The purpose of this study was to assess the changes in balance and proprioception of adults with limited ankle joint dorsiflexion, after the application of talocrural joint mobilization. The subjects of this study included 23 college students in their twenties with limited ankle joint dorsiflexion. The students were randomly assigned to the ankle joint mobilization group (AJMG, n=12) and the control group (CG, n=11). After 2 weeks of intervention using grade III talocrural joint mobilization in the anterior-posterior movement, the balance and proprioception of the subjects were assessed. Static/dynamic balance capabilities and ankle proprioception were analyzed using paired t-test and independent t-test. The dynamic balance and proprioception of AJMG were significantly improved after intervention (p<.05), In the comparison between the groups after the intervention, the dynamic balance and proprioceptive sense of AJMG were significantly improved compared to the control group (p<.05). This study suggests that AJMG can help improve the dynamic balance and proprioception.
To examine the changes in pain, the severity of the neck disorder, craniovertebral angle, and muscle activity in young adults with forward head posture. 37 “N” University students in their 20s with forward head posture, including both male and female participants. Measurement of pain, NDI (neck disorder index) craniovertebral angle, and muscle activity were taken before and after the 6 week intervention period. The pain was measured using the visual analog scale. The severity of the neck disorder was measured using the NDI The craniovertebral angle was measured by taking a photo. The muscle activity was measured using surface electromyography. Neck posture correction exercises paired with proprioceptive training is the most effective intervention for reducing pain. Both neck posture correction exercises paired with Kinesio taping or proprioceptive training are effective interventions for addressing neck disability, craniocervical angle, and muscle activity. Neck posture correction exercises paired with Kinesio taping or proprioceptive training are more effective at addressing pain, neck disorder, craniocervical angle, and muscle activity than performing the neck posture correction exercises alone.
This study, based on physical therapy interventions for menstruation disorders, observed the effect of Pilates stabilization exercises and Kinesio taping on dysmenorrhea and prostaglandin F2α levels. Female college students (n=37) who had >70 points on the mood disorder questionnaire (MDQ) and >4 points on the visual analogue scale (VAS) were divided into three different groups, the Pilates group (PG, n= 13), Pilates and Taping group (PTG, n=12), Taping group (TG, n=12). Pilates and taping were performed 3 times a week for 6 weeks. Pre- and post-menstruation difficulties were measured through the MDQ. Changes in blood prostaglandin F2α levels were also measured. Changes in pre- and post-menstrual pain and prostaglandin F2α levels were significantly reduced in the PG, PTG, and TG. Changes in pre- and postmenstrual pain and prostaglandin F2α levels resulted in significant differences in the PTG and TG. Dysmenorrhea and prostaglandin F2α levels were significantly decreased in the TG than in the PTG. These findings suggest that Pilates stabilization exercises and Kinesio taping are effective in decreasing menstrual difficulties and pain in female college students.
The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of incentive spirometry and Ujjayi breathing technique on the pulmonary function of smokers. Subjects were individuals who had a smoking habit of at least a year. Subjects were randomly divided into 3 groups: the incentive spirometry group (n=8), Ujjayi breathing technique (n=9), and a group applying both incentive spirometry as well as Ujjayi breathing technique (n=8). Each intervention was performed twice a day, 5 times a week, for a total of 8 weeks whereupon the change in pulmonary function was evaluated. A spirometer was used to measure FVC, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC. The survey used for this study included the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and the Shortness of Breath Questionnaire (SOBQ). Study results for the comparison within groups showed that in the group that performed both the incentive spirometry and Ujjayi breathing technique, FEV1 improved with statistical significance (p<.05). Furthermore, within this comparison the FEV1/FVC improved with statistical significance. Comparison amongst the groups showed no statistically significant differences in all areas. Following, to effectively increase pulmonary function in young adult smokers, both incentive spirometry and Ujjayi breathing technique should be employed together.
