The aim this study was to examine the effect of general squat and wall squat exercises on the muscle activity of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL), and the muscle activity of the VMO and VL during squat exercises depending on the flexion angle of the knee joint. Thirty adults in their 20s participated in the study, and subjects were divided into the general squat group, and the wall squat group, and their electromyographic (EMG) was monitored and collected during squat exercises. The muscle activity of the VL during squat exercises was compared between the two groups, and that of the wall squat group was higher than that of the general squat group, indicate a statistically significant difference (p<.05). The muscle activity of the VMO of the wall squat group was also higher than that of the general squat group, indicate a statistically significant difference (p<.05). The muscle activity depending on the angle of the knee joint was compared between the two groups, and that of the VL showed a statistically significant difference between different angles of the knee joint (p<.05). That of the VMO also showed a statistically significant difference between different angles of the knee joint (p<.05). The findings of the present study suggest that wall squat is more effective in improving the muscular strength of the VL and VMO than general squat, and that maintaining the angle of the knee joint at 60° is more effective in improving the muscular strength than maintaining it at 15° or 45°
The purpose of this case study was to investigate the effects of thoracic mobilization and manipulation on a patient with upper thoracic pain. The subject had been complaining of upper thoracic pain for the last 4 months. On the X-ray, T3 and T4 spinous process were located on the left side of the vertical axis. First, transverse mobilization was applied from left to right at the T3-T4 and then thoracic manipulation was performed. The intervention methods of mobilization and manipulation were based on the concept of Maitland manual therapy. The subject underwent a total of 20 sessions (five times per week for four weeks). The thoracic pain and vertebral rotation angle were measured to examine the effect of the intervention. The thoracic pain score decreased (from 4.0 to 1.5) and the angle of thoracic vertebral rotation decreased (from 7.0º to 4.0º). These results suggest that applied mobilization and manipulation in patients with a primary complaint of thoracic pain decreasing the thoracic pain and vertebral rotation angle.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the health conditions of occupation group and hobby group related to visual display terminal (VDT) syndrome. The VDT occupation group was mainly composed of the worker in banks, telephone companies, and general offices. The VDT-related hobby group was composed of high school students, and Internet cafe users. A questionnaire survey was conducted to classify the subjects according to hours of computer usage. The results indicated that the occupation group represented a higher level of subjective symptoms than VDT-related hobby group. In the VDT occupation group, ‘Poor body condition’, ‘Feeling uncomfortable or pain in the neck’‘, Feeling uncomfortable or pain in the back’‘, Feeling stressed out’, and‘ Feeling uncomfortable or pain in the shoulder’ items indicated a high level of subjective symptoms. In the VDT-related hobby group, ‘Feeling uncomfortable or pain in the neck’, and‘ Feeling uncomfortable or pain in the back’ items indicated a high level of subjective symptoms. According to the hours of computer usage, 4-6 hours and 6 hours or more groups represented a higher level of subjective symptoms than 2-4 hours group. These findings suggest that Visual display terminal (VDT) work effects the individual's health conditions.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of stable and unstable bridging exercises on the EMG activity of abdominal muscles. Twenty healthy women participated in this study and the muscle activities of left-right rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), and internal oblique (IO) muscles were recorded during 4 bridging exercises (unilateral/ bilateral, stable/unstable). The activity of the right EO muscle was the highest during unilateral exercise in unstable condition, and left EO muscle also produced the same result. The activity of the right IO muscle was the highest during unilateral exercise in an unstable condition, and left IO muscle also produced the same result. The activity of the right RA muscle was the highest during unilateral exercise in a stable condition, and left RA muscle produced the same result. Unstable/unilateral (USUL) represented the highest activity among the 4 exercises. EO/IO muscles represented the highest activity during the USUL exercise, and RA did so during the stable/unilateral exercise. These results suggest that specific posture (USUL) can be administered targeting a specific side of abdominal muscles.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the screen size of smart devices on the bending angle of the cervical spine. The subjects of this study were 30 healthy adults(15 men and 15 women) who used smartphones and tablet PC(personal computer). The changes in the bending angle of the upper and lower cervical spine were measured in the subjects after they had used a smartphone and a tablet PC for 300 seconds each. To make sure that all subjects began in the same starting position, an angle-measuring instrument was used to set the angles of the ankle, knee, hip, and arm joints to 90 degree. The subjects were asked to keep the trunk straight. They were asked to hold a smartphone in their hand and to bend their neck so that they could look down at the screen. Once they began using the smartphone in this manner, they were free to change their posture. We used a paired t-test to compare the bending angle of the cervical spine on subjects who used smartphones and tablet PC in the longterm and short-term there production error of cervical and the significance level was cervical. The results showed that, when using a smartphone and a tablet PC for 300 seconds, there was no significant difference in the bending angle of the upper cervical spine(p>.05), although there was a significant difference in the bending angle of the lower cervical spine(p<.05).
