This study was conducted to examine the effects of Evjenth-Hamberg stretching of the sternocleidomastoid, upper trapezius, and pectoralis major on the lung function of adults with forward neck posture. The subjects were 20 adult students in P university located in Pohang, Korea, whose degree of head forward displacement measured according to NEW YORK state posture test was mild. The subjects were randomly and equally assigned to the Evjenth- Hamberg Stretching group (EHSG, n=10) and the control group (CG, n=10). Their forced vital capacity (FVC), slow vital capacity (SVC), and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) were measured before and after the experiment. In within-group comparison, only the EHSG experienced statistically significant improvement in FVC, forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow (PEE) after the experiment, compared to before the experiment (.05<p). In between-group comparison, the PEE of EHSG was statistically significantly higher than CG (.05<p). Regarding SVC, only the EHSG experienced statistically significant improvement in inspiratory vital capacity after the experiment, compared to before the experiment. With regard to MVV, only the EHSG experienced statistically significant improvement in their tidal volume during maximal voluntary ventilation after the experiment compared to before the experiment. Our results indicated that Evjenth- Hamberg stretching was an effective physical therapy intervention to improve the lung function of adults with FHP by correcting their head forward displacement.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of unilateral shoulder bag weight and heel heights on trunk muscle activities. This study recruited 40 healthy women in their twenties. Electromyography activities of rectus abdominis muscle, external abdominal oblique muscle, internal abdominal oblique muscle and erector spinae muscle during standing position were measured using a surface electromyography system. The overall muscle activities of the trunk muscles were significantly increased in the contralateral trunk muscles (p<.05). Inaddition, the trunk muscles overall activities on the contralateral side without the shoulder bag was positive correlation with the heel height and unilateral shoulder bag weight (p<.05). Both high-heeled wear and unilateral shoulder bags are fashion items that cause asymmetry in the trunk muscles of women in their twenties. These findings suggest that the increase in the weight and heel height of the unilateral shoulder bag in women cause asymmetry of trunk muscle activities.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of core muscle training on balance ability. Forty subjects in their 20s participated in a 6 week core muscle training program. Balance ability before and after the intervention were assessed and analyzed using the Romberg test, which was conducted on the floor, pedalo, and balancefit. The differences between the measurement methods of balance ability using varied platforms was also compared and analyzed.
After the 6-week core exercise training program, the training group represented statistically significant increases in all 3 methods for static balance ability. In the control group, all 3 methods represented no statistically significant increases. Upon comparing the different methods of the Romberg test, there were no notable differences between conducting the test on varying platforms for both groups.
This study suggests that the core muscle exercise training program increased the balance ability.
The aim of this study was to observe the effects of kinesiotaping and joint mobilization on the metatarsophalangeal joint angle and pain in hallux valgus patients Twenty-one female hallux valgus patients in their 20s were divided into two groups, a Kinesiotaping group (KT, n=10) and another group with the addition of joint mobilization (KTJM, n=11). After undergoing 6 weeks of intervention, the change in the metatarsophalangeal joint and pain were measured. Metatarsophalangeal joint angle was significantly increased both the KT and the KTMJ group after intervention. In the change of pain, both the KT and KTJM groups on an individual basis also experienced a significant decrease in pain, though comparison between the two groups failed to represent a significant difference. These findings suggest that Kinesiotatping and joint mobilization increased the joint angle and reduced pain.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of kinematic taping on respiratory muscle strength in smokers. Twenty - five university students who smoke were involved in the study. All participants were applied to kinematic taping to breathe deeply again. Subjects sit on their backs straight up and place their hands on their thighs. Tape 1 is applied from the lower prominent neck vertebrae(seven cervical vertebra) inward and downward, past shoulder blade, around ribs to the lower tip of sternum. Tape 2 extends to the lower, outer edge of shoulder blade, around ribs to the lower tip of sternum. Respiratory muscle strength was measured with Micro Mouth Pressure Measurement before and after taping. The application of kinematic taping significantly improved the inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength (p<.05). These findings suggest that kinematic taping effective in improving respiratory muscle strength and deep breathing.
