To enhance mechanical properties through improvement of dispersion stability of carbon black (CB) in epoxy resins, fluorine functional groups were introduced on the CB surface by fluorination. The changes in the chemical properties and dispersion stabilities after fluorination were evaluated with different partial pressures of fluorine gas. The mechanical properties of the fluorinated CB/epoxy composites were evaluated by the test of tensile, impact strengths and creep behavior. The fluorinated CB/epoxy composites showed approximately 1.6 and 1.1 times enhancement in the tensile and impact strengths compared to that of neat epoxy, respectively. Moreover, when a constant load was applied at 323 K, the fluorinated CB/epoxy composites lasted longer and had smaller strain changes than those of the raw CB/epoxy composites. Thus, well-dispersed CB by fluorination in epoxy resins effectively transfers mechanical stress.
Bamboo forests are fast-growing, renewable resources, and their carbon sequestration potential has attracted increasing attention. Although bamboo can be used for many purposes, bamboo forests in Korea represent a generally underutilized resource. The main objective here was to perform an assessment of the physical and mechanical characteristics of different species of bamboo found in Korea. The main species of domestic bamboo are Phyllostachys bambusoides, P. pubescens, and P. nigra; we measured the air-dried density for each of the species, with obtained values of 0.89 g/cm2, 0.79 g/cm2, and 0.83 g/cm2, respectively, giving the density order of P. bambusoides > P. pubescens > P. nigra, with P. bambusoides having the highest density. We then measured the compressive strength of each species, which were 802.84 kgf/cm2, 624.69 kgf/cm2, and 743.77 kgf/cm2, respectively, in the order of P. bambusoides > P. pubescens > P. nigra, with P. bambusoides having the highest compressive strength. Volume and maximum load decreased with increasing node height in the three bamboo species, whereas air-dried density and compressive strength increased. Our results thus add to the pool of essential knowledge about Korean bamboo species, and consequently to the development of a potentially valuable domestic resource in Korea.
There exists very little information on the ultrastructure of substance P immunopositive (+) fibers in the human dental pulp, which may help in understanding the mechanism for substance P associated pulpal inflammatory pain. To address this issue, we investigated the presence of substance P+ fibers in the human dental pulp by light- and electron-microscopic immunohistochemistry.
Light microscopy revealed that substance P+ fibers ran within neurovascular bundles in the radicular pulp and in the core of coronal pulp. They were also frequently present in the peripheral pulp. Substance P+ fibers showed beads like swellings interconnected by thin axonal strand, in a manner similar to bouton en passants and interconnecting axonal strand in the spinal cord.
Electron microscopy revealed that almost all the substance P+ axons were unmyelinated. The axonal swellings of the substance P+ contained numerous clear round vesicles (40-50 nm in diameter) and many large dense-cored vesicles (80-110 nm in diameter) as well as many mitochondria. The vesicles and mitochondria were rarely observed in the thin axonal strand interconnecting the swellings. Intimate interrelationship or synaptic structure between the swellings of substance P+ axon and nearby pulpal cells or axons was not found.
These findings suggest co-release of substance P and glutamate from the substance P+ pulpal axons and its action on nearby structures in a paracrine manner.
Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot is an edible green seaweed that belong to the Codiaceae family and has been used in Oriental medicine for the treatment of enterobiasis, dropsy, and dysuria. Methanol extract of codium fragile has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, although the anti-cancer effect on oral cancer has not yet been reported. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer activity and the mechanism of cell death by methanol extracts of Codium fragile (MeCF) on human FaDu hypopharyngeal squamous carcinoma cells. Our data showed that MeCF inhibits cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, and markedly induced apoptosis, as determined by the MTT assay, Live/Dead assay, and DAPI stain. In addition, MeCF induced the proteolytic cleavage of procaspase -3, -7, -9 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase(PARP), and upregulated or downregulated the expression of mitochondrial-apoptosis factor, Bax(pro-apoptotic factor), and Bcl-2(anti-apoptotic factor), . Futhermore, MeCF induced a cell cycle arrest at the G1/S phase through suppressing the expression of the cell cycle cascade proteins, p21, CDK4, CyclinD1, and phospho-Rb. Taken together, these results indicated that MeCF inhibits cell growth, and this inhibition is mediated by caspase- and mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathways through cell cycle arrest at the G1/S phase in human FaDu hypopharyngeal squamous carcinoma cells. Therefore, methanol extracts of Codium fragile can be provided as a novel chemotherapeutic drug due to its growth inhibition effects and induction of apoptosis in human oral cancer cells.
