Current Topic in Lactic Acid Bacteria and Probiotics Vol. 1. No. 1 (p.28-37)

김치 발효에 관여하는 유산균 및 면역 조절 기능

Lactic Acid Bacteria in Kimchi and Their Immunomodulatory Activities
키워드 :
kimchi,lactic acid bacteria,immunomodulatory activity,probiotics

초록

김치발효에는 여러 종류의 유산균이 관여하고 있고 이들은 면역조절기능 등 다양한 probiotics 특성을 가지고 있다고 알려져 있으나 기존 연구가 주로 배추김치에 국한되어 있어 보다 다양한 종류의 김치에 대한 미생물학적 분석이 요구된다. 그리고 김치발효의 메커니즘을 보다 정확히 이해하기 위해서는 bacteriophage와 김치유산균과의 관계가 구명되어야 할 것이다. 이와 더불어 김치유산균의 특성 및 이들이 가지고 있는 유전자의 기능을 보다 심도 있게 연구해서 김치 종주국으로서 우위를 유지하고, 학술적인 유산균 연구분야에 있어서도 국제수준의 경쟁력을 확보해야 할 것이다.
Kimchi is a Korean traditional food, which refers to the fermented vegetable product. Major ingredients and various condiments (especially, red pepper, garlic and jeotgal) are used in kimchi preparation. It is known to be an important source of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber as well as a good dietary source of lactic acid bacteria for human. Kimchi fermentation is initiated by various microorganisms originally present in the raw materials, but the fermentation is gradually dominated by lactic acid bacteria. Analysis of the kimchi microbiota using culture-based identification method and metagenomic analysis indicated that Leuconostoc citreum, Leu. gasicomitatum, Leu. gelidum, Leu. mesenteroides, Lactobacillus sakei, and Weissella koreensis were dominant microbe in several different kimchi samples. There has been much recent interest in the use of various strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi as probiotics. The characteristics of lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi as a immunomodulator that have been studied include survival in gastric conditions, colonization of the intestine, anticancer effects, stimulation of the immune system 1) proliferation of splenocytes and Peyer's patch cells, 2) production on nitric oxide (NO) by macrophages, 3) production of intestinal secretory IgA, 4) modulation of tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-α and interlenkin(IL)-12 concentration, 5) production of specific IgG. This review describes diversity of lactic acid bacteria in kimchi and immunomodulatory activities of lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi.