The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of heel off stairway walking exercise on the increase of muscle activity and balance activity of the ankle joint muscles
in university students with functional ankle instability. The conservative treatment for the control group consisted of stairway walking (n=10) and the experimental group consisted of heel off stairway walking (n=11). The therapeutic intervention of the control and experimental groups was performed a total of 12 exercise sessions, 3 times per week for 4 weeks. To compare the two groups, the level of ankle disability was assessed by using the EMG, BT4 and Pedoscan in pre-treatment and post-treatment. Muscle activity increased in both the experimental groups and control groups in each group, however there was no significant difference between the groups. Balance ability did not show any significant difference. This study demonstrates that heel-off stairway walking is effective in significantly increasing muscle activity, however did not significantly improve balance ability.
The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of chiropractic treatment on the alignment of the lower extremities and plantar pressure in subjects with pelvic misalignment. The study included 20 subjects with pelvic misalignment. They were divided into two groups: the chiropractic treatment group (n=10) and stretching group (n=10). They performed the intervention for 10 minutes, twice a week, for weeks, and pelvic displacement, functional leg length, and plantar pressure were measured In chiropractic group, both pelvic displacement and plantar pressure distribution were significantly decreased and leg length difference was significantly increased (p<.05). However, in the stretching group, only pelvic displacement was significantly reduced (p<.05), and leg length difference and plantar pressure distribution decreased slightly. There was no significant difference in all variables between the groups. This study suggests that chiropractic and stretching are effective in changing pelvic displacement, leg length difference, and plantar pressure distribution.
The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of shoulder stabilization exercises and stretching on shoulder height and muscle activity in young adults with rounded shoulder posture. The subjects were young adults with rounded shoulder posture, and divided into two groups: shoulder stabilization exercises and stretching exercises. The shoulder stabilization exercise group performed Thera band exercises and stretching exercises. The stretching exercise group performed stretching exercises. The groups performed the exercises for 40min, three times a week for four weeks. Shoulder height was measure by Vanier calipers and muscle activity was measured by electromyography. Shoulder height was significantly decreased in both groups after intervention, however there was no difference between groups. There was a significant difference in muscle activity between the two groups after the intervention, however there was no difference between the groups. This study suggests that shoulder stabilization exercise and stretching affect shoulder height and muscle activity.
This study aimed to identify the effects of modified low-dye taping and foot intrinsic muscle strengthening exercise on foot pressure in people with flat feet. The subjects were 12 participants with flat feet in their 20s. They were randomly divided into two groups: taping and strengthening exercise. They performed the interventions twice a week for six weeks. The taping group was applied the modified low-dye taping. The exercise group was performed foot intrinsic muscle strengthening exercise for 30 minutes. The data were measured by Foot Pressure Measurement. There was no significant difference in plantar pressure between taping group and exercise group. There was also no significant difference in all variables before and after intervention in all groups. The present study suggests that taping and exercise can change the foot pressure in patients with flat-footed.
The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of cervical alignment, pain, and physique to apply proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation( PNF) techniques in patients with forward head posture (FHP). The subjects of this study were 24 patients diagnosed with FHP. They were randomly divided into two groups: a PNF group(n=12) and a control group(n=12). The intervention was performed a total of 24 times, 30 min a day, six times a week for four weeks. Data on cervical alignment(forward head displacement, FHD), pain(visual analog scale, VAS), and physique(height, weight, and body mass index) were obtained pre- and post-intervention. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare the groups and time. For FHD, the VAS, and physique(height and BMI), there was an interaction effect for the groups and time(p<.001, BMI: p<.05) and main effects for time(p<.001, BMI: p<.05). For weight, there were main effects of time(p<.01). For FHD(p<.01) and the VAS(p<.05), there were main effects for the groups. In the PNF group, there were significant improvements in FHD, VAS, and physique. In the control group, there was a significant increase in FHD. The results of this study indicated that PNF intervention using scapular and upper extremity patterns effective in FHP positively. The use of a therapeutic intervention on physique changes may also be effective in improving poor posture and help to better patients’ quality of life.
This study examined the effects of stretching and sling stabilizing exercises on changes in the angle of the cervical spine in military neck patients. The subjects were 20 adults diagnosed with a military neck(male:10, female:10) and they were randomly and equally assigned to a stretching exercise group and a sling stabilization exercise group. The total study period was four weeks. The intervention was applied three times per week for 60 minutes per each time. Before conducting the exercise, X-ray of each group was photographed to measure craniospinal angle(CVA) and cranial rotation angle(CRA). According to the result of comparing the two groups in changes in the cervical spine angle, there was no significant difference, and the result of comparing pre- and post-intervention was that there was significant change in CVA and CRA in the stretching group (p<.05) but there was no significant change in CVA and CRA in the sling stabilization exercise. Such result suggests stretching exercise is good for improving a military neck and stretching is more effective than sling in the therapeutic intervention for a military neck.