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of core strengthening training on baseball throwing. A total of 14 subjects were recruited from among middle school baseball players. The main outcome measures were as follows: speed guns were used to measure the velocity of baseballs thrown; scored targets were used to measure throwing accuracy; and 50m measuring tapes were used to measure throwing distances. It was found that core strengthening training improved the velocity of baseballs thrown and throwing accuracy and distance. Thus, core strengthening training is effective for improving the throwing ability of baseball players.
In the present study, the general characteristics, job stress, working conditions, and aspects of pain of some industrial workers working in Changwon-si, Gyeongsangnam-do, were surveyed. In analyzing the relationship between job stress and the existence of pain, the variables “working speed” and“ opportunities to develop abilities” were shown to have statistically significant relationships with the existence of pain (p≤.05). Regarding the relationship between working conditions and the existence of pain, the variables“ amount of work per hour,“” amount of work per day,“” number of parts handled during work,“” work production per person,” and“ inconvenient postures or motions during work” were shown to have statistically significant relationships with the existence of pain(P≤.05). Regarding aspects of pain“, within 1~3 years” was the most common answer to time of occurrence of symptoms, with a percentage of 27.6%“; appear almost always” was the most common answer to frequency of symptoms, with a percentage of 37.1%;“ slight pain” was the most common answer to degree of pain, with a percentage of 50.5%; and“ moderate” was the most common answer to encumbrance caused by pain to living and work, with a percentage of 41.2%.
The aim of the present study was to determine the factors that affect pain due to musculoskeletal diseases in industrial workers and to define the aspects of pain in order to provide basic data for the preparation of measures to prevent musculoskeletal diseases. To control pain due to musculoskeletal diseases, factors that affect pain, as well as the aspects of pain, should be recognized early, and efforts should be made to supplement and improve systems for preventing recurrence.
This study aimed to examine the most effective exercise method for shoulder joint rehabilitation by comparatively observing activity of shoulder stabilizer muscles during push up and push up plus exercises under diverse stable conditions. The subjects were 20 healthy adults students who went to M university. While the subjects conducted push up and push up plus exercises under diverse stable conditions(a stable surface, a support of 25cm height, a support of 30 cm height and a balance pad), activities of the upper trapezius muscle, pectoralis major muscle, serratus anterior muscle, and triceps brachii muscle were recorded. During push up and push up plus exercises, activities of the stabilizer muscles were higher when the stable condition was changed rather than on the stable surface. In particular, when the support of 30cm height and balance pads were applied, activity of the shoulder stabilizer was highest. There were significant differences in the upper trapezius muscle and triceps brachii muscle during the push up exercise(p<.05) and in the serratus anterior muscle during the push up plus exercise(p<.05). Activities of the shoulder stabilizers were higher when the upper and lower limbs' surface stable conditions were changed than the stable surface. Therefore, when programs for rehabilitation of shoulder joints are applied, provision of diverse stable conditions according to patients' conditions will be effective methods.
