현재까지 전세계적으로 Periphyllus allogenes (개성진사진딧물)은 무시성충세대에 대한 형태학적 정보만이 보고되었다. 본 연구에서는 2021 년부터 2022년까지 한국 가평군, 홍천군에서 그동안 P. allogenes의 알려지지 않았던 간모, 유시성충 세대를 채집하여, 이들에 대하여 형태학적 정 보, 분포지역, 기주식물, 생태 사진을 처음으로 보고한다.
게임을 구현하는 동안 주기성을 보장해야될 필요성이 있는 경우가 많이 있다. 예를 들어 많은 경우에 캐릭 터의 충돌은 주기적으로 처리되어야 될 필요성이 있는데 주기적으로 처리하지 못하는 경우 게임에서 충돌 을 감지하지 못하는 경우가 발생할 수 있다. 또한 슈팅 게임에서는 많은 경우에 사용자의 편의를 위하여 특 정 버튼을 누르면 무기를 자동적으로 발사하는 기능을 포함하고 있어 주기적으로 무기를 발사해야될 필요 성이 있다. 한편 유니티를 사용하여 게임을 구현할 때 이러한 주기성을 보장하기 위해서 WaitForSeconds로 지연을 발생시킨 코루틴, InvokeRepeating, FixedUpdate, .NET의 Timers.Timer가 사용될 수 있다. 그러나 이러한 다양한 방법들로 인하여 방법의 선택에 어려움이 있어 연구를 진행하였다. 본 연구에서는 1분 동안 6000번 메서드를 주기적으로 실행하고 주기성과 횟수를 측정하였다. 또한 다양한 환경에서의 실험을 위하여 추가의 모델 렌더링이 없는 경우와 렌더링을 추가한 경우, 다양한 해상도에서 주기성과 메서드 호출 횟수를 모두 측정했다. 실험 결과, 부하가 적은 환경에서는 InvokeRepeating이 가장 6000회에 가까웠으며 부하가 큰 환경 에서는 Timers.Timer가 가장 6000회에 가까웠으며 실행 주기의 편차가 가장 적었다. 이러한 실험들을 통하여 유니티를 통하여 게임을 구현할 때 일정 시간 내에 실행되는 횟수가 중요한 게임에서 성능 부하가 크지 않 은 경우 InvokeRepeating을, 성능 부하가 크다면 .NET의 Timer를 쓰는 것이 적합함을 알아내었다. 본 연구를 통하여 개발자는 유니티에서 제공되는 주기성 제공 방법들 중에서 적절한 방법을 선택할 수 있다.
To develop quality-improved muffins, the influence of the partial replacement of wheat flour with lemon balm powder (LBP) on their quality characteristics was analyzed. Studies were carried out to examine the supplementation of different percentages of LBP (2%, 4%, 6%, and 8%) on the quality characteristics of LBP muffins. The incorporation of LBP significantly affected the physicochemical parameters of muffins. Such incorporation at different levels significantly decreased pH, moisture content, baking loss, hardness, and color parameters, including L*, a*, and b* values of muffins (p<0.05). No significant effect of LBP substitution was found in height changes (p>0.05). Finally, the consumer acceptance test indicated that the highest levels of LBP incorporation (i.e., 8%) had a considerably adverse effect on consumer preferences in all attributes. In contrast, muffins with moderate levels of LBP (4%) showed a good and satisfactory sensorial acceptance in general. Thus, LBP was successfully employed in muffins, improving quality and broadening its potential applications in other bakery products.
