In order to investigate the optimal UVB (ultraviolet B) treatment conditions for vitamin D2 enhancement of freeze-dried ear mushroom, sample size (below 300 μm~whole), UV treatment temperature (30~60℃), treatment density (6.25~50.0 mg/cm2) and the samples mixing frequency (1~32 times) were treated differently. After that, chromaticity, vitamin D2 and ergosterol (vitamin D2 precursor) contents were investigated. As a result of the investigating, effective UVB treatment conditions for vitamin D2 enhancement are as follows. The sample sizes were 2~4 mm and finely crushed pieces. The treatment temperatures were 50℃ and 60℃. The treatment density was 12.5 to 25.0 mg/cm2, and the number of sample mixing was 8 times or more. As the amount of vitamin D2 increased by UVB treatment, the ergosterol content generally tended to decrease. However, under some UVB treatment conditions, the vitamin D2 content was not high despite the decrease of ergosterol content. Under the conditions set in this experiment, it was possible to obtain ear mushrooms with enhanced vitamin D2 up to 26,968.7 μg/100 g. Therefore, it is thought that the ear mushroom is highly likely to be used as a vitamin D source and nutritionally fortified food ingredient.
This study investigated the quality characteristics of beyolmijang prepared with corn (steamed and roasted corn) with different pretreatments and simultaneously added starter (Bacillus velezensis JH1). pH decreased, whereas total acidity showed a tendency to increase. The moisture content decreased slightly according to the fermentation period. In color, the L and b values decreased in all samples, whereas the a value showed a tendency to increase significantly. In microorganisms, sample D had more lactic acid bacteria, whereas the mold content was lower. The total polyphenol content was highest at six weeks in sample E, and other samples showed a tendency to decrease over eight weeks. Antioxidant activity increased significantly. In particular, the content in sample E was significantly higher. Reducing sugar showed a tendency to increase as the fermentation period increased. The highest content was found in sample C containing roasted corn at six weeks of fermentation. Amino nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen content increased in all samples. As a result of electronic tongue, sample E prepared with steamed corn, roasted corn, and lactic acid bacteria showed a low salty taste, sour taste, and high umami taste and was considered a good material for the development of byeolmijang.
This study investigated the quality characteristics of the traditional rice cake of Gijeongtteok added with an extract from Cudrania tricuspidate fruit and different amounts of kimchi broth. The pH measurement showed a significant decrease with the increase of the kimchi broth from pH 5.48 (control) to 4.86 (KG180). Hunter color L-values were decreased while redness and yellowness were increased as the amount of kimchi broth increased. Texture profile analysis showed that hardness and adhesiveness significantly increased and decreased as the amount of kimchi broth increased. Gijeongtteok with kimchi broth (KG180) had the lowest specific volume with increased gummy layers in the crumb structure. Sensory evaluation of color, flavor, taste, appearance, and overall acceptance for various levels of kimchi broth showed that the KG140 sample had the highest acceptability. Therefore, this study suggests that Gijeogtteok made with the KG140 mixing ratio has excellent quality and sensory characteristics.
Looking at the dietary patterns of women in their 20s and 30s as well as postmenopausal women, the intake of most nutrients was lower than the recommended levels. Shrimp is a low-calorie, high-protein food, and contains abundant minerals, and it is expected to help prevent osteoporosis. In this study, jinmal dasik was prepared by varying the shrimp content at 0, 1, 5, and 7%, and the quality characteristics were measured. Hardness, adhesion, chewiness, and cohesiveness of physical properties increased significantly as the amount added increased (p<0.001). The springiness decreased significantly as the amount of addition increased in the addition group (p<0.001). In the calcium, there was a significant increase as the amount added increased (p<0.001). In the potassium, there was a significant increase as the amount added increased (p=0.049). This study intends to highlight the benefits and possible uses of shrimp.
The purpose of this study was to confirm the quality characteristics of distilled soju with different rice pretreatment processes. The non-steamed fermentation method is a technology that uses starch to produce saccharification and alcohol without going through the steaming of raw materials. It has advantages such as reduction of manpower and cost, prevention of nutrient loss, and minimization of waste water. In this study, rice used were non-steamed and pulverized 'Baromi2', nonsteamed and steamed ‘Samgwang’, and puffed rice. As the fermenting agent, koji, modified nuruk, N9 yeast, and purified enzyme were used, and lactic acid was added to prevent contamination during fermentation. The amount of water was 300% in total, and after the first watering, 5 days after fermentation, the second watering was carried out. As a result of the study, it was confirmed that the non-steamed fermentation method using ‘Baromi’ was superior to the existing fermentation method in terms of temperature during fermentation, final alcohol content, soluble solids, and pH. By expanding the stability of the production technology of non-steamed fermentation technology, product quality improvement can be expected.