The purpose of this study was to measure the mean peak mobilization forces to the cervical spine 3-5 with grade III and grade IV of posteroanterior (PA) mobilization. Asymptomatic 25 college subjects were participated in the trial and eligible physical therapists performed cervical mobilization. The mean peak mobilization force was measured during the PA mobilization with grade III and grade IV by attaching a flexible force transducer over the C3-C5 spinous process. Three cycles of PA mobilization were performed in each spine and the therapist took approximately 2.5s to complete mobilization. After applying the grade III mobilization to the C3-C5, 30 minutes later, the grade IV mobilization was applied to the same area again. There were no significant differences between C3, C4 and C5 during grade III as well as grade IV. Upon comparing the mean peak force of grade III with mean peak force of grade IV at the C3, C4 and C5 respectively, an insignificant difference was also observed. The mean peak mobilization force was 4.53±1.79 N at the C3, 5.10±1.91 N at the C4, and 5.17±2.63 N at the C5 during grade III force was applied. The mean peak mobilization force was 4.40±1.56 N at the C3, 5.53±2.01 N at the C4, and 5.38± 2.73 N at the C5 during grade IV force was applied. This study suggested that the mean peak force of the grade III and grade IV mobilization in the C3-C5 was similar each other, also there was no difference between mean peak force of grade III and grade IV on C3, C4 and C5.
This study aims to identify the effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy and stretching technique on flexibility, muscle tone and pressure pain threshold of a shortened hamstring. A total of 40 patients with hamstring shortening was randomly assigned to either the extracorporeal shock wave therapy group (n=20) or extracorporeal shock wave therapy with stretching technique group (n=20) to identify the effects of the two different forms of physical therapy intervention. All the participants underwent extracorporeal shockwave therapy twice a week for 3 weeks, and the extracorporeal shockwave therapy with stretching technique group performed stretching techniques with the same frequency for 3 weeks. To measure hamstring flexibility before and after intervention, the passive straight leg raising test was performed, and muscle tone and pressure pain threshold were assessed. The flexibility of the hamstrings significantly improved, while the pressure pain threshold increased in both groups. These findings suggest that the effective in improving hamstring flexibility, reducing muscle tone, and increasing pressure pain threshold in adults with hamstring shortening.
The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of Rolfing and Swedish massage. In total, 105 patients with cervical myofascial pain syndrome were divided into two groups based on the intervention: a 40-min Rolfing session (n = 52) or a 40-min Swedish massage session (n = 53). Pre- and pos-tintervention visual analog scale (VAS) scores for pain, muscle tone (Myoton F), muscle elasticity (Myoton D), and muscle stiffness (Myoton S) were measured to compare treatment effects between the two groups. The results revealed a significant decrease in the VAS score for pain, Myoton F, and Myoton S (p < .05), with no change in Myoton D (p > .05), after the intervention in the Rolfing group. Similar findings were obtained for the Swedish massage group. Intergroup comparison of the degree of improvement after the intervention revealed no significant difference for any variable. The findings suggest that both group indicated a similar decrease in pain, muscle tension, and muscle stiffness after the intervention, with no significant improvement in muscle elasticity.
The aim of this study was to observe the effects of kinesiotaping and joint mobilization on the metatarsophalangeal joint angle and pain in hallux valgus patients Twenty-one female hallux valgus patients in their 20s were divided into two groups, a Kinesiotaping group (KT, n=10) and another group with the addition of joint mobilization (KTJM, n=11). After undergoing 6 weeks of intervention, the change in the metatarsophalangeal joint and pain were measured. Metatarsophalangeal joint angle was significantly increased both the KT and the KTMJ group after intervention. In the change of pain, both the KT and KTJM groups on an individual basis also experienced a significant decrease in pain, though comparison between the two groups failed to represent a significant difference. These findings suggest that Kinesiotatping and joint mobilization increased the joint angle and reduced pain.