The purpose of the present study is to provide exercises, together with music, that are helpful for elderly people’s balancing ability, and to determine their effects in order to provide data for the promotion of elderly persons’health. Thirty elderly persons were randomly assigned to a balance training group(BTG) of 15 subjects, or a music and balance training group (music therapy + balance training [MTBTG]) of 15 subjects; intervention was implemented three times per week for six weeks. To measure the changes in their balancing ability before and after the experiment, the limit of stability, the“Timed Up and Go”(TUG) test, and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) were measured. Changes in the limit of stability before and after the experiment were shown to be significant in both the BTG and the MTBTG. Changes in the limit of stability of the right side before and after the experiment showed statistically significant differences between the BTG and the MTBTG. Changes in the TUG test and the BBS before and after the experiment were shown to be statistically significant in both the BTG and the MTBTG. The application of music during balance training thus is considered to have a positive effect on elderly persons’balancing ability.
The purpose of this study is to observe the effect of elasticity of taping on ankle muscles’activity and endurance after plyometric training that easily causes ankle injury, and provide baseline data for physical therapy intervention methods. The study subjects are 24 male students in their 20s who attend N University in Choongnam. They were divided into three groups; 8 subjects in the elastic taping group, 8 in the non-elastic taping group, and 8 in the non-taping group(control group). They had plyometric training for 6 weeks. After the training, this study measured their maximum voluntary isometric contraction(MVIC) and muscle endurance of the muscles around ankle joint. The experiment result is as follows. After the training, all three groups showed improvement in muscle strength and endurance. The elastic taping group showed insignificant improvement in muscle strength but significant increase in muscle endurance in plantarflexion. In dorsiflexion, both muscle strength and endurance increased significantly. The non-elastic taping group showed insignificant improvement in muscle strength but significant increase in muscle endurance in plantarflexion. Taping during plyometric training had a little or insignificant effect on muscle endurance and strength compared to the non-taping group.
The purpose of this study is to observe how balance exercise on an unstable platform and on a stable platform affects balance ability. The subjects were 35 adults in their 20s and were randomly assigned to a stable platform group and an unstable platform group. They performed balance exercise three times per week for six weeks. Balance exercise introduced by previous research was modified and complemented for use in this study. Balance ability of the subjects was measured through center of pressure(COP) area, medial-lateral displacement, and anterior-posterior displacement using a portable balance platform BT4. There was significant difference in the COP area between the unstable platform exercise group and the stable platform exercise group. In comparison in differences between the unstable platform exercise group and the stable platform exercise group after the exercise, there was significant difference in anteriorposterior movement. Therefore, exercise on an unstable platform is more effective than exercise on a stable platform in strengthening balance ability.
The purpose of this study was to test the effect of Gastrocnemius and Low Back-muscle isotonic exercise on static•dynamic standing balance during the period of 4 weeks. This study was two groups pretest-posttest design. Nineteen subjects who were over 22 years old were randomly assigned to either the experimental group that received the Gastrocnemius muscle exercise(n=9) or the low back muscle exercise(n=10) : The former group performed isotonic exercise(plantar flexion), the latter group performed isotonic exercise(trunk extension) a total of 18 times for three times per week for four weeks. Two groups also performed static and dynamic balance before the exercise and 4weeks after the exercise. The data were analyzed by using the paired t-test and independent t-test. The results were as follows: As compared with change of dynamic balance performance capacity at two groups, a significant difference was shown in the test(p<.05), but not in static balance(p>.05). Also, a significant difference of balance between groups was not shown in the test. In this study indicated that gastrocnemius and low back muscle isotonic exercise will have positive impact on standing balance.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the grip strength by the girth of upper arm and forearm and their muscle activities by duration of grip strength. The subjects were consisted of 20 healthy adults(10 males & 10 females) who had no medical history of neurological and surgical problems with their arms. Girth of upper arm/ forearm and maximum grip strength for 4sec and 30sec were measured. Muscle activity was by wireless electrode EMG system. Co-relation of girth of upper arm/ forearm was significantly high. Upper arm's muscle activity performed for 4sec and 30sec was significantly high. In this study. It suggests that training of upper arm should be performed with the training of grip strength because both of upper arm and forearm affected grip strength.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the correlation between the stature and the muscle performance ratings and the subjective discomfort rations at performing lower arm's pronation and supination according to change sin the height of working table for more efficient performance at designing a working table and performing a work. For the purpose, this study conducted an experiment targeting 40 people in their 20s, who were classified into 4 groups each group composing 10 people at intervals of 5cm from the standard stature of 166.5cm. The experiment measured the maximum isometric pronation and the supination muscular power, and at measuring the factors, the heights of working tables were set as 800mm, 850mm, and 900mm. From the measurement results, it was found that the stature and the maximum muscular power was correlated. That is, as the experiment groups's average stature is higher, the maximum muscular power was higher. For the correlation between the motion patterns(pronation and supination) and the maximum muscular power, it was seen that the maximum muscular power was higher at performing the pronation than the supination. In the correlation between motion patterns and the subjective discomfort ratings, it was seen that the subjective discomfort rating was higher at performing the supination than the pronation. For the correlation between height adjustment and the subjective discomfort ratings, as the height of working table was lower, the subject discomfort rating was lower. Therefore there was no difference in the maximum muscular power according to the height changes of working table, but it was found that as the working table was higher, the user felt more comfortable.