Rabies is a zoonotic disease that is caused by rabies virus and transmitted only in mammals. Domestic dogs are the most common reservoir of the virus, which is associated with more than 99% human deaths caused by dog-mediated rabies in the world. Rabies is one of the most fatal diseases, but it is fully preventable in animals by vaccination. Serological test of rabies virus antibody for samples collected from dogs and cats in Seoul during 2017–2019 was carried out in this study. To investigate antibody seroprevalence of rabies virus for dogs and cats, 2,769 serum samples were taken from 2,408 dogs and 361 cats in various regions of Seoul during 2017– 2019. Antibodies to rabies virus were detected by an indirect ELISA. Of 2,769 tested animal sera, 934 (33.7%) were positive; 886 (36.8%) of 2408 dogs and 48 (13.3%) of 361 cats. Of 990 companion animals, 547 (55.3%) was positive and 387 (21.8%) of 1779 stray animals was positive. These results indicate that antibody seroprevalence to rabies virus is still not enough to prevent rabies and rabies vaccination is required to enhance the antibody seroprevalence for rabies. To improve the situation, much public awareness and policy is needed to prevent the rabies. In addition, reducing stray animals and keeping companion animals from contact with wild animals are indispensable for the prevention of rabies.
This study was conducted at the National Institute of Animal Science from 2010 to 2017. As a variety that is sufficiently productive in the southern regions to replace imported varieties and sufficiently cold-resistant to be cultivated in the central-northern regions, "IR605" was developed and submitted to the Korea Seed & Variety Service in an application for protection. The novel Italian ryegrass variety "IR605" is a diploid with green leaves, a semi-erect growth habit before wintering, and an erect growth habit in the spring. "IR605" was a medium maturing variety with a heading date of around May 15th. "IR605" had a flag leaf width of 9.9 mm, flag leaf length of 26.7 cm, and plant length on the heading date of 100 cm, which was approximately 5 cm longer than "Kowinearly." The stem thickness and ear length of "IR605" are 0.08 mm thicker and 0.5 cm longer than those of "Kowinearly", respectively. The cold-resistance of "IR605" was weaker than that of "Kowinearly", but strong enough to be cultivated in Pyeongchang, Gangwon province. The dry matter yield of "IR605" (9,308 kg/hectare) was 20% higher than that of "Kowinearly", which was further pronounced in the southern region of Haenam, where there was a 52% increased (p < 0.05). The in vitro dry matter digestibility of "IR605" was 68.4% at which was slightly higher than that of "Kowinearly", The total digestible nutrients was 58.5%, which was slightly lower than "Kowinearly". Overall, the feed quality characteristics of "IR605" were similar to those of "Kowinearly".
Salicylic acid (SA) is an essential plant growth regulator that functions as a signaling molecule in plants. The purpose of this study was to clarify how the exogenous application of SA counteracts aluminum stress-induced growth and biomass yield reduction in alfalfa exposed to aluminum (Al) stress. Two-week-old alfalfa seedlings were exposed to a combination of AlCl3 (0 μM, 50 μM and 100 μM, respectively) and SA (0.1 mM) for 72 hours. We observed, Al stress-induced plant growth inhibition and forage yield reduction are Al stress-dependent manner. A significant reduction of plant height (42.0-52.9%), leaf relative water content (13.0-21.4%), root length (35.4-48.7%), shoot fresh weight (31.2-25.9%), root fresh weight (15.4-23.3%), shoot dry weight (12.7-22.2%), roots dry weight (47.3 -53.5%), were observed in alfalfa. In contrast, SA alleviated the Al-stress and enhanced growth and biomass yield in alfalfa. This study provides useful information concerning the role of SA that counteracts aluminum stress-induced growth and yield reduction in alfalfa.
The wakes behind a square cylinder were simulated using two-equation turbulence models, k-ε and RNG k-ε models. For comparisons between the model predictions and analytical solutions, we employed three skill assessments:, the correlation coefficient for the similarity of the wake shape, the error of maximum velocity difference (EMVD) of the accuracy of wake velocity, and the ratio of drag coefficient (RDC) for the flow patterns as in the authors’ previous study. On the basis of the calculated results, we discussed the feasibility of each model for wake simulation and suggested a suitable value for an eddy viscosity related constant in each turbulence model. The k-ε model underestimated the drag coefficient by over 40 %, and its performance was worse than that in the previous study with one-equation and mixing length models, resulting from the empirical constants in the ε-equation. In the RNG k-ε model experiments, when an eddy viscosity related constant was six times higher than the suggested value, the model results were yielded good predictions compared with the analytical solutions. Then, the values of EMVD and RDC were 3.8 % and 3.2 %, respectively. The results of the turbulence model simulations indicated that the RNG k-ε model results successfully represented wakes behind the square cylinder, and the mean error for all skill assessments was less than 4 %.
