본 연구는 폐쇄형 식물공장에서 시금치 수경재배시 세가지의 인공광이 생육, 광합성 및 품질에 미치는 영향을 규명하기 위해 수행되었다. 세가지 광 처리구는 적색 (660nm), 청색 (450nm) 및 녹색 (550nm) LED를 사용하여, R660 / B450 = 4/1 (RBL), R660 / B450 / G550 = 5/2/3 (WWL); R660 / B450 / G550 = 1/1/1 (WL) 비율로 혼합하였고, 동일한 광도로 설정하였다 (PPFD = 190 μmol‧m-2 ‧s-1). 생육조사결과 초장, 엽수는 WL이 가장 적었다. SPAD, 순광합성율, Fv/Fm, LAI, 근권부 생육은 RBL이 가장 높았고 통계적으로 유의하였다. 줄기, 잎, 뿌리의 생체중, 뿌리의 건물중은 세가지 처리구에서 유의한 차이를 보였다. 대조적으로 WL의 칼륨의 함량은 WWL과 RBL 가운데 가장 높았지만, 반면 칼륨과 철의 함량은 RBL이 가장 높았다. 비타민C 함량도 시험구간 유의한 차이를 보였다. 질소와 옥살산 함량은 WL이 가장 높았고, 용해성 고체와 비타민C 함량은 RBL이 가장 높았다. 옥살산, 질소 함량은 WWL에서 감소하는 경향을 보였고, RBL의 옥살산 함량은 WL와 WWL과 차이가 없었다. 모든 처리구에서 Salmonella, E.coli.는 감염되지 않았다. 결론적으로, RBL이 시금치의 생육에 적합하지만, 적색, 청색과 적정하게 혼합된 녹색광은 시금치의 생육에 긍정적인 영향을 미친다고 판단된다.
Project manager plays a very important role in the success of any project. The primary duty of the project manager is to combine the outcomes or results of the various processes and activities of project management into a systematic project management strategy or plan for the project. In the construction industry, a lack of motivation is an urgent problem for many project managers in construction and engineering projects. Lack of motivation affects the quality and productivity of jobs, reducing profits and growth for companies, businesses, contractors or organizations that rely on human resources. The reasons for this lack of motivation are diverse ranging from salary to culture to life and working environment, among others. Through surveys and data analysis using Cronbach’s Alpha reliability and EFA (Exploratory Factor Analysis), our research scaled the factors affecting work motivation of project managers in the construction industry in Vietnam. The research results identified six major groups of relevant factors including (i) salary and benefits, (ii) work environment, (iii) promotion opportunities, (iv) organizational culture, (v) interest in the job, and (vi) relationship with the organization. From there, this paper contributed useful information as well as measures for businesses, companies, contractors or organizations in the construction industry.
The main aim of the present study is to investigate the factors that are considered affecting the adoption of Activity-Based Costing (ABC) in the autonomous public universities in Vietnam. A quantitative research was carried out. The data was collected through an online questionnaire survey between June 2020 and September 2020 addressed to the target respondents comprising 168 managers and accountants from 23 autonomous public universities in Vietnam, which participated in the resolution project No. 77/NQ-CP of the Vietnamese government on the pilot renovation of operational mechanisms of public tertiary education institutions during the period of four years, from 2014 to 2017. The findings resulted from hypothesis testing by a binary regression analysis based on the SPSS 20.0 software show that training, competition, support of top manager, and university size are the four main factors that positively affect the adoption of Activity-Based Costing (ABC) in studied universities. On the other hand, no statistically significant impact was found on two other variables, namely the variety of services provided and the usefulness of cost information factors. From the research results, discussions and policy recommendations have been presented to promote the adoption of Activity-Based Costing (ABC) in Vietnamese autonomous public universities in the coming time.
E-commerce development led to the explosion of online payment. Consumers have many choices when deciding on the online payment method for each transaction. Using a combination of both qualitative and quantitative methods with the help of SPSS AMOS version 22.0, the article explores the factors that influence consumers’ online payment method decision behavior in Vietnam. Research results show that awareness of usefulness, awareness of risk, awareness of trust, awareness ease of use, product uncertainly perception and perceived behavioral control have effects on the behavior of deciding on online payment methods. Awareness of risk has the strongest negative impact on online payment method decision behavior and awareness of usefulness has the strongest positive impact on online payment method decision behavior. Based on these important results, the article proposes a number of implications: (i) continuing to invest and upgrade modern technology to ensure customer information absolutely confidential; (ii) converting all ATM cards on the market to EMV chip standard card technology; (iii) improving service activities, quickly handle things to create confidence for customers; (iv) credit institutions operating in the field of online payment linked to e-commerce sites, supermarkets, convenience stores, restaurants must ask partners to increase transparency for the products.
Livelihood capitals have a clear influence on livelihood development. As for the livelihood results, it has been pointed out in the analysis of the poor households that the ability of people to escape poverty depends especially on the access to livelihood capitals. This study aims to analyze the impacts of livelihood capital on poverty among mountain people who depend on forests through human capital, social capital, natural capital, physical capital and financial capital. This research employs the model of binary regression function. Independent variables x1, x2, ..., xn are targets of livelihood strategy, vulnerability context, and livelihood capitals. These variables were selected to be included in the original model with dependent variable Y as poor and non-poor households. This study surveys households living in upland areas, near forests, and households of ethnic minorities. The results show that,out of the poor household rate, nearly 4% are newly-poor households or those falling back into poverty. Therefore, the government needs to pay more attention to this disadvantaged group and implements policies such as education and training policies, credit support policies, policies to support forest development, and payment for forest environmental services in the context of emerging countries like Vietnam.,
The paper investigates the factors affecting the profitability of commercial banks in Asian developing countries, including Vietnam, Malaysia and