This study was to analyse the usability of morphological evaluation of vitrified-thawed oocyte before somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using Oosight imaging system to show spindle. For the vitrification, in vitro matured bovine MII oocytes were treated by two-step freezing medium without (control group) or with 5 ug/ml cytochalasin-b (CCB group). In Exp. 1, after thawing, recovered oocytes in each treatment group were assessed by live image using Oosight imaging system or/and cytoskeletal protein image using immunostaining. In Exp. 2, in each treatment group the in vitro developmental potential of frozen-thawed bovine oocytes post evaluation using Oosight imaging system and then SCNT was investigated. The SCNT embryos were cultured in CR1aa medium supplemented with 10% FBS, 1 mM EGF and 1 mM IGF at 38.5 C in 5% O2 and 5% CO2 in air for 8 days. In Exp.1, the rates of in vitro survival, morphological good grade and spindle normality of CCB treatment group (91.1%, 54.2% and 55.5%) were better than those of control group (86.1%, 48.5% and 48.5%). After SCNT using vitrified-thawed oocyte, the rates of fusion, reconstructed embryos and blastocyst development were also high in CCB treatment group (66.6%, 36.4% and 3.0%) than control group (60.0%, 27.3% and 0%). These results demonstrated that the identification of morphological spindle image of the vitrified-thawed bovine oocytes using Oosight imaging system helps to predict the SCNT embryo quality.
This study was to investigate pregnancy rate of IVM/IVF/IVC Korean cattle (registered in government) embryos according to transport time course. For the production of embryos, oocytes recovered from slaughtered excellent grade cow and highly motile frozen‐thawed bull semen (purchased from LIMC, KPN#497) was used. In vitro produced embryos were cultured in CR1aa medium for 8 days and some of them were frozen. The rate of average cleavage (>2‐cell) was 83.0% (308/371) and blastocyst rate at day 8 was 34.7% (107/308). Among in vitro produced blastocyst embryos at day 8, most healthy embryos were freshly transferred on production day and some frozen embryos were direct transferred on appropriate day. These embryos were produced in a laboratory, embryo transfer (ET) was planned in 10 areas of the remote island (Jeju) from the laboratory by airplane. Thus, we examined the pregnancy rate in recipient cow according to embryo of transport time course before ET. From embryo transferred 44 recipient cows, overall pregnancy was 40.9% (18/44), these 18 cows were all calved [single, 94% (17/18); twin, 6% (1/18)] and total embryo implantation rate was 26% (19/66). Comparing transport time in the base of 6 hr, pregnancy rate in ET group required less 4 hr (60%, 9/15) was significantly higher than that required more 6 hr (26.3%, 5/19). In direct ET of freezing embryos, the pregnancy rate was 40% (4/10). However, it was difficult to find the meaning of temperature, pH and corpus luteum quality of recipients on comparison of pregnancy rate. When the cell death level of embryos according to storage time in thermos (straw container) before ET was measured by TUNEL staining, apoptotic index was increased with storage time‐dependent. These results demonstrated that long distance transfer of IVM/IVF/IVC embryos is possible and the time of embryo transport is very important for the pregnancy rate on field trial.
To determine the characteristics of the Korean porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), CA, which was isolated from the serum of an infected pig in 2006, we investigated the nucleotide sequence and expression of the structural ORFs (ORFs 2 to 7) using the bApGOZA system. We found that the structural ORFs 2 to 7 of CA consisted of 3188 nucleotides that were the same as those formed from VR-2332. Comparison of the CA with the other strains revealed nucleotide sequence identity ranging from 89.8 to 99.5%. To better understand the genetic relationships between other strains, phylogenetic analyses were performed. The CA strain was closely related to the other North American genotype strains but formed a distinct branch with high bootstrap support. Additionally, expression levels of the PRRSV proteins in Sf21 cells were strong or partially weak. The results of this study have implications for both the taxonomy of PRRSV and vaccine development.
The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has six structural proteins which encoded by ORFs 2 to 7 are designated as GP2, 3, 4, 5, M and N, repectively. In this study, we determined the expression of each protein using novel transfer vector, pBmKSK4 which has the polyhedrin promoter of BmNPV and 6xHis tag. The recombinant transfer vector was co-transfected into Bm5 cells along with bBpGOZA DNA. Recombinant virus was purified by plaque assay and amplified in Bm5 cells. Expression of each protein was identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis using anti-6xHis monoclonal antibody. The expression levels of the structural proteins in Bm5 cells were stronger than the expression system using pBacPAK9 transfer vector in Sf21 cells. As expected, GP5 was expressed at low levels from its structural properties and its toxicity for cells. In addition, each recombinant protein was purified using Ni-NTA spin columns. The ability to produce each protein in the baculovirus system indicates that these could be major candidates for the development of a vaccine against PRRSV.