Excessive intake of red meat has been associated with colon carcinogenesis. The effect of hemin and zinc on colon carcinogenesis was investigated in male ICR mice. After acclimation for 1 week, five-week-old mice received three s.c. injections (0-2nd weeks of the experiment) of azoxymethane (AOM; 10 mg/kg b.w.) weekly and were treated by 2% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water for the next 1 week to induce aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Mice were fed on AIN-76A purified rodent diet for 6 weeks. There were three experimental groups; control, hemin, and hemin + zinc groups. The daily oral doses of hemin and zinc were 534 mg/kg and 55 mg/kg b.w., respectively. After staining colonic mucosa with 0.2% methylene blue, the ACF, aberrant crypts (AC), and polyps were counted. Lipid peroxidation in liver was evaluated by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) assay. The numbers of AC, ACF, large ACF (i.e., ≥4 AC/ACF), and polyps in the hemin group were higher than those in the control group. In hemin + zinc group, the numbers of AC, ACF, large ACF were significantly lower compared to the hemin or control groups (p < 0.05), and the number of polyps was also significantly lower compared to that in the hemin group (p < 0.05). The TBARS level in the livers of the hemin + zinc group was significantly lower than that of the hemin group (p < 0.05). These results suggest that hemin enhances colon carcinogenesis and that co-treatment with zinc can protect against the induction of colon carcinogenesis.
1. 본 연구는 한국 재래종 강낭콩 209자원의 phytochemical 및 항산화활성을 평가하였다.
2. 항산화활성은 DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, SOD를 분석하였으며 phytochemical은 kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin, naringenin 함량을 각각 분석하였다.
3. 항산화활성은 강낭콩 자원 간 다양한 분포를 보였으며 DPPH의 경우 62.3~643.9 (IC50), ABTS의 경우 0.28~1.49 mgAAE/g, FRAP의 경우 0.41~5.44 mgAAE/g, SOD의 경우 50.4 ~ 299.8 (IC50)로 나타났다.
4. Relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI)로 강낭콩 자원의 항산화활성을 비교한 결과 IT104587이 가장 높은 항산화활성을 보였으며 IT189598이 가장 낮은 항산화활성을 보였다.
5. 분석된 Phytochemical 중에서 한국 재래종 강낭콩에서는 Kaempferol이 가장 높은 함량을 나타냈다.
6. PCA 분석 결과 209자원은 3개의 그룹으로 나뉘었으며 이중 그룹 III에 속한 46자원의 강낭콩이 낮은 항산화활성 및 phytochemical 함량을 보였다.
7. 본 연구 결과는 한국 재래종 강낭콩의 항산화활성 및 phytochemical 정보를 제공하며 이 정보는 강낭콩 품종 개발을 위한 기초 정보로 사용될 수 있을 것이다.
Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) may cause diarrhea and enterotoxemia in adult and young livestock, leading to problems in the production and management of farms. Four hundred fecal samples were collected from 25 goat farms located in Gyeongsangbuk-do Province in the Republic of Korea. Sixteen C. perfringens strains were isolates from fecal samples, and the isolates were identified as type A (n=11) and type D (n=5). Additionally, α- and ε-toxin genes were detected in 16 and 5 strains by PCR, respectively, and the enterotoxin gene was presented in 2 strains. The antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using the disk diffusion method and E-test method. In the disk diffusion method, ampicillin (n=16) and chloramphenicol (n=15) were highly susceptible to 16 C. perfringens isolates. In the E-test method, ampicillin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and meropenem were susceptible to more than 14 of 16 C. perfringens isolates. This study indicates that administration of antibiotics such as ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and meropenem can prevent and treat C. perfringens infections in goats.
