Modernism is an internationally accepted design style. In addition, traditional Korean costume is not the clothing of the past, but its form is also used in modern fashion. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the social and cultural contents of the morphological structure of traditional Korean costume, in order to derive the design characteristics of modernism and examine the global applicability of traditional Korean costume structure. For this study, photographic materials from museums, schematic drawings of relics, and Hanbok production books published by government agencies were analyzed. Further, this study examined traditional Korean costume, especially the modernism characteristics derived from Paul Greenhalgh and previous studies. The results are as follows. First, The traditional Korean costume is a cut based on basic shapes, along with a silhouette appears according to the background of the times. Second, the characteristics of modernism can be divided into universality, functionality, and simplicity. Third, as a result of analyzing the form structure of traditional Korean costume based on the characteristics of modernism, universality is expressed as standardized form, functionality as practical aesthetics, and simplicity as sustainable diversity. Furthermore, Korean costume has a difference in that was greatly influenced by various Eastern ideas and aesthetics of the late Joseon Dynasty. These findings provide a perspective of modern reinterpretation of the uniqueness and universality of traditional Korean costume in line with globalization by utilizing the design characteristics of modernism, an international style.