Current studies have revealed the capacity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in term of immunomodulatory properties, and this distinct potential is downgraded according to the disease duration of patients-derived MSCs. In order to enhance the immunomodulatory and anti-tumorigenic properties of the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) joints-derived MSCs, we aggregate synovial fluid-derived MSCs from RA joints (RA-hMSCs) into 3D-spheroids by the use of hanging drop culture method. Cells were isolated from synovial fluids of RA joints with longstanding active status over 13 years. For aggregation of RA-hMSCs into 3D-spheroids, cells were plated in hanging drops in 30 μL of advanced DMEM (ADMEM) containing 25,000-30,000 cells/ drop and cultured for 48 h. To analyze the comparative immunomodulatory effects of 3D-spheroid and 2D monolayer cultured RA-hMSCs and then cells were cultured in ADMEM supplemented with 20% of synovial fluids of RA patients for 48 h and were evaluated by qRT-PCR for their expression of mRNA levels of inflammatory and antiinflammatory markers. Cellular aggregation of RA-hMSCs was observed and cells were aggregate into a single sphere. Following treatment of RA patient’s synovial fluids into the RA-hMSCs, spheroids formed RA-hMSCs showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher expression of TNFα stimulated gene/protein 6 (TSG-6) than the monolayer cultured RAhMSCs. Therefore, the 3D-spheroid culture methods of RA-hMSCs were more effective than 2D monolayer cultures in suppressing inflammatory response treated with 20% of RA-synovial fluids by expression of TNFα (TSG-6) according to the immune response and enhanced secretion of inflammatory factors.
A female English bulldog was gave birth two neonates by cesarean section on the sixty one days after mating, but both neonates were died soon after birth. The bodies of neonates were diagnosed using radiography, ultrasonography, computed tomography and necropsy immediately after death. Both neonates had caudal regression syndrome, butterfly vertebra, hydrocephalus, umbilical hernia, cleft palate and bow-legged hind-limb. At necropsy, neonates had mild fetal anasarca, cleft lip and the skull was remained non-union. At thoracic cavity, only three ribs and thoracic spines were existed and patent ductus arteriosus was found. At abnormal cavity, the renal ectopia was found with abnormal morphology. In the present case, those English bulldog neonates with multiple congenital malformation syndromes seriously suffered vertebral column anomalies and that may induced by neural tube defects in during embryonic period. To prevent congenital malformation occurring in English bulldog, further in depth studies are needed for the breed specific genetic diversity and for the reason of behind genetic abnormality in these breed.
Telomeres are known as a specialized region in the end of chromosomes to protect DNA destruction, but their lengths are shortened by repetition of cell division. This telomere shortening can be preserved or be elongated by telomerase and TERT expression. Although a certain condition in the cells may affect to the cellular and molecular characteristics, the effect of differentiation induction to telomere length and telomerase activity in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been less studied. Therefore, the present study aimed to uncover periodical alterations of telomere length, telomerase activity and TERT expression in the dental pulp-derived MSCs (DP-MSCs) under condition of differentiation inductions into adipocytes and osteoblasts on a weekly basis up to 3 weeks. Shortening of telomere was significantly (p < 0.05) identified from early-middle stages of both differentiations in comparison with undifferentiated DP-MSCs by non-radioactive chemiluminescent assay and qRT-PCR method. Telomere length in undifferentiated DP-MSCs was 10.5 kb, but the late stage of differentiated DP-MSCs which can be regarded as the adult somatic cell exhibited 8.1-8.6 kb. Furthermore, the relative-quantitative telomerase repeat amplification protocol or western blotting presented significant (p < 0.05) decrease of telomerase activity since early stages of differentiations or TERT expression from middle stages of differentiations than undifferentiated state, respectively. Based on these results, it is supposed that shortened telomere length in differentiated DP-MSCs was remained along with prolonged differentiation durations, possibly due to weakened telomerase activity and TERT expression. We expect that the present study contributes on understanding differentiation mechanism of MSCs, and provides standardizing therapeutic strategies in clinical application of MSCs in the animal biotechnology.