This study investigated the quality characteristics of madeleines prepared using varying amounts of roasted black soybean flour (RBF). The RBF was used to substitute 0% (control group), 20% (RBF-20 group), 40% (RBF-40 group) and 60% (RBF-60 group) of weak flour (WF) in the manufacture of madeleine. The substitution of WF with RBF showed decreased the pH but increased the sugar concentration of the batter (p<0.01). Low lightness (L) and low yellowness (b) were observed in the experimental groups at high ratios of RBF substitution (p<0.05). The experimental groups of madeleines showed higher hardness and chewiness than the control group (p<0.001). The principal component analysis of the RBF- 60 experimental group, which had the highest proportion of RBF, showed that it had relatively strong characteristics with respect to “darkness”, “soybean odor”, “sesame odor”, “grains odor”, “savory flavor”, “sweetness”, “black soybean taste”, and “moistness”. The acceptance test results, showed that the RBF-20 experimental group was similar to the control group with respect to “odor acceptance”, “taste acceptance”, and “texture acceptance”. Thus, this study confirmed the possibility of using RBF for the preparation of madeleines.
This study compares the quality characteristics of Jeung-pyun prepared by supplementing with rice mash of various cultivars. Results showed high contents of crude protein and crude ash in Saeilmi. The highest and lowest amylose contents were obtained in Goami4 and Baekjinju, respectively. Saeilmi had the highest water absorption index (WAI) of rice flour, whereas the highest water-soluble index (WSI) was obtained in Baekokchal. Maximum viscosity, minimum viscosity, and breakdown were high in Baekjinju, and high cooling viscosity and setback levels were determined in Goami4. The sugar content, total free sugar, and pH of the rice mash were highest in Baekjinju. The highest volume of Jeung-pyun was obtained with Saeilmi supplementation, whereas the specific volume was highest in Baekokchal. Evaluation of L, a, and b color values of Jeung-pyun revealed the maximum L value in Saeilmi, a value in Goami4, and b value in Baekjinju. The physical properties of Jeung-pyun were lower in all supplemented groups compared to the control group for hardness, adhesiveness, and chewiness. The lowest chewiness was obtained in Baekokchal-supplemented Jeung-pyun. We conclude that supplementation with different varieties of rice affects the quality characteristics of Jeung-pyun, which are important factors for manufacturing processed foods.
This study investigated the quality characteristics and antioxidant effects of rice cookies containing different percentage of freeze-dried plum powder (3%, 5%, 6%, and 12%). The density of the dough and the thickness of the rice cookies from the control group and the additive group were not significantly different. The pH value of the dough, its moisture content and spread factor, as well as the Hunter’s L and b values of the rice cookies significantly decreased as the amount of dried plum powder added increased. However, the sweetness, hardness, thickness, Hunter’s a value, total polyphenol, total flavonoid and anthocyanin contents, DPPH and ABTS free radials scavenging activity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power of the rice cookies significantly increased as the amount of dried plum powder added increased. Overall, the results of this study showed that adding dried plum power enhanced the antioxidant activities and quality characteristics of rice cookies.
The quality and antioxidant characteristics of apios (Apios americana Medikus) according to different harvest periods and steaming treatment were investigated. The quality and antioxidant characteristics of apios were significantly different depending on harvest periods. Total starch contents was higher in 1st harvesting period as 62.32 g/100 g than other harvesting period. The water binding capacity and water solubility index was higher in 1st harvesting period as 228.65 and 11.29% than other harvesting period. The sucrose and total free sugar contents were 3.64~8.67 and 4.49~9.54 g/100 g, respectively. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of apios was the highest 2nd and 4th harvesting period at 4.21 mg GAE/g and 611.11 μg CE/g, respectively. DPPH radical scavenging activity was higher in 1st harvesting period as 84.96 mg TE/100 g than other harvesting period, and decreased as the harvest periods were delayed. ABTS radical scavenging activity and ferric-reducing antioxidant power were 43.81~47.89 mg TE/g and 231.20~264.07 mM/100 g, and increased to 50.58~51.44 mg TE/g and 342.55~384.29 mM/100 g after heat treatment. As a result, it is thought that studies on change of quality and physicochemical characteristics according to cultivation characteristics should be preceded for cultivation stability of apios.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activities, quality characteristics, and storage stability of perilla oil mayonnaise (PM) with different levels of onion powder (OP) from 0 to 3%. As the amount of OP increased, the L, a, and b values increased, but pH decreased (p<0.05). The addition of OP raised viscosity (p<0.05). The addition of OP to PM proportionally increased the total phenolic content, and antioxidant activities as measured by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity, and FRAP assay. When compared to PM without OP, PM that contained OP had a peroxide value that was almost 1.94 times lower. The emulsion stability was between 97.62 to 94.92% in the PM without OP and PM with OP groups was 99.60% for 12 weeks. This study showed that the inclusion of OP in PM has the potential to inprove its quality, antioxidant activities, and storage stability.