This study investigated the characteristics of obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HD) over 13 weeks in Rhbdf2 gene knockout (KO) mice. Forty 7-week-old Rhbdf2 wild and KO mice were used and the mice were divided into 4 groups: Wild-ND (n=10, Rhbdf2 wild mice, normal diet (ND)), Wild-HD (n=10, Rhbdf2 wild mice, HD), KO-ND (n=10, Rhbdf2 KO mice, ND) and KO-HD (n=10, Rhbdf2 KO mice, HD). The relative epididymal fat weight in KO-HD was significantly increased compared with that in KO-ND (P<0.01). The relative liver and spleen weights in KO-HD were decreased compared with those in Wild-HD (p < 0.05) and KO-ND (p < 0.01). The mRNA expression of SOD1 in KO-ND was significantly reduced compared with that in Wild-ND (p < 0.05). In Wild-ND and HD, the mRNA expressions of TNF-α and IL-6 in epididymal fat were significantly increased compared with those in KO-ND and HD (p < 0.01). A significant increase of TNF- α and IL-6 mRNA expression was observed in KO-HD compared with KO-ND (p < 0.01). These results indicated that Rhbdf2 genes may regulate high fat diet-induced obesity damage by anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative roles in fat tissue of mice.
후각 신경 시스템은 일반 생활 환경에서 많은 다양한 화학 물질을 인식하고 구별한다. 곤충에서는 다양한 화학 물질을 기호적 또는 회피적인 특이성을 부여하고 이를 구분해 낼 수 있는 고도로 발달된 후각신경 수용체들로 구성된 냄새 맡는 (odorant-gated) 이온 채널 군을 진화시켰다. 최근에 후각 수용체와 단백질을 포함한 olfaction 관련한 진딧물 게놈 밝혀졌고, 초파리에서 다양하게 분화되어 있는 후각 수용체들이 보고되고 있다. 후각 신경 수용체의 유전체는 매우 높은 보전적인 염기 서열을 가지고 있으며, 체계적인 신호 전달 시스템을 갖추고 있다. 대표적 수용체인 odorant-gated ion channels comprised of a highly conserved co-receptor (Orco)는 중심 구멍 주위에 대칭 적으로 배열된 4 개의 서브 유닛을 갖는 homotetramer 채널 구조를 가지고 있다. 이는 인체 내에 존재하는 7-transmembrane receptor와 매우 유사한 구조를 형성하고 있고, 신경전달물질의 수용체와 매우 유사한 구조적 형태 및 gating mechanism을 가지고 있다.
본 연구에서는 초파리에서 분리한 후각 신경 수용체 하위 유형인 OR65 유전자 분리하여 세포 발현 시켜 Xenopus oocyte를 이용하여 Whole cell voltage clamp recording을 실시하였다. 본 수용체의 성공적인 발현 이후 유해 해충 유인제 개발 회사인 마이크로자임의 미생물 배양 추출물을 이용해서 후각 신경 수용체 활성 조절 여부를 연구하였다. 미생물 배양 추출물을 10,000배 희석한 recording media에서 수용체의 활성을 확인하였고, 이를 농도 별로 처리하여 농도 의존성 수용체 활성 작용을 확인하였다.
따라서 곤충의 후각 신경 수용체 활성 조절 시스템을 이용하여 유인물질 또는 기피 물질을 발굴할 수 있으며, 본 연구를 통해서 MZ01은 곤충 수용체 OR65를 활성 시킴으로써 유인 현상을 나타내며, 본 연구를 통해서 현장에서 검증된 미생물 배양 추출물의 성능을 과학적 분석으로 결과를 제시하였다.