This study used both kinesiotaping and extracorporeal shock wave therapy on patients diagnosed with frozen shoulder - a common musculoskeletal disorder in adults - in order to observe the effects on the joint range of motion. 21 adult(male 12, female 9) were selected and distributed into randomized groups. One group received kinesiotaping (n=10) and the other group received kinesiotaping together with extracorporeal shockwave therapy (n=11). After a 6 week duration of receiving kinesiotaping and extracorporeal shockwave therapy, changes in the joint range of motion in the patients were observed. Post-treatment of frozen shoulder, the changes in abduction within the shoulder joint were as follows: in both groups there was a noticeable increase in the joint range of motion (p<.05). Post-treatment of frozen shoulder, the changes in external rotation within the shoulder joint were as follows: both groups showed a significant increase in the joint range of motion (p<.05). The result of suggest that, it can be inferred that both the extracorporeal shockwave therapy and kinesiotaping are effective in increasing the joint range of motion in patients with frozen shoulder.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of music therapy and ball exercise on women experiencing menstrual discomforts, thereby identifying the validity of these methods as interventions against menstrual discomforts, with a particular goal of presenting basic data for clinical use. Twenty university students in their 20s were assigned to two therapy groups in a sequence via simple random sampling; ten subjects attended a ball exercise combined with music therapy group and the other ten subjects attended a music therapy group. Ball exercises were conducted 3 times per week for a total of 12 times, starting from 3 weeks before the expected first day of the menstrual period and ending on the last day of the menstrual period. Similarly, the subjects participated in music therapy by listening to music for 35 minutes per session and 3 sessions per week, starting from 3 weeks before the expected first day of the menstrual period and ending on the last day of the menstrual period. Five out of six categories of menstrual discomforts were significantly decreased in both music therapy and ball exercise, the exception being changes in the autonomic nervous system, while those in the music therapy group showed a significant difference only in the category of behavioral changes. The results of the present study demonstrate that the ball exercise combined with music therapy more effective in improving menstrual discomforts than the music therapy group.
The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of Pilates and Tai Chi as physical therapy interventions for pain and dysfunction in chronic lumbago patients. A total of 31 females who were at least 20 years old and diagnosed with chronic lumbago were divided into a Pilates group(PG) (n=10), Tai Chi group(TCG)(n=11), and conservative group(CG)(n=10), to measure their pain and dysfunction before and after a six week intervention. With regard to the changes in the lumbago consciousness scale before and after the six-week intervention, all three groups showed statistical significance(p<.05). The intergroup differences were significant between the PG and CG and between the TCG and CG. All three groups also showed statistical significance(p<.05) in the Oswestry Disability Index before and after the six-week intervention. Again, the intergroup differences were significant between the PG and CG and between the TCG and CG. Based on these results, the application of Pilates and Tai Chi with conservative treatment may be effective in reducing pain and improving dysfunction in chronic lumbago patients.
The purpose of this study is to investigate effects of Maitland orthopedic manipulative physiotherapy and stretching on pain, cervical range of motion, and muscle tone of adults with forward neck posture. A total 40 subjects were divided into a Maitland OMPT group(n=20) and a stretching group(n=20), performing joint mobilization exercise and stretching three times per week for six weeks. As for changes in pain, statistically significant decrease were found before and after the exercise within group comparison( p<.01), while no statistically significant difference was observed between-group comparison. In changes in cervical range of motion before and after the exercise, the Maitland OMPT group showed statistically significant increase(p<.01) in flexion, (left lateral flexion(p<.05), extension, left rotation, right rotation, and right lateral flexion, while the stretching group showed statistically significant increase(p<.05) in extension(p<.01), left rotation, left lateral flexion, right rotation, and right lateral flexion. However, no significant differences in between group comparison in flexion, extension, right rotation, left rotation, right lateral flexion and left lateral flexion. The results of measuring muscle tone changes showed that the Maitland OMPT group and the stretching group did not show significance in within and between group comparison(p<.05). In conclusion, the Maitland OMPT and stretching were effective on improving pain and range of motion.