The main focus of this study was to create canine skeleton modeling files and real-world structures for canine kinesiology and physical rehabilitation education. Firstly, 3-dimensional (3D) modeling was conducted with additional reverse engineering process, and then directly fabricated the files. In other way, we made multi-joint based canine structure using conventional corrugate tube. This study indicated that the final real-world structures could contribute to improve initial movements of canine rehabilitation or academic filed of kinesiology in Korea.
Ficus carica L. (common fig), one of the first plants cultivated by humans, originated in the Mediterranean basin and currently grows worldwide, including southwest Asia and South Korea. It has been used as a traditional medicine for treatment of metabolic, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases as well as hemorrhoids and skin infections. Its pharmacological properties have recently been studied in detail, but research on the anti-cancer effect of its latex has been only been studied on a limited basis on several cell lines, such prostate cancer, breast cancer, and leukemia. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer activity of the latex of Ficus carica L.and its underlying mechanism in FaDu human hypopharynx squamous carcinoma cells. (See Ed. note above) We confirmed through SDS-PAGE analysis and gelatinolytic activity analysis that the latex of Ficus carica contains cysteine protease ficin. Our data showed that the latex inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the latex treatment markedly induced apoptosis in FaDu cells as determined by FACS analysis, elevated expression level of cleaved caspase-9, -3 and PARP (poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase), and. increased the expression of Bax (pro-apoptotic factor) while decreasing the expression of Bcl-2 (anti-apoptotic factor). Taken together, these results suggested that latex containing the ficin inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis by caspase and the Bcl-2 family signaling pathway in FaDu human hypopharynx squamous carcinoma cells. These findings point to the potential of latex of Ficus carica to provide a novel chemotherapeutic drug due to its growth inhibition effects and induction of apoptosis in human oral cancer cells.
Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder is a common cause of pain that occurs during shoulder movement, thereby restricting shoulder rotation in clinical practice. Although most patients respond to pain relief treatment (NSAID or corticosteroids) by improving their range of motion, it remains poorly understood without any definitive treatment algorithm. In addition to immune cells, synoviocytes, chondrocytes and osteoblasts in the joint are known to produce pro-inflammatory mediators such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammatory cytokines and lipid mediators, presumably contributing to the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) and adhesive capsulitis. Although inflammation and also fibrosis are proposed to be the basic pathological changes of a frozen shoulder, there is a lack of information regarding the downstream targets of the pro-inflammatory ROS signaling pathway in the synoviocytes and also how these ROS targets are modulated at the transcription level by a corticosteroid - dexamethasone. In this study, we used human fibroblast like synoviocytes (HFLS) to characterize the signaling targets of ROS by employing a human DNA microarray tool and studied the role of dexamethasone in this process. Our data suggest that several genes such as FOS, FOSB and NFkBIZ, which are known to be involved in pro- or anti- inflammation response, are modulated at the transcription level by ROS and dexamethasone.
The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of joint mobilization with respiratory muscle taping on pulmonary function and chest expansion ability in patients with chronic stroke. Thirty subjects (n=30) were randomly divided into three groups: a joint mobilization group (n=10), a respiratory muscle-taping group (n=10), and a joint mobilization with respiratory muscle-taping group (n=10). Measurements for pulmonary function and chest expansion were performed to assess its effectiveness. A spirometer was used to measure the pulmonary function, and a tape measure was used to assess the chest expansion. In the joint mobilization group, peak expiratory flow (PEF) was increased. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and upper and lower chest expansion were also increased. All of variables of respiratory muscle-taping group also were increased. FEV1 and FVC were significantly different between joint mobilization with respiratory muscle-taping and respiratory muscle-taping group. The results of the present study suggest that mobilization with respiratory muscle taping increase the pulmonary function and chest expansion.
Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm. is a perennial herb found widely distributed in various regions of Korea, Europe, and New Zealand. The root of A. sylvestris have been extensively used in the treatment for antitussive, antipyretic, cough remedy in Oriental medicine, but the physiologically active function of the leaf of A. sylvestris is as yet unknown. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer activity and the mechanism of cell death of water extracts of leaf of Anthriscus sylvestris (WELAS), on human FaDu hypopharyngeal squamous carcinoma cells. Our data showed that WELAS treatment inhibited cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. In addition, the treatment of WELAS markedly induced apoptosis in FaDu cells, as determined by the viability assay, DAPI stain and FACS analysis. WELAS also increased the proteolytic cleavage of procaspase-3, -9 and PARP (poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase). In addition, exposure to WELAS decreased the expression of Bcl-2 (an anti-apoptotic factor), but increased the expression of Bax (a pro-apoptotic factor), suggesting that mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways are mediated in WELAS-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these results indicate that water extracts of leaf of A. sylvestris inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway in FaDu human hypopharyngeal squamous carcinoma cells. Therefore, we propose that the water extracts of leaf of A. sylvestris is a novel chemotherapeutic drug, having growth inhibitory properties and induction of apoptosis in human oral cancer cells.
