The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the Silver Spike Point (SSP) on functional constipation. The subjects were 14 female students who attended a university located in Gyeonggi province and consent to participate in this study. The inclusion criteria were the fulfillment of two or more diagnostic criteria of Rome III or scoring four or more points in Constipation Assessment Scale (CAS). The CAS score was significantly decreased in the experimental group (from 14.29±1.38 to 6.86±2.91) (p<.05), however, there was no significant change in the control group (from 14.29±1.49 to 14.14±1.21). The present study suggests that SSP intervention is effective in mitigating constipation.
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of kinematic taping therapy on menstrual distress, pain, and prostaglandinF2α. The experimental subject was a 24 years old woman with the pain of over 5 points on the dysmenorrhea measurement test and no unusual reactions on the taping test. The menstrual distress was measured by the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ), and the dysmenorrhea was measured by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) before and after the intervention. The prostaglandin F2α(PGF2α) was measured on the first day of menstruation before the intervention and 24 hours after the taping therapy by the blood test. The intervention of kinematic taping was conducted by the instructor of the International Kinematic Taping Academy, and the taping was applied to the lower abdomen and the waist. According to the difference of menstrual distress before and after the intervention, the menstrual distress turned out to be decreased to 96 points after the intervention from the 115 points before the intervention. The dysmenorrhea also reduced 3 points on the VAS from 7 points to 4 points before and after the intervention. The PGF2α decreased from 26pg/㎖ to 20pg/㎖ before and after the intervention. Besides, the PGF2α decreased from 26pg/㎖ to 20pg/㎖ before and after the intervention. Results suggest that kinematic taping therapy could be useful to reduce the menstrual distress, pain, and PGF2α.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of central posteroanterior mobilization on the pain, muscle tone, flexibility of trunk flexion, lumbar lordosis in patient with chronic back pain has been studied. The target subject was a 23 year old man, who had chronic back pain without surgical history within six months. The pain has been indicated by the pressure pain threshold, when the subject was pressed his spinous process of L3-L1 by the pressure of grade Ⅳ. The muscle tone, elasticity, and stiffness were measured by the MYOTONEⓇ PRO, and the flexibility of trunk flexion was evaluated by the distance from the figure tips to the floor, when subjects flexed their body. The lumbar lordosis was measured from the X-ray picture. The lumbar central posteroanterior mobilization of Maitland orthopedic physical therapy has been applied to the spinous process of L3-L1 in grade Ⅳ by five sets and 10 times for each set. According to the measurement result right after the intervention, the pain decreased from 2/10 to 1/10 based on the visual analogue scale. The flexibility of trunk flexion (distance from the finger tips to the floor) increased The muscle tone decreased from 15.3 to 14.65 and the muscle stiffness also decreased 53.5 from 310 to 256.5. However, the muscle elasticity increased from 0.89 to 1.04 and there was no changed on the lumbar lordosis as 25°. The results of the present study suggest that the central posteroanterior mobilization decrease the pain, muscle tone, and muscle stiffness of the lumbar area, however increase the muscle elasticity and flexibility of the trunk flexion.
With the advent of the Internet in the United States, Japan, and other developed countries, electronic word-of-mouth (e-WOM) consumer reviews have come into vogue. While most studies have shown that negative e-WOM has negative effects on consumer attitude, some recent studies implied that the existence of negative e-WOM on a single website can enhance consumer attitude toward the website.
However, no research has not identified the conditions for the positive effects of negative e-WOM. Thus, we investigate the moderating effects of the types of receivers, reviews, and products. Also, we investigate the moderating effects of the order of positive and negative e-WOM reviews posted in a single website.
The effects of four factors are investigated —product characteristic (utilitarian vs. hedonic), review characteristic (attribute- vs. benefit-centric), receiver characteristic (expert vs. novice), and the orders of negative e-WOM (top vs. bottom) when the ratios of positive to negative e-WOM reviews are 10:0, 8:2, and 6:4. A laboratory experiment with virtual e-WOM sites is utilized. Four hundred twenty students participate in the experiment. All hypotheses are supported in at least 5% levels.
The results of ANOVA show that negative e-WOM has positive effects on consumer attitudes towards products in the case of hedonic products and expert consumers reading attribute-centric review. Moreover, negative e-WOM has a greater positive effect when it is at the top of the website as opposed to at the bottom. This study contributes to our current understanding of e-WOM effects on consumer behavior.
This study was conducted to identify how a flexi-bar exercise influences body alignment and balance in adults who have asymmetry in their right or left body. In total, 20 participants were separated into the experimental group and the comparison group. Those in the experimental group participated in a flexi-bar exercise for 6 weeks and based on the coronal plane before and after exercise, their body alignment and balance were measured behind the body. The result was those who had participated in a flexi-bar exercise significantly improved their angle of acromion on both sides, the difference in the angle and height of the posterior superior iliac spine on both sides(p<.05), and the balance of the center sagittal plane(p<.05). Through this study, it could be said that participating in a flexi-bar exercise would improve postural alignment and balance of the shoulder and pelvis in adults with asymmetric posture.