This study used both kinesiotaping and extracorporeal shock wave therapy on patients diagnosed with frozen shoulder - a common musculoskeletal disorder in adults - in order to observe the effects on the joint range of motion. 21 adult(male 12, female 9) were selected and distributed into randomized groups. One group received kinesiotaping (n=10) and the other group received kinesiotaping together with extracorporeal shockwave therapy (n=11). After a 6 week duration of receiving kinesiotaping and extracorporeal shockwave therapy, changes in the joint range of motion in the patients were observed. Post-treatment of frozen shoulder, the changes in abduction within the shoulder joint were as follows: in both groups there was a noticeable increase in the joint range of motion (p<.05). Post-treatment of frozen shoulder, the changes in external rotation within the shoulder joint were as follows: both groups showed a significant increase in the joint range of motion (p<.05). The result of suggest that, it can be inferred that both the extracorporeal shockwave therapy and kinesiotaping are effective in increasing the joint range of motion in patients with frozen shoulder.
The purpose of this article was to investigate the effects of Maitland’s transverse movement on change of pain, trunk flexion movement and Cobb’s angle in patient with upper thoracic scoliosis. The subject are 37 years old with chronic low back pain participated in this study and has no experience surgery within the last six months due to back pain. 10 set was applied 10 times on the T3-T5 applied the transverse movement with grade Ⅳ to each segment by skilled physical therapist. Transverse movement was applied convex toward the concave side. Pressure pain threshold was reduced from 4/10 to 2/10. Trunk flexion range that is the distance between the middle finger and floor was increase from 7.3cm to 2cm. Cobb’s angle was decreased from degree 18 to 16. This result demonstrated that the Maitland’s transverse movement was benefit to reduce the pain and Cobb’s angle, and to increase the trunk flexion movement.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of music therapy and ball exercise on women experiencing menstrual discomforts, thereby identifying the validity of these methods as interventions against menstrual discomforts, with a particular goal of presenting basic data for clinical use. Twenty university students in their 20s were assigned to two therapy groups in a sequence via simple random sampling; ten subjects attended a ball exercise combined with music therapy group and the other ten subjects attended a music therapy group. Ball exercises were conducted 3 times per week for a total of 12 times, starting from 3 weeks before the expected first day of the menstrual period and ending on the last day of the menstrual period. Similarly, the subjects participated in music therapy by listening to music for 35 minutes per session and 3 sessions per week, starting from 3 weeks before the expected first day of the menstrual period and ending on the last day of the menstrual period. Five out of six categories of menstrual discomforts were significantly decreased in both music therapy and ball exercise, the exception being changes in the autonomic nervous system, while those in the music therapy group showed a significant difference only in the category of behavioral changes. The results of the present study demonstrate that the ball exercise combined with music therapy more effective in improving menstrual discomforts than the music therapy group.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of sensory stimulation type on the learning of the elderly. The study implemented elderly verbal learning test by evenly dividing a total of 40 elderly people into auditory stimulation followed by visual stimulation group(AVG), visual stimulation followed by auditory stimulation group(VAG), simultaneous visual and auditory stimulation group(SG), and auditory stimulation group(AG). The result are as follows. SSG showed highest results in most of the test, followed by AVG, VAG, and AG. In particular, SG showed a statistically significant difference in immediate recall total score and short delay free recall score(p<.05). In the post-hoc test results of immediate recall total score, SG showed highest score with a statistical significance. AVG showed the second highest score, followed by VAG and AG and all showed a statistic significance(p<.05).In the post-hoc test results of short delay free recall score, SG and AVG showed a statistically significantly higher score than AG(p<.05). The results suggest that simultaneous stimulation of visual and auditory sense is more effective for improving the learning of the elderly people than visual stimulation followed by auditory stimulation or auditory stimulation followed by visual stimulation.
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of Ankle exercise on balance ability of stroke patients. Participants' balance ability were measured prior to the training and they conducted ankle exercise. As for ankle exercises, ankle stretching training and ankle muscle strengthening training were performed for 10 minutes respectively. They did warm up exercise for 5 minutes and then ankle exercise for 20 minutes. And then they did cooldown exercise for 5 minutes. Their balance ability was measured after 9 weeks. According to the results of analyzing the change of balance ability that timed up and go and Berg balance scale score significantly improved but in the control group it did not significantly decrease. In comparison between the groups, Berg balance scale score significantly improved in the ankle exercise group compared to the control group. Ankle exercise performed by stroke patients are considered to be effective in improving balance ability.
