한국과 국제사회 제5권 5호 (p.303-332)

比较分析宗教在印巴两国民族国家构建中的作用

Dance Comparative analysis of the religions' roles in the nation-state construction of India and Pakistan
키워드 :
宗教,印度,巴基斯坦,印巴分治,民族国家构建,Religion,India,Pakistan,Ind-Pak partition,Nation state construction

목차

内容提要
I. 序论
Ⅱ. 相关文献对印巴两国民族国家构建和宗教间关系的解释和不足
Ⅲ. 印度教对印度民族国家构建的作用分析
   1. 印度教的包容性推动了印度世俗化与现代化进程
   2. 成为利益集团煽动民族情绪的政治工具
   3. 构建印度民族国家的意识形态
IV. 伊斯兰教对巴基斯坦民族国家构建的作用分析
   1. 奠定了巴国的立国基础及政治民族身份认同
   2. 伊斯兰教逐渐主导巴基斯坦政治
   3. 宗教认同大于民族认同,极端主义深化
V. 比较宗教在印巴两国民族国家构建中的作用差异
   1. 教是构建印巴民族国家的思想基础,但存在明显的凝聚力差异
   2. 教思想虽引领了政党纲领和政府政策,但对国家政治的影响力不同
   3. 在强化各民族对国家的认同感方面存在明显程度差异
Ⅵ. 结论
<参考文献>
<Abstract>

초록

印度半岛是世界上宗教历史最悠久的区域,宗教贯穿了从古印度到英属 印度,再到后来印巴分治的历史发展过程。第二次世界大战结束之后,随 着世界民族解放运动热潮澎湃,再加上英属印度境内的印度教徒和穆斯林 之间的对立不断激化,宗主国英国推出了《蒙巴顿方案》来承认穆斯林建立 独立政权的权力,这最终导致印度于1950年正式构建了民族国家,紧接着 1956年巴基斯坦构建了共和国。宗教因素对印巴两国的民族国家构建,以 及对建国后的从政治经济等各个领域都起到了重要的作用。本文在比较分 析印度教对印度建国的作用和伊斯兰教对巴基斯坦建国的作用后,论证了 宗教在印巴两国民族构建作用方面的相同点和差异性。本文发现了宗教是 印巴两国构建民族国家的思想基础,但在凝聚力方面存在明显差异;宗教 思想不同程度的影响了两国的国家政策和施政纲领;宗教还不同程度的强 化了两国各民族对于国家的认同感。
The Indian peninsula is the region with the longest religious history in the world. Religion runs through the historical development process from ancient India to British India, and then to the partition between India and Pakistan. After the second world war, with the booming of national movement for emancipation, coupled with British India suffering from intensified confrontation between hindus and muslims, suzerain Britain introduced the ‘Mountbatten Plan’ to admit Muslim to establish a separated regime, which ultimately led to the construction of India nation-state in 1950, and the formation of Pakistan followed in 1956. Religious factors played an important role in the nation-state construction, as well as in various fields including politics, economy and so on after the establishment of the two countries. After a comparative analysis of the Hinduism’s role in the founding of India and that of Islam in the founding of Pakistan, this paper demonstrated the similarities and differences of religions’ roles in India and Pakistan. As a result, this paper found that religions were the ideological basis for both India and Pakistan to build a nation-state, but there are obvious differences in cohesion. Religious thoughts have influenced the national policies and administrative programs of the two countries in different degrees. Religions also more or less have strengthened the sense of national identity of each ethnic group in the two countries.