소비자에게 판매하기 위해 비육을 하여 길러지는 돼지가 아닌 새끼를 낳기 위해 장기간 사육되는 돼지를 모돈이라 한다. 모돈은 규격돈보다 육색이 붉은 것이 특징이며 단단한 조직감으로 인해 잘 소비되지 않는다. 본 연구는 모돈을 가공 원료육으로 활용하기 위해 품질 및 가공특성을 평가하였다. 먼저, 냉동-해동된 모돈과 규격돈의 뒷다리를 이용하여 품질특성을 비교하였으며 가공특성은 유화형소시지를 제조하여 수행하였다. 원료육의 품질특성은 일반성분, pH, 육색, 콜라겐 함량, 조직감, 보수력을 측정하였고 가공특성은 유화형소시지를 제조하여 조직감 및 유화 안정성을 측정하였다. 모돈의 육색은 규격돈보다 붉고(p<0.05), 조직감은 단단하였다(p<0.05). 그러나 pH, 보수력, 콜라겐 함량, 유화 안정성, 소시지의 조직감은 유의적인 차이가 없었다. 결론적으로 모돈의 단단한 조직감은 분쇄를 통해 해결하였으며 대부분의 품질 및 가공특성은 모돈과 규격돈에서 동일하였다. 따라서 모돈을 가공 원료육으로 활용하면 규격돈과 가공특성의 차이가 없음을 확인하였으며, 규격돈에 비해 높은 수율은 제품 원가를 절감할 수 있을 것으로 판단된다.
This study investigated the changes in fruit quality characteristics and how they correlated with the storage conditions and storage period. The firmness of peaches stored in cold storage decreased rapidly after 14 days (13.0 N), but the firmness of peaches stored in CA storage remained high for 28 days (20.9 N). The titratable acidity of peaches stored in cold storage decreased rapidly from 0.23 to 0.26% after 21 days, but there was no change until 7 days for peaches stored in CA storage, and then it decreased to 0.23% after 28 days. The soluble solid content increased significantly as the storage period elapsed under cold storage, but there was no notable difference for CA storage. After 28 days of storage, the weight loss rate of peaches stored in CA storage(8%) was lower than peaches stored in cold storage( 23%). The was significant background color for peaches stored in cold storage after 7 days, and changed to a completely different color after 28 days of storage. As for the correlation between the quality characteristics of peach fruits stored at low temperatures, weight loss rate, sunny side ΔE value, background color lightness, background color redness, and ΔE value showed high correlations, and CA storage showed high correlations with weight loss rate and coloration. In conclusion, according to our study results, 'Kunika' peaches can be stored for 14 days in low-temperature storage and up to 28 days in CA storage, and it is thought that the weight loss rate, firmness, and coloration during storage can be used as factors for quality prediction.
To predict the quality of Fuji apples, this study investigated the characteristics and correlations of their fruit quality according to storage method and storage period. Fuji apples were stored in cold storage at 0oC for 250 days with no treatment, with 1-MCP treatment, and under controlled atmosphere (CA) storage. According to the storage method, the weight loss was the lowest in the CA-treated group (3.43%) until 250 days, and the change in fruit firmness was the least in the 1-MCP group. The titratable acidity remained above 0.2% for 1-MCP and CA storage until 250 days and decreased to 0.1% for cold storage. The principal component analysis showed a difference in quality between the 1-MCP group, CA group, and cold storage group after 200 days of storage. Six types of volatile components were commonly detected in all storage methods, while three types of independent components with a low threshold were detected in 1-MCP. Weight loss, titrable acidity, and firmness were highly correlated with physicochemical quality, and CA storage was judged to be a long-term storage technology that satisfies consumers’ tastes by maintaining excellent flavor and quality.