The purpose of the present study is to provide exercises, together with music, that are helpful for elderly people’s balancing ability, and to determine their effects in order to provide data for the promotion of elderly persons’health. Thirty elderly persons were randomly assigned to a balance training group(BTG) of 15 subjects, or a music and balance training group (music therapy + balance training [MTBTG]) of 15 subjects; intervention was implemented three times per week for six weeks. To measure the changes in their balancing ability before and after the experiment, the limit of stability, the“Timed Up and Go”(TUG) test, and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) were measured. Changes in the limit of stability before and after the experiment were shown to be significant in both the BTG and the MTBTG. Changes in the limit of stability of the right side before and after the experiment showed statistically significant differences between the BTG and the MTBTG. Changes in the TUG test and the BBS before and after the experiment were shown to be statistically significant in both the BTG and the MTBTG. The application of music during balance training thus is considered to have a positive effect on elderly persons’balancing ability.
The purpose of the present study is to apply Maitland orthopedic manual physical therapy to patients to examine the effects of the therapy on the digestive system through serum gastrin tests that can identify the motility of the digestive system and dyspepsia symptoms and can provide basic data for internal medicinal physical therapy. Maitland orthopedic manual physical therapy was implemented on 20 subjects in total, with 10 in a dyspepsia group and 10 in a control group, for 20 minutes per day, three days per week for three weeks, and the following results were obtained. In the control group, serum gastrin values significantly decreased between before and after treatment(p<.01), and among questionnaire items regarding dyspepsia, those regarding epigastric pain and belching showed significant decreases in these symptoms(p<.05). In the dyspepsia group, serum gastrin values significantly decreased between before and after treatment(p<.01) and all questions regarding dyspepsia showed significant decreases in all symptoms(p<.01). According to the analysis, the dyspepsia group decreased significantly more than the control group in serum gastrin values and all dyspepsia symptoms, except for belching(p<.001). Through the present study, it was identified that Maitland orthopedic manual physical therapy can improve dyspepsia symptoms and is an effective treatment method for internal diseases, such as dyspepsia, by improving gastric motility to become close to the normal state.
The purpose of this study is to observe the effect of elasticity of taping on ankle muscles’activity and endurance after plyometric training that easily causes ankle injury, and provide baseline data for physical therapy intervention methods. The study subjects are 24 male students in their 20s who attend N University in Choongnam. They were divided into three groups; 8 subjects in the elastic taping group, 8 in the non-elastic taping group, and 8 in the non-taping group(control group). They had plyometric training for 6 weeks. After the training, this study measured their maximum voluntary isometric contraction(MVIC) and muscle endurance of the muscles around ankle joint. The experiment result is as follows. After the training, all three groups showed improvement in muscle strength and endurance. The elastic taping group showed insignificant improvement in muscle strength but significant increase in muscle endurance in plantarflexion. In dorsiflexion, both muscle strength and endurance increased significantly. The non-elastic taping group showed insignificant improvement in muscle strength but significant increase in muscle endurance in plantarflexion. Taping during plyometric training had a little or insignificant effect on muscle endurance and strength compared to the non-taping group.
The goal of this study was to assess the effect of a group exercise program on cognitive function of elderly people. Subjects were chosen to be elders with dementia having minor to moderate degrees of cognitive function. Study was started out by randomly dividing the 16 subjects into two groups, each with 8 people; the group exercise group and the control group. The group exercise group performed 8 weeks of group exercise program and general physiotherapy while the control group only performed general physiotherapy. Cognitive function was measured by Korean version mini-mental state examination. The study group's attention and calculation statistically significantly improved but the control group saw no statistically significant change. The group exercise program affected improvement in cognitive function of elderly people with dementia and in particular, was effective for enhancing their attention and calculation.
The purpose of this study was to analysis of the effect of proprioceptor training and vestibular organ training for balance ability. The subjects was consist of two different subjects group, proprioceptor training group and vestibular organ training group. Proprioceptor training group consisted of 10 subjects and vestibular organ training group consisted of 10 subjects. Training was performed 3 times per week, 30 minutes per day, for 3 weeks. Balance ability analysis was performed using Romberg's one leg standing test and BT4 when opened eyes and closed eyes. The analysis results were as follows. There was no significant differences in balance after the training in both groups when they opened their eyes(p<.05). But there was significant differences in balance after the training in both groups when they closed their eyes(p<.05). And there was no significant difference in balance after the training between the proprioceptor training group and the vestibular organ training group when they closed their eyes(p<.05). Given the above results, proprioceptor training and vestibular organ training enhanced balance but there was no significant difference between the two methods.