Anthricin (Deoxypodophyllotoxin), a naturally occurring flavolignan, has well known anti-cancer properties in several cancer cells, such as prostate cancer, cervical carcinoma and pancreatic cancer. However, the effects of Anthricin are currently unknown in oral cancer. We examined the anticancer effect and mechanism of action of Anthricin in human FaDu hypopharyngeal squamous carcinoma cells. Our data showed that Anthricin inhibits cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner (IC50 50 nM) in the MTT assay and Live & Dead assay. In addition, Anthricin treated FaDu cells showed marked apoptosis by DAPI stain and FACS. Furthermore, Anthricin activates anti-apoptotic factors such as caspase-3, -9 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), suggesting that caspase-mediated pathways are involved in Anthricin- induced apoptosis. Anthricin treatment also leads to accumulation of the pro-apoptotic factor Bax, followed by inhibition of cell growth. Taken together, these results indicate that Anthricn-induced cell death of human FaDu hypopharyngeal squamous carcinoma cells is mediated by mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway. In summary, our findings provide a framework for further exploration on Anthricin as a novel chemotherapeutic drug for human oral cancer.
The purpose of this study is to investigate effects of Maitland orthopedic manipulative physiotherapy and stretching on pain, cervical range of motion, and muscle tone of adults with forward neck posture. A total 40 subjects were divided into a Maitland OMPT group(n=20) and a stretching group(n=20), performing joint mobilization exercise and stretching three times per week for six weeks. As for changes in pain, statistically significant decrease were found before and after the exercise within group comparison( p<.01), while no statistically significant difference was observed between-group comparison. In changes in cervical range of motion before and after the exercise, the Maitland OMPT group showed statistically significant increase(p<.01) in flexion, (left lateral flexion(p<.05), extension, left rotation, right rotation, and right lateral flexion, while the stretching group showed statistically significant increase(p<.05) in extension(p<.01), left rotation, left lateral flexion, right rotation, and right lateral flexion. However, no significant differences in between group comparison in flexion, extension, right rotation, left rotation, right lateral flexion and left lateral flexion. The results of measuring muscle tone changes showed that the Maitland OMPT group and the stretching group did not show significance in within and between group comparison(p<.05). In conclusion, the Maitland OMPT and stretching were effective on improving pain and range of motion.
The purpose of this study is to verify a correlation between flexi-bar exercise and improvement of trunk strength and body composition in juvenile soccer players. The subjects were 11 teenager juvenile soccer players who conducted flexi-bar exercise half an hour daily three times a week for eight weeks. They were tested for trunk muscles strength, body composition and correlation. The result showed that trunk muscles strength improved significantly( p<.01) and weight, Rt. arm muscle mass, Rt. leg muscle mass, and Lt. leg muscle mass(p<.05), Lt. arm muscle mass, trunk muscle mass, and body muscle mass(p<.01) improved significantly as well while Lt. arm fat mass, Rt. leg fat mass, and Lt. leg fat mass decreased significantly(p<.05). In the correlation analysis, the more trunk muscle mass and trunk muscles strength increased, the more muscle mass of body regions increased, which was a positive correlation whereas fat mass of body regions decreased, which was a negative correlation. It was verified that there was a correlation between flexi-bar exercise and improvement of trunk muscles strength and body composition for juvenile soccer players.
This study investigated the effects of changes to the pulsation factor of pulsed direct currents on wound healing. Patients with a pressure ulcer at a care hospital for the elderly were randomly divided into three groups: Group 1 involved the application of 100㎲ in pulse duration, 10 ㎳ in pulse period, 100 pps in a pulsation factor, 15 ㎃ in pulse amplitude, and polarity red+ by using pulsed direct currents; Group 2 involved a change of pulse period to 8 ms; and Group 3 received general wound management. Although there were no statistically significant differences in the changing stages of pressure ulcers among the groups, all the groups dropped in numerical stages. In the two groups to which pulsed direct currents were applied, there was a statistically significant reduction in the stages of pressure ulcers from the initial assessment to the 12-week assessment (p<.05). Even though there were no statistically significant differences in changes to the area of pressure ulcers among the groups, a statistically significant decrease was found in pulsed direct current group 2 whose pulse period was shortened (p<.05). There was no difference in the healing rate of pressure ulcers among the groups, but it made a numerical increase in pulsed direct current group 1 and group 2 and a numerical decrease in group 3. There were no significant differences in the characteristics of those who had a full recovery among the groups. Those findings indicate that pulsed direct currents have positive effects on the wound healing of patients with a pressure ulcer and that a treatment with pulsed direct currents whose pulsation factor is raised by reducing the pulse duration is especially effective.