This study observed the effects of ankle strengthening exercise and whole body vibration on the balance ability of older adults, thereby intending to provide basic materials for intervention methods aimed at improving older adults’ balance ability. The subjects were 20 older adults who had experienced a fall. They were equally divided into two groups. Ankle strengthening training was applied to one group and ankle strengthening training and whole body vibration were applied to the other group, a timed up and go (TUG) test and Tinetti performance oriented mobility assessment (POMA) were performed, and changes in the subjects’ limits of stability were observed. The TUG and POMA results significantly differed between before and after the experiment in the angle strengthening training (AST) group and the angle strengthening training with whole body vibration (ASTWV) group. In addition, the interaction between timing and each group was statistically significant. The limits of stability significantly changed after the intervention in both groups. Differences in the posterior and right limits of stability were significant between the AST group and ASTWV group. Therefore, ankle strengthening exercise and whole body vibration improve older adults’ balance maintenance and reduce falls or the risk factors for falls in older adults.
The purpose of this study is to provide fundamental clinical data for the treatment plan and rehabilitation of patients with cervical hypolordosis by comparing the cervical headache and muscle activity after cervical stretching exercise and cervical traction, which are generally applied to patients with cervical hypolordosis.
The research subjects included 20 patients without gender division who were diagnosed with cervical hypolordosis. After applying cervical stretching exercise and cervical traction for six weeks, cervical headache and the activity of the muscles around the cervical vertebra(upper trapezius muscle, sternocleidomastoid muscle, splenius capitis muscle, and anterior temporal muscle) were investigated and the following results were obtained. In a comparison of the within group intervention effects of the two groups, cervical pain statistically significantly decreased in the cervical stretching exercise group. According to the results of analyzing the change of muscle tension in the upper trapezius muscle, both the cervical traction group and showed a statistically significant within group difference in the left and right side. According to the results of analyzing the change in the muscle tension of the splenius capitis muscle, both groups showed a statistically significant within group difference in the left and right side. In a betweengroup comparison, a statistically significant difference in the right side was observed. These results confirm that cervical vertebra traction and cervical stretching exercise decrease the cervical headache and muscle activity of the upper trapezius muscle and the splenius capitis muscle among patients with cervical hypolordosis.
This study investigated the effects of changes to the pulsation factor of pulsed direct currents on wound healing. Patients with a pressure ulcer at a care hospital for the elderly were randomly divided into three groups: Group 1 involved the application of 100㎲ in pulse duration, 10 ㎳ in pulse period, 100 pps in a pulsation factor, 15 ㎃ in pulse amplitude, and polarity red+ by using pulsed direct currents; Group 2 involved a change of pulse period to 8 ms; and Group 3 received general wound management. Although there were no statistically significant differences in the changing stages of pressure ulcers among the groups, all the groups dropped in numerical stages. In the two groups to which pulsed direct currents were applied, there was a statistically significant reduction in the stages of pressure ulcers from the initial assessment to the 12-week assessment (p<.05). Even though there were no statistically significant differences in changes to the area of pressure ulcers among the groups, a statistically significant decrease was found in pulsed direct current group 2 whose pulse period was shortened (p<.05). There was no difference in the healing rate of pressure ulcers among the groups, but it made a numerical increase in pulsed direct current group 1 and group 2 and a numerical decrease in group 3. There were no significant differences in the characteristics of those who had a full recovery among the groups. Those findings indicate that pulsed direct currents have positive effects on the wound healing of patients with a pressure ulcer and that a treatment with pulsed direct currents whose pulsation factor is raised by reducing the pulse duration is especially effective.