In the present study, to examine the effects of somatosensory stimulation of the hands on the hand functions and visuomotor coordination of children with developmental disabilities, a total of 24 sessions of experiments were conducted with three children with developmental disabilities for 60 minutes per session, three sessions per week from January 7, 2013 to March 11, 2013. To examine the effects of somatosensory stimulation of the hands on grasping and visuomotor coordination which are sub-areas of PDMS-2, the A-B study design was used which is a single case study method out of single-subject experimental research designs. Somatosensory stimulation of the hands was shown to be effective in improving the hand functions of children with developmental disabilities. Somatosensory stimulation of the hands showed positive effects on the raw scores and standardized scores of grasping and visuomotor coordination in all the three subject children. Visuomotor coordination functions showed higher scores in post-hoc tests in all three children. In particular, ring throws showed high scores at right 90°, right 45°, center, left 45°, and left 90°among visual directions. In the present study conducted with children with developmental disabilities, ring throws were performed to examine visuomotor coordination. In particular, the numbers of successes of ring throws on the front, left, and right were shown to be high. Therefore, somatosensory stimulation of the hands was effective on the hand functions and visuomotor coordination functions of children with developmental disabilities.
Lentinus lepideus is an edible mushroom, belongs to the family Tricholomaceteae and order Agaricales. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activities, tyrosinase inhibitory effects on the fruiting bodies of L. lepideus extracted with acetone, methanol and hot water. The antioxidant activities were performed on β-carotene-linoleic acid, reducing power, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging, and ferrous chelating abilities. In addition to this, phenolic acid and flavonoids contents were also analyzed. Hot water extract of L. lepideus showed the strongest β-carotene-linoleic acid inhibition as compare to others extracts. At 8 mg/ml, methanolic extract showed a high reducing power of 1.21. The scavenging effects on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals, acetonic and methanolic extracts were effective than hot water extract. The strongest chelating effect (87.50%) was obtained from the methanolic extract at 1.0 mg/ml concentration. Antioxidant activities of the extracts from the fruiting bodies of L. lepideus were increased with the increasing concentration. After application of reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography, coupled to a diode array detector and electrospray ionisation mass spectra, six phenolic compounds namely, chlorogenic acid, vanillin, naringin, naringenin, formononetin and biochanin were identified from acetonic extract. Tyrosinase inhibition of acetonic, methanolic, and hot water extracts of L. lepideus were increased with the increasing of concentration. Results revealed that acetonic and methanolic extract showed good, while hot water showed moderate activities of the tyrosinase inhibition at the concentration tested. This study suggests that fruiting bodies of L. lepideus can potentially be used as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidants.
The molecular responses to various abiotic stresses were investigated by the approaches with transcriptomic analysis based on an ACP system. Here we identified differentially expressed genes under abiotic stresses in alfalfa seedlings and they were mostly unknown genes and a few common stress-related genes. Among them, mitochondrial small HSP23 was responded by the diverse stress treatment such as heat, salt, As stresses and thus it could be a strong candidate that may confer the abiotic stress tolerance to plants. When expressed in bacteria, recombinant MsHSP23 conferred tolerance to salinity and arsenic stress. Furthermore, MsHSP23 was cloned in a plant expressing vector and transformed into tobacco, a eukaryotic model organism. The transgenic plants exhibited enhanced tolerance to salinity and arsenic stress under ex vitro conditions. In comparison to wild type plants, the transgenic plants exhibited significantly lower electrolyte leakage. Moreover, the transgenic plants had superior germination rates when placed on medium containing arsenic. Taken together, these overexpression results imply that MsHSP23 plays an important role in salinity and arsenic stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco. The results of the present study show that overexpression of alfalfa mitochondrial MsHSP23 in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic model systems confers enhanced tolerance to salt and arsenic stress. This indicates that MsHSP23 could be used potentially for the development of stress tolerant transgenic crops, such as forages.