Viral respiratory infections are common in horses, notably equine herpesvirus infection and equine influenza, which primarily initiate secondary bacterial respiratory infections such as strangles caused by Streptococcus equi equi. A decline in the production of stallions has been associated with these respiratory diseases leading to adverse financial implications. This study investigated the antibody responses against respiratory diseases in horses from Jeju Island a year after vaccination. A low level of equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) (11.36%) antibodies was detected from stallions, however a high level of EHV-4 (95.84%) antibodies was detected from horses without vaccination against this infection suggesting that EHV-4 is ubiquitous in this horse population. In case of equine influenza, ranch stallions showed low positive rate (12.06%) whereas stallions from Subtropical Livestock Research Institute displayed higher positive rate (81.32%). Antibody responses against equine influenza and strangles revealed positive rates of 26.32% and 55.12%, respectively. These findings may draw attention towards the importance of developing an improved disease prevention and/or immunization program that will effectively control respiratory diseases in horses.
The purpose of this study to identified the effect of muscle strengthening of ankle joints on postural sway. The subjects of this study were 29 healthy adults aged between 20 and 30 years(male 18, female 11). All subjects received ankle muscle strengthening exercise for 3 times, 3 sessions, 30 minutes per week over 4weeks period. The measured item of muscle strength, postural sway. Data collected from all subjects the result were as follows. The ankle strength showed significant increase(p<.05). One leg stand test with eye close increase in static balance(p<.05), left-right sway distance and anterior-posterior sway distance with eye open and close in static balance(p<.05). The result findings show that strength of the ankle joint muscles is a factor which affects postural sway and the ankle joints are important in static balance.
혐기-호기의 생물반응조 공정과 막분리 공정을 조합한 막-생물반응조 공정을 이용하여 염색폐수 중의 난분해성 물질들을 제거하였다. 염색폐수 원수를 직접 막분리공정에 적용한 결과 심각한 fouling을 초래하였다. 반면 생물반응조로 1차 처리한 후 막분리공정에 적용한 경우 생물반응조가 막의 오염원을 상당부분 제거하여 fouling현상이 현저리 감소하였으며, 막의 수명도 연장시킬 수 있었다. 염색폐수의 처리효율 및 fouling현상은 막의 기공 크기나 구조보다는 막의 재질에 더욱 의존함을 확인하였다. 중공사막 module의 사용 방법 및 중공사막 내부의 유속에 따라서 제거효율 및 투과유량이 변화하였다. 생물반응조나 막분리 단독공정보다 두공정을 조합한 공정이 보다 효과적으로 염색폐수 처리능력을 보였다.