅡ was a tDCS application group after MCAo; GroupⅢ was a MST application group after MCAo; GroupⅣ was a tDCS and MST application group after MCAo. In each group, neurological function test measurement, motor behavior test, montoya stair task test, immunohistochemistric finding of GFAP expression finding were analyzed. In motor behavior test, the outcome of groupⅠ was significantly difference than the other group, especially from 14days. In montoya stair task test, the outcome of groupⅠ was significantly lower than the other group especially, groupⅡ were significantly different on 14days and group Ⅳ was most significantly difference than the other group. In immunohistochemistric finding, groupⅡ, Ⅲ, Ⅳ were decrease GFAP expression on depend on time stream. These results throughout the MCAo due to focal ischemic brain injury rat model four weeks tDCS and MST was applied, when the neurobehavioural, upper extremity function and ability, histopathologic data suggest that sensorimotor function recovery and a positive influence on glial scar decrease and confirmed that.
The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of manipulation on the velocity of cerebral blood flow and level of pain in cervicogeinc headache patients. The velocity of cerebral blood flow of 30 cervicogeinc headache patients(male=15, female=15, age=24.00±3.60) and 33 normal subjects(male=15, female=18, age=23.27±3.00) was compared. The 30 cervicogeinc headache patients were divided into suboccipitalis relaxation group, cervical manipulation group, and placebo group, and each were given different interventions. The velocity of cerebral blood flow and pain level was measured before intervention, and 1, 2, 3 weeks after intervention. The velocity of cerebral blood flow was measured with the Transcranial Doppler(TCD), and pain level was measured with visual analog scale(VAS). Blood flow velocity of middle cerebral artery in cervicogeinc headache patients was slower than those in healthy subjects. Physical therapy intervention did not have significant effect on velocity of cerebral blood flow, but slowly decreased at intervention for pain level increased. The suboccipitalis relaxation group and cervical manipulation group showed significant effect in decreasing pain level compared to the placebo group(p＜.05). Directly applied manipulation therapy in the neck area not only has effect on joint of cervical and soft tissue but also on blood vessels and nerves which pass the neck area, and because of those results of manual therapy seems to help recovery.
This study was carried out to develop an effective seed propagation method for Thalictrum rochebrunianum var. grandisepalum (H. Lev.) Nakai by analyzing seed dormancy types and germination characteristics. Seeds were collected between September to October at Gangwon province, and well-selected seeds were used while being dry-stored at 4±1℃. The seed size ranged 4.52 × 1.58 ㎜ and the weight of thousand seeds were 1,603.5 ± 0.02 ㎎. The moisture content was 7.2%. Seeds were achene type, and morphology characters showed an elliptical shape and rough texture, and light brown in color. Moist-chilling treatment was conducted for dormancy breaking because the seeds had an undeveloped embryo of liner type. The embryo had developed during a moist-chilling period, constantly, and fully developed in 10 weeks. Consequently, it seemed to be non-deep complex or intermediate complex type of morphophysiological dormancy, and embryo dormancy was broken by wet-chilling for 10 weeks. After 10 weeks of wet-chilling treatment, seed germination began. Germination percentage was higher in dark condition raher than light condition and recorded the maximum at 25℃ in the dark (16.3%). A pre-soaking treatment with a combined plant growth hormones promoted germination and shortened T50. Specifically, seed germination of 84.5% was achieved by pre-soaking of seeds with a combined solution of 500 ㎎/L GA3 and 10 ㎎/L kinetin for 24 h after a wet-chilling treatment for 10 weeks. Thus the effect of plant growth hormones coupled with chilling temperature on seed breaking dormancy provide asubsequent growth of seedlings for successful plantation.