The purpose of this study was to analysis of the effect of proprioceptor training and vestibular organ training for balance ability. The subjects was consist of two different subjects group, proprioceptor training group and vestibular organ training group. Proprioceptor training group consisted of 10 subjects and vestibular organ training group consisted of 10 subjects. Training was performed 3 times per week, 30 minutes per day, for 3 weeks. Balance ability analysis was performed using Romberg's one leg standing test and BT4 when opened eyes and closed eyes. The analysis results were as follows. There was no significant differences in balance after the training in both groups when they opened their eyes(p<.05). But there was significant differences in balance after the training in both groups when they closed their eyes(p<.05). And there was no significant difference in balance after the training between the proprioceptor training group and the vestibular organ training group when they closed their eyes(p<.05). Given the above results, proprioceptor training and vestibular organ training enhanced balance but there was no significant difference between the two methods.
The purpose of this study is to observe how balance exercise on an unstable platform and on a stable platform affects balance ability. The subjects were 35 adults in their 20s and were randomly assigned to a stable platform group and an unstable platform group. They performed balance exercise three times per week for six weeks. Balance exercise introduced by previous research was modified and complemented for use in this study. Balance ability of the subjects was measured through center of pressure(COP) area, medial-lateral displacement, and anterior-posterior displacement using a portable balance platform BT4. There was significant difference in the COP area between the unstable platform exercise group and the stable platform exercise group. In comparison in differences between the unstable platform exercise group and the stable platform exercise group after the exercise, there was significant difference in anteriorposterior movement. Therefore, exercise on an unstable platform is more effective than exercise on a stable platform in strengthening balance ability.
The purpose of this study was to test the effect of Gastrocnemius and Low Back-muscle isotonic exercise on static•dynamic standing balance during the period of 4 weeks. This study was two groups pretest-posttest design. Nineteen subjects who were over 22 years old were randomly assigned to either the experimental group that received the Gastrocnemius muscle exercise(n=9) or the low back muscle exercise(n=10) : The former group performed isotonic exercise(plantar flexion), the latter group performed isotonic exercise(trunk extension) a total of 18 times for three times per week for four weeks. Two groups also performed static and dynamic balance before the exercise and 4weeks after the exercise. The data were analyzed by using the paired t-test and independent t-test. The results were as follows: As compared with change of dynamic balance performance capacity at two groups, a significant difference was shown in the test(p<.05), but not in static balance(p>.05). Also, a significant difference of balance between groups was not shown in the test. In this study indicated that gastrocnemius and low back muscle isotonic exercise will have positive impact on standing balance.
The fact that flip-flops, one of many different types of unstable shoes, are light and relatively easy to put on, accounts for their popularity among people. But because flip-flops rely heavily on the support of a single thong between your first and second toes, they impose a huge amount of pressure onto lower leg. Thus in the following experiment we tried to examine the different effects of flip-flops and running shoes in terms of their effect on muscle activity and fatigue of tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius during walking. In order to measure an electromyogram we used Free EMG system. 10 men and 10 women in running shoes ran on treadmills for 15 minutes at 4.8km/h, 2 days later the same experiment was carried out, but this time, in flip-flops. p value turned out to be greater than .05 and thus there was no considerable difference between the effects of flip-flops and running shoes on muscle activity and fatigue during walking. Therefore we conclude that despite the fact that flip-flops are considered unstable, their effects on muscle activity and fatigue of tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius are negligible.
Experts of medicine, philosophy and psychology found that human somatotypes were related to personality or physical characteristics and classified somatotypes into various forms. This study explored the changes and types of somatotyping methods from Before Christ to present day and identified the status of studies of somatotypes in the area of physical therapy. This study covered the methods applied in various majors with a focus on those provided in books and papers of Heath BH. and Carter JEL. Based on the results, there are officially twelve assessment methods. Currently, the method of Heath & Carter is most widely applied. Somatotypes are studied in many areas. It is actively explored in the area of pain physical therapy, thermotherapy and integumentary physical therapy. Also, the soft tissue physical therapy area seeks interdisciplinary studies. This study found that there were various assessment methods in diverse areas. It is likely that continuous studies will develop new assessment methods. It is hoped that in the area of physical therapy, somatotypes shall be applied more amply.