In this study, the fate and removal of 15 pharmaceuticals (including stimulants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, etc.) in unit processes of a sewage treatment plant (STP) were investigated. Mass loads of pharmaceuticals were 2,598 g/d in the influent, 2,745 g/d in the primary effluent, 143 g/d in the secondary effluent, and 134 g/d in the effluent. The mass loads were reduced by 95% in the biological treatment process, but total phosphorous treatment did not show a significant effect on the removal of most pharmaceuticals. Also, mass balance analysis was performed to evaluate removal characteristics of pharmaceuticals in the biological treatment process. Acetaminophen, caffeine, acetylsalicylic acid, cefradine, and naproxen were efficiently removed in the biological treatment process mainly due to biodegradation. Removal efficiencies of gemfibrozil, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin were not high, but their removal was related to sorption onto sludge. This study provides useful information on understanding removal characteristics of pharmaceuticals in unit processes in the STP.
The predictive capacity of wastewater treatment facility in the industrial park was estimated by the traditional method and on-the-spot survey such as certification of wastewater report and the invoices of water supply and ground water supply. The ratios of a converted wastewater to supplied industrial water between traditional method and on-the-spot survey in the estimation methods were different. By using traditional method, the business type of clothes, accessary and fur production had 77.18 % of waste ratio of wastewater and 10.72 m3/day·1000 m2 unit mass of wastewater as the highest among 9 business types. With the respect to the on-the-spot survey, food manufacturing business type had 75 % of waste ratio of wastewater and 8.35 m3/day·1000 m2 unit mass of wastewater as the highest values. The amount of wastewater from on-the-spot survey method was 541 m3/day less than one from traditional method.
In Korea, inspection and precise safety diagnosis is regularly carried out to maintain and manage the main tunnel(NATM) which has been passed ten years after completion. In this study, we collected the laboratory test results of the concrete lining in the existing road and railway tunnels, and analyzed the correlation between compressive strength and unit mass of concrete. It is hoped that it will be used for efficient maintenance and management work of tunnels in the future.