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of FES and ankle mobilization on the ankle motion and the quality of gait of chronic hemiplegic patients with limited ankle joint motions. As research subjects, 24 chronic hemiplegic patients who could walk independently, regardless of assistive aids, were selected. Then, 8 subjects received mobilization randomly and 8 subjects received FES and 8 subjects received mobilization and FES, at the same time. The dorsiflexion PROM significantly increased in the group of mobilization therapy, mobilization and FES all together(p<.01). There were statistically significant differences among the three groups(p<.01). The 10m walking test significantly decreased in the group of mobilization therapy, mobilization and FES all together(p<.05). There were statistically significant differences among the three groups(p<.01). The gait velocity significantly increased in the group of mobilization therapy, FES therapy, mobilization and FES all together(p<.05). There were statistically significant differences among the three groups(p<.01). The stride length significantly increased in the group of mobilization therapy, mobilization and FES all together(p<.05). There were statistically significant differences among the three groups(p<.05). In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that rather than only using one treatment technique, applying mobilization and FES together brings a more satisfactory result to hemiplegic patients with limited ankle joint motions.
The purpose of this study was to analysis of the effect of proprioceptor training and vestibular organ training for balance ability. The subjects was consist of two different subjects group, proprioceptor training group and vestibular organ training group. Proprioceptor training group consisted of 10 subjects and vestibular organ training group consisted of 10 subjects. Training was performed 3 times per week, 30 minutes per day, for 3 weeks. Balance ability analysis was performed using Romberg's one leg standing test and BT4 when opened eyes and closed eyes. The analysis results were as follows. There was no significant differences in balance after the training in both groups when they opened their eyes(p<.05). But there was significant differences in balance after the training in both groups when they closed their eyes(p<.05). And there was no significant difference in balance after the training between the proprioceptor training group and the vestibular organ training group when they closed their eyes(p<.05). Given the above results, proprioceptor training and vestibular organ training enhanced balance but there was no significant difference between the two methods.
The purpose of this study was to test the effect of Gastrocnemius and Low Back-muscle isotonic exercise on static•dynamic standing balance during the period of 4 weeks. This study was two groups pretest-posttest design. Nineteen subjects who were over 22 years old were randomly assigned to either the experimental group that received the Gastrocnemius muscle exercise(n=9) or the low back muscle exercise(n=10) : The former group performed isotonic exercise(plantar flexion), the latter group performed isotonic exercise(trunk extension) a total of 18 times for three times per week for four weeks. Two groups also performed static and dynamic balance before the exercise and 4weeks after the exercise. The data were analyzed by using the paired t-test and independent t-test. The results were as follows: As compared with change of dynamic balance performance capacity at two groups, a significant difference was shown in the test(p<.05), but not in static balance(p>.05). Also, a significant difference of balance between groups was not shown in the test. In this study indicated that gastrocnemius and low back muscle isotonic exercise will have positive impact on standing balance.
The purpose of this study was to investigate spirometric lung pattern, respiratory function and degree of fatigue by lung function tests and fatigue tests of 39 elderly people in a care facility aged 65 and over. The respiratory function tests were used to the Spirovit SP-1 and fatigue tests were used modified Piper fatigue scale(mPFS). Regarding the respiratory function, the FVC was 1.41±0.36ℓ, the FVC % predicted was 69.10±14.98%, the FEV1 was 1.02±0.31ℓ, the FEV1 % predicted was 63.27±16.05%, the FEV1/FVC was 72.77±13.40%, and the fatigue score was 5.83±1.09. As for the spirometric lung pattern, 19 patients had a restrictive pattern(48.7%), followed by 11 with a mixed pattern(28.2%), 5 with an obstructive pattern( 12.8%), and 4 with a normal pattern(10.3%). Regarding the respiratory function and fatigue by spirometric lung pattern, the FVC and the FVC % predicted of patients with a normal pattern or an obstructive pattern were greater than other groups at a statistically significant level. As for the FEV1, that of patients with a normal pattern was significantly higher than others, and for the FEV1 % predicted, that of patients with a normal pattern or a restrictive pattern was significantly higher(p<.001). Fatigue score by patients with a normal pattern was significantly less than patients of other patterns(p<.001). Therefore, pulmonary physical therapy is considered necessary to improve respiratory function and fatigue degradation of elderly in a facility.