The purpose of this study is to observe how balance exercise on an unstable platform and on a stable platform affects balance ability. The subjects were 35 adults in their 20s and were randomly assigned to a stable platform group and an unstable platform group. They performed balance exercise three times per week for six weeks. Balance exercise introduced by previous research was modified and complemented for use in this study. Balance ability of the subjects was measured through center of pressure(COP) area, medial-lateral displacement, and anterior-posterior displacement using a portable balance platform BT4. There was significant difference in the COP area between the unstable platform exercise group and the stable platform exercise group. In comparison in differences between the unstable platform exercise group and the stable platform exercise group after the exercise, there was significant difference in anteriorposterior movement. Therefore, exercise on an unstable platform is more effective than exercise on a stable platform in strengthening balance ability.
The fact that flip-flops, one of many different types of unstable shoes, are light and relatively easy to put on, accounts for their popularity among people. But because flip-flops rely heavily on the support of a single thong between your first and second toes, they impose a huge amount of pressure onto lower leg. Thus in the following experiment we tried to examine the different effects of flip-flops and running shoes in terms of their effect on muscle activity and fatigue of tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius during walking. In order to measure an electromyogram we used Free EMG system. 10 men and 10 women in running shoes ran on treadmills for 15 minutes at 4.8km/h, 2 days later the same experiment was carried out, but this time, in flip-flops. p value turned out to be greater than .05 and thus there was no considerable difference between the effects of flip-flops and running shoes on muscle activity and fatigue during walking. Therefore we conclude that despite the fact that flip-flops are considered unstable, their effects on muscle activity and fatigue of tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius are negligible.
The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of chronic shoulder pain on the muscle tone in trunk muscles. The study's subjects were 40 men and women in their 30 to 50s, which were divided into two groups. A chronic shoulder pain group consisted of 20 subjects who had been diagnosed with chronic shoulder pain by doctors, and a painless group consisted of 20 subjects who had experienced no such pain. An analysis was performed using electromyography on the muscle tone in the rectus abdominalis, external oblique, internal oblique, and erector spinae muscles under the same conditions between the two groups. The analysis results were as follows. The chronic shoulder pain group exhibited an overall high level of trunk muscle tone than the painless group, along with a statistically significant difference in the rectus abdominalis(p<.05). Moreover, the chronic shoulder pain group showed differences in the trunk muscle tone depending on the affected side. The chronic left shoulder pain group yielded higher levels of muscle tone in the right-side trunk muscles. In particular, the group revealed statistically significant differences in the rectus abdominalis and internal oblique(p<.05). The chronic right shoulder pain group exhibited higher levels of muscle tone in the left-side trunk muscles with a statistically significant difference in the internal oblique(p<.05). The above results suggested that chronic shoulder pain influences increases in the muscle tone in the trunk muscles on the opposite side to the affected shoulder.
This study aims to address the effect of interferential current therapy and thereby to provide basic resources to physical therapies for internal medicine by identifying symptoms for functional dyspepsia and serum gastrin level that shows gastric motility. Following results were obtained by performing interferential current therapy to 16 subjects composed of 8 for functional dyspepsia group and 8 for control group for 20 minutes a day, 3 days a week, for 6 weeks. In control group, serum gastrin level was significantly( p<.01), lowered after the therapy whereas there was no significant difference observed in all questions from questionnaire for symptoms of functional dyspepsia between before and after the therapy. In functional dyspepsia group, serum gastrin level was significantly(p<.01), lowered after the therapy and there was also significant(p<.01) reduction in every question from questionnaire for symptoms of functional dyspepsia between before and after the therapy. There was more significant decrease in serum gastrin level and reduction in questionnaire for symptoms of functional dyspepsia in the functional dyspepsia group compared to the control group(p<.01). This study confirms the interferential current therapy as an effective therapeutic method for internal diseases including functional dyspepsia since it not only improves the symptoms of functional dyspepsia but also allows the gastric motility close to normal.
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of lower extremity resistance training using elastic bands on balance in elderly people. Eight elderly persons each were randomly assigned to a test group(resistance exercise group, REG) or a control group(CG). FRT and TUG test were used to compare balance before and after exercise. Exercise programs were implemented three times a week for 40 minutes for nine weeks. They did warm-up exercise for 5 minutes and then lower extremity resistance exercise using elastic bands for 30 minutes. And then they did cool-down exercise for 5 minutes. TUG and FRT significantly decreased but in the control group it did not significantly decrease. In comparison between the groups, TUG and FRT significantly reduced in the resistance exercise group compared to the control group. Lower extremity resistance training using elastic bands performed by elderly persons are considered to be effective in improving balance.