The purpose of this study is to identify which width of the base of support(BOS) is safer and more effective in lifting by comparing muscle activations and body sways when lifting objects under the width variation of the BOS. A total of fifteen healthy adults participated in this study. For the width variation of the BOS, the participants changed the width between their feet into three different types(10cm, 32cm, 45cm) and lifted a 10kg four times in each type after going up on a force plate. In order to measure body sways according to the width variation of the BOS, a motion analysis system was used. In addition, in order to measure the muscle activations of lower extremities, including the erector spinae, gluteus maximus, rectus femoris, and tibialis anterior, an electromyogram(EMG) analysis was employed. In addition, the Borg's scale was drawn by quantifying the subjective discomfort levels felt from each width of the BOS. In conclusion, no statistically significant differences according to the width variation of the BOS were observed(p=.295, .308)(p>.05). However, a statistically significant difference was exhibited between the Borg's scale, which indicates the discomfort levels from lifting performances, and the width variation of the BOS (p=.000*).
The purpose of this study was to analyze lower limb muscle activity and 3D motion analysis according to change foot arch height during walking. We selected 9 young and healthy people who have been normal foot. And we selected 7 young and healthy people who have been flatfoot. So, people were divided into 2 groups and walked platform during 2 minutes twice for checked by 3D motion analysis. These data were characterized by EMG measurements of three muscles( tibialis anterior, medial and lateral gastrocnemius) while they were walking. The collected data were analyzed by Independent t test using the SPSS statistics program(Ver 12.0). In foot arch change, there were no significant difference in three muscles 3D motion analysis also found that there were no significant difference in joint angles. In this study was to analyze lower limb muscle activity and 3D motion analysis according to change foot arch, but there were no significant difference in 6 muscles neither joint angles.
This study was to examine on the respiratory variables, heart rate and muscle activity between the static recovery and dynamic recovery after progressive resistance exercise to maximal point. Subjects were 15 students enrolled in N University. All were tested two times (static recovery and dynamic recovery) and were requested to perform a walking on a treadmill after progressive resistance exercise to maximal point. Electromyography(EMG) was used to monitor the muscle activity(TA: Tibialis Anterior, MG: Medial Gastrocnemius) during gait. CPEX-1 was used to measure the respiratory variables and heart rate. The dynamic recovery group was shown the significant lower heart rate than that of static recovery group at during gait. Respiratory rate showed statistically a significant difference. Electromyography(RMS, root mean square) showed a non-significant difference. But the dynamic recovery group of muscle activity was found highly in TA and MG. This study indicated that the dynamic recovery method evidenced more faster than the static recovery method. And this type of dynamic rest by walking can be a help of recovery after exercise.
With comparison of maximum vertical reaction force and lower limb on drop landing between normal and flat foot group, this study is to provide fundamental data of the prevention of injury and the treatment of exercise which are frequently occurred on flat foot group's drop landing. The surface electrodes were sticked on lateral gastrocnemius muscle, medial gastrocnemius muscle, tibialis anterior and the drop landing on a force plate of 40cm was performed with a normal group who had no musculoskeletal disease and a flat foot group of 9 people who had feet examinations. Vertical reaction force were significantly statistically different between two groups(p<.001). Muscle activity of lower limbs in all three parts were not statistically different but showed high tendency on average in the flat foot group. The flat foot group had difficulties in diversification of impact burden and high muscle activity. Therefore, it was suggested that muscular strengthening of knee joints and plantar flexions of foot joints which were highly affected in impact absorption will be required.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of subliminal music with balance imagery training on balance and concentration. Methods: The participants were 45 seniors in an undergraduate school in Korea. The subliminal music with balance imagery training intervention was carried out for 20 minutes. Other interventions were also carried out for 20 minutes. 12 seniors(Group A) listened to subliminal music with balance imagery training, 12 seniors(Group B) listened to subliminal music, 11 seniors(Group C) received balance imagery training, and 10 seniors(Group D) had no intervention(Control group). The grid test is related to measured levels of concentration intensity. Romberg one legged standing test was carried out for 30 seconds. The collected data was analyzed by one-paired t test and one way ANOVA using the SPSS Windows 12 ver. program. Results: The major findings of this study were as follows: Concentration levels of Group A and C improved, and balance levels of Group C and D improved. There was a statistically significant decrease in concentration between Group A and B, Group A and C after intervention. Conclusion: These findings suggest that listening to subliminal music with balance imagery training may be useful in managing concentration in seniors. So it provides basic information for further concentration on improving education on music with balance imagery training.