μ방lt emitting diodes (LED) devices are commercially introduced as an alternative for low-Ievellaser therapy (11ι，T) ， and it has several advantages over lasers such as a safe, efficient, and less-expensive altemative to treat wounds. And LED irradiation at the same biostimulatory wavelength has similar bíochemical effεαs. In the present study, to asses whether the I핑ht-emitting diode (LED) irradíation can stimulate bone regeneration, irradiated bony defects with or without grafting materials on rat calvaria were compared to corresponding nonirradiated control. Fifty male Sprague-Dawly rats weighing about 150g, were used. Factors for present study were designed as follows, 1) presence or absence of grafting materials, 2) with or without irradiation, and 3) number of irradiation. Two weeks after operation, rats were sacrifìced. Radiologic and 비stomorphologic fmdings were evaluated. Macrospically, there were no incidents of infection, dehiscence, hematoma and necrosis during study. Radiological findings showed greater radiopacity in the graft group and radiopacity increased as the number of irradiation increase. And microscopically, new bαle formation was great in the graft group and increased as the number of irradiation increase, Present study has shown that LED irradiation improved bone regeneration through radiologic and histomorphologic fmdings in rat.
Treatment of spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage (SRH) is mainly conservative. However, if intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) or abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) develops, the treatment strategy should be more aggressive. Surgical decompression has been the gold standard; however, it is very invasive and highly morbid. Thus, percutaneous catheter
drainage (PCD) has been introduced as an alternative therapeutic option. We report on a case of successful PCD for prevention of progression of IAH to ACS in a patient with SRH after coronary stent implantation. This case showed that PCD can be an efficacious and safe method for treatment of IAH with impending ACS.
TCR subunits are members of membrane-bound receptors which allow the fast and efficient elimination of the specific fish pathogens have regulated function in adaptive immunity. Sequence structure of TCR subunits have been reported for various teleosts, but the information of each TCR subunit functional characterization through expression analysis in fish was unknown. In this study, we examined the gene expression of TCR subunits in the early developmental stages and observed transcript levels in various tissues from healthy adult olive flounder by RT-PCR. The mRNA expression of alpha subunit was already detected in the previous hatching step. But the transcripts of another TCR subunit were not observed during embryo development and increased after hatching and maintained until metamorphosis at the same level. It was found that all TCR subunits mRNAs are commonly expressed in the immune-related organ such as spleen, kidney and gill, also weak expressed in fin and eye. TCR alpha and beta subunit were expressed in brain, whereas gamma and delta were not expressed same tissue. The sequence alignment analysis shows that there are more than 80% sequence homology between TCR subunits. Because it has a high similarity of amino acid sequence to expect similar in function, but expression analysis show that will have may functional diversity due to different time and place of expression.
Development of transgenic plant with desirable traits to cultivated plant is one of the important procedures in plant molecular breeding. However, applicable assessment of transgenic plant in laboratorial scale is not much except cultivating transgenic plant for a whole life in field condition. Here, we analyzed chlorophyll fluorescence in three transgenic soybean lines with AtMYB44 transcription factor for assessment of photosynthetic activity under abiotic stresses such as drought. Soybean varieties used in this study were ‘Bert’ and ‘Bert’ derived three transgenic soybeans, ‘AtMYB44 CM35101’, ‘AtMYB44 CM2471’, and ‘AtMYB44 CM4481’. Analyzed five different chlorophyll fluorescence variables are maximum PSII quantum yield (QY_max), steady state PSII quantum yield (QY_Lss), steady state non-photochemical quenching (NPQ_Lss), coefficient of photochemical quenching in steady-state (Qp_Lss), and fluorescence declineratio in steady-state (Rfd_Lss). To determine main chlorophyll fluorescence variable affected by abiotic stress, principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted with five chlorophyll fluorescence variables measured from four varieties. QY_Lss and NPQ_Lss were main chlorophyll fluorescence variables to evaluate abiotic stress, particularly in drought stress. In comparison with transgenic soybean lines based on chlorophyll fluorescence variables, ‘AtMYB44 CM2471’ and ‘AtMYB44 CM4481’ are more tolerant to drought than the others. Interestingly, three transgenic soybean lines which have a same AtMYB44 gene with different regions of chromosome revealed the quite different responses of chlorophyll fluorescence to drought treatment.