This study is a cross-sectional study for conscripts with chronic low back pain, where it is designed to investigate general characteristics that conscripts with chronic low back pain carry, and it is also aimed to analyze the correlation as well as discrepancy within pain, depression and body mass index depending on their ranks. In this study, 90 Korean conscripts with chronic low back pain participated. And in order to analyze general characteristics as well as pain, depression and body mass index of the subjects, this study adopted a survey questionnaire upon general characteristics, and it also employed Visual Analogue Scacle(VAS) and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression(CES-D) Scale which have proven their credibility, where BMI values for the subjects were calculated based on 'Asian Pacific standard' Body Mass Index(BMI). From the general characteristics exhibited by the subjects through this study, average age and average height of the subjects were 20.78±1.41 and 175.97±5.34 respectively; and corporals displayed the highest ratio of 42% with the chronic low back pain while 40% of the total subjects experienced the duration of the illness less than 6 to 9 months. Moreover, 57.8% of all subjects were reportedly suffering moderate pain, and 48% exhibited depression while 49% carried BMI value between 18.5 and 22.9kg/m2(normal range). Based on the analysis of correlation among pain, depression, discrepancy of BMI depending on the ranks and each independent variable, it appears that there is no significant difference amongst the ranks, and there is no correlation between independent variables; however, it was obvious that all groups divided by the ranks had a moderate pain(45-74mm), depression(≥16) and BMI value in normal range(18.5-22.9).
The purpose of this study is to determine the correlations between problematic behaviors and activities of daily living(ADL) targeting 106 demented elderly people hospitalized in a geriatric hospital. To examine the cognitive function of the subjects, the study used Korean Mini Mental State Examination(K-MMSE). For problematic behaviors and ADL, the study collected data based on Patient Assessment Forms in the geriatric hospital. Among problematic behaviors, apathy/indifference had the highest correlation with the items of ADL. Irritability/lability, agitation/aggression, depression/ dysphoria, night-time behavior and wandering also showed to be correlated to items of ADL(p<.05). This study demonstrated that cognitive function, problematic behaviors and ADL of the demented elderly hospitalized in the geriatric hospital are correlated to each other.
This study aims to address the effect of interferential current therapy and thereby to provide basic resources to physical therapies for internal medicine by identifying symptoms for functional dyspepsia and serum gastrin level that shows gastric motility. Following results were obtained by performing interferential current therapy to 16 subjects composed of 8 for functional dyspepsia group and 8 for control group for 20 minutes a day, 3 days a week, for 6 weeks. In control group, serum gastrin level was significantly( p<.01), lowered after the therapy whereas there was no significant difference observed in all questions from questionnaire for symptoms of functional dyspepsia between before and after the therapy. In functional dyspepsia group, serum gastrin level was significantly(p<.01), lowered after the therapy and there was also significant(p<.01) reduction in every question from questionnaire for symptoms of functional dyspepsia between before and after the therapy. There was more significant decrease in serum gastrin level and reduction in questionnaire for symptoms of functional dyspepsia in the functional dyspepsia group compared to the control group(p<.01). This study confirms the interferential current therapy as an effective therapeutic method for internal diseases including functional dyspepsia since it not only improves the symptoms of functional dyspepsia but also allows the gastric motility close to normal.
The purpose of this study identify that spinal decompression therapy effect on and pain, length Of leg distance(LLD), and muscle power and flexibility in patient with low back pain. The participants is 20 female and male with low back pain, and participant assign to decompression therapy group and control group at random. The decompression therapy apply to 20 minute 3 time for a week during 4 weeks. The Measurement items is pain, LLD, and muscle power, flexibility. The comparison between the before and after was Wilcoxon's U test, and 2 group after spinal decompression therapy application compared Mann-Whithney U test. Spinal decompression therapy reduced statistically significance the pain, LLD, and increased statistically significance the muscle power and flexibility increased the muscle power(p<.05). This study showed that spinal decompression therapy does affect pain, LLD, and muscle power and flexibility in patient with low back pain.
The majority of strokes are caused by ischemia and result in brain tissue damage, leading to problems of the central nervous system including hemiparesis, dysfunction of language and consciousness, and dysfunction of perception. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase(PARP) on necrosis in neuronal cells that have undergone needle electrode electrical stimulation(NEES) prior to induction of ischemia. Ischemia was induced in male SD rats(body weight 300g) by occlusion of the common carotid artery for 5 min, after which the blood was reperfused. After induction of brain ischemia, NEES was applied to Zusanli(ST 36), at 12, 24 and 48 hours. Protein expression was investigated using immuno-reactive cells, which react to PARP antibodies in cerebral nerve cells, and Western blotting. The results were as follows: In the cerebral cortex, the number of PARP reactive cells after 24 hours significantly decreased(p<.05) in the NEES group compared to the GI group. PARP expression after 24 hours significantly decreased(p<.05) in the NEES group compared to the GI group. As a result, NEES showed the greatest effect on necrosis- related PARP immuno-reactive cells 24 hours after ischemia, indicating necrosis inhibition, blocking of neural cell death, and protection of neural cells. Based on the results of this study, NEES can be an effective method of treating dysfunction and improving function of neuronal cells in brain damage caused by ischemia.