The Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs introduced the Agrifood Voucher in 2020. The Agrifood Voucher is the program that provides vouchers to purchase selected food items with dietary management education. This study aimed to explore value and meaning of dietary management based on the Agrifood Voucher. First, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program of the United States and the Agrifood Voucher of Korea were reviewed. Second, various terms used for describing the purpose of food assistance programs were comparatively reviewed and ‘food and nutrition security’, together with the corresponding Korean term, was proposed to be the most appropriate term for the purpose. Subsequently, the value and meaning of dietary management based on the Agrifood Voucher were presented as enhancing food and nutrition security of the vulnerable. Diverse education programs should be developed and implemented to improve the dietary management capacity of the Agrifood Voucher recipients in order to properly realize the meaning and value of dietary management based on the Agrifood Voucher in the future.