Because mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) maintain distinct capacities with respect to self-renewal, differentiation ability and immunomodulatory function, they have been highly considered as the therapeutic agents for cell-based clinical application. Of particular, differentiation condition alters characteristics of MSCs, including cellular morphology, expression of gene/protein and cell surface molecule, immunological property and apoptosis. However, the previous results for differentiation-related apoptosis in MSCs have still remained controversial due to varied outcomes. Therefore, the present study aimed to disclose periodical alterations of pro- and anti-apoptosis in MSCs under differentiation inductions. The human dental pulp-derived MSCs (DP-MSCs) were differentiated into adipocytes and osteoblasts during early (1 week), middle (2 weeks) and late (3 weeks) stages, and were investigated on their apoptosis-related changes by Annexin V assay, qRT-PCR and western blotting. The ratio of apoptotic cell population was significantly (p < 0.05) elevated during the early to middle stages of differentiations but recovered up to the similar level of undifferentiated state at the late stage of differentiation. In the expression of mRNA and protein, whereas expressions of pro-apoptosis-related makers (BAX and BAK) were not altered in any kind and duration of differentiation inductions, anti-apoptosis marker (BCL2) was significantly (p < 0.05) elevated even at the early stage of differentiations. The recovery of apoptotic cell population at the late stage of differentiation is expected to be associated with the response by elevation of anti-apoptotic molecules. The present study may contribute on understanding for cellular mechanism in differentiation of MSCs and provide background data in clinical application of MSCs in the animal biotechnology to develop effective and safe therapeutic strategy.
A saccular aneurysm is a localized, pouch arterial abnormality, Varous kinds of experimental saccular aneurysm models have been developed to treat aneurysms, and more effective ways to create aneurysm model is also needed. This study aims to compare aneurysm models induced by either porcine pancreatic elastase or papain from papaya latex. Eleven New Zealand white rabbits were divided into three treatment groups: normal saline (n=3), papain (n=4), and elastase (n=4). The right common carotid artery was selected as the aneurysmal site, and the respective substance was incubated for 20 minutes. No neurological signs occurred after operation. Hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining and modified elastic trichrome stain were performed 2 weeks after the procedure for pathological analysis. Histological findings for the control group showed normal vascular wall structure, normal elastic fiber, and no signs of inflammation. In samples of the papain group, the vascular walls were damaged and the endothelium was detached. Most of the elastic fibers were destructed. All samples of the papain group showed elastic fragmentation. In the elastase group, all samples showed severe inflammation and destruction of the vascular structure. There was also an elastase-induced sterile abscess. These findings indicate that elastase does not induce stable aneurysms at a dose of 1 mg because of excessive inflammation and destruction of the vascular structure. Elastase induces inflammation and apoptosis which results in the vascular wall to weaken before an aneurysm is formed. Papain at the dose of 1 mg, in contrast, seems to be a suitable candidate for enzymatic aneurysm models in the rabbit.
The trans-differentiation potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is employed, but there is little understanding of the cell source-dependent trans-differentiation potential of MSCs into corneal epithelial cells. In the present study, we induced trans-differentiation of MSCs derived from umbilical cord matrix (UCM-MSCs) and from dental tissue (D-MSCs), and we comparatively evaluated the in vitro trans-differentiation properties of both MSCs into corneal epithelial-like cells. Specific cell surface markers of MSC (CD44, CD73, CD90, and CD105) were detected in both UCM-MSCs and D-MSCs, but MHCII and CD119 were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in UCM-MSCs than in D-MSCs. In UCM-MSCs, not only expression levels of Oct3/4 and Nanog but also proliferation ability were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in D-MSCs. In vitro differentiation abilities into adipocytes and osteocytes were confirmed for both MSCs. UCM-MSCs and D-MSCs were successfully trans-differentiated into corneal epithelial cells, and expression of lineage-specific markers (Cytokeratin-3, -8, and -12) were confirmed in both MSCs using immunofluorescence staining and qRT-PCR analysis. In particular, the differentiation capacity of UCM-MSCs into corneal epithelial cells was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of D-MSCs. In conclusion, UCM-MSCs have higher differentiation potential into corneal epithelial-like cells and have lower expression of CD119 and MHC class II than D-MSCs, which makes them a better source for the treatment of corneal opacity.
The cryopreservation has been extensively applied in many cells including spermatozoa (semen) during past several decades. Especially, the canine spermatozoa cryopreservation has contributed on generation of progeny of rare/genetically valuable dog breeds, genome resource banking and transportation of male germplasm at a distant place. However, severe and irreversible damages to the spermatozoa during cryopreservation procedures such as the thermal shock (cold shock), formation of intracellular ice crystals, osmotic shock, stress of cryoprotectants and generator of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been addressed. According as a number of researches have been conducted to overcome these problems and to advance cryopreservation technique, several analytical methods have been employed to evaluate the quality of the fresh or cryopreserved canine spermatozoa in regards to the motility, morphology, integrity of membrane and DNA, mitochondrial activity, ROS generation, binding affinity to oocytes, in vitro fertilization potential and fertility potential by artificial insemination. Because the study designs with certain application of analytical methods are selective and varied depending on each experimental objective and laboratory condition, it is necessary to establish the normal reference data of the fresh or cryopreserved canine spermatozoa for each analytical method to monitor experimental procedure, to translate raw data and to discuss results. Here, we reviewed the recent articles to introduce various analytical methods for the canine spermatozoa as well as to establish the normal reference data for each analytical method in the fresh or cryopreserved canine spermatozoa, based on the results of the previous articles. We hope that this review contributes to the advancement of cryobiology in canine spermatozoa.
The estrogen-mediated effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a highly critical factor for the clinical application of MSCs. However, the present study is conducted on MSCs derived from adult donors, which have different physiological status with steroid hormonal changes. Therefore, we explores the important role of 17β-estradiol (E2) in MSCs derived from female and male newborn piglets (NF- and NM-pBMSCs), which are non-sexually matured donors with steroid hormones. The results revealed that in vitro treatment of MSCs with E2 improved cell proliferation, but the rates varied according to the gender of the newborn donors. Following in vitro treatment of newborn MSCs with E2, mRNA levels of Oct3/4 and Sox2 increased in both genders of MSCs and they may be correlated with both estrogen receptor α (ERα) and ERβ in NF-pBMSCs, but NM-pBMSCs were only correlated with ERα. Moreover, E2-treated NF-pBMSCs decreased in β-galactosidase activity but no influence on NM-pBMSCs. In E2-mediated differentiation capacity, E2 induced an increase in the osteogenic and chondrogenic abilities of both pBMSCs, but adipogenic ability may increased only in NF-pBMSCs. These results demonstrate that E2 could affect both genders of newborn donor-derived MSCs, but the regulatory role of E2 varies depending on gender-dependent characteristics even though the original newborn donors had not been affected by functional steroid hormones.
Skin serves as an easily accessible source of multipotent stem cells with potential for cellular therapies. In pigs, stem cells from skin tissues of fetal and adult origins have been demonstrated as either floating spheres (cell aggregates) or adherent spindle-shaped mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like cells depending on culture conditions. The cells isolated from the epidermis and dermis of porcine skin showed plastic adherent growth in the presence of serum and positively expressed a range of surface and intracellular markers that are considered to be specific for MSCs. The properties of primitive stem cells have been observed with the expression of alkaline phosphatase and markers related to pluripotency. Further, studies have shown the ability of skin-derived MSCs to differentiate in vitro along mesodermal, neuronal and germ-line lineages. Moreover, preclinical studies have also been performed to assess their in vivo potential, and the findings appear to be effective in tissue regeneration at the defected site after transplantation. The present review describes the recent progress on the biological features of porcine skin-derived MSCs as adherent cells, and summarizes their potential in advancing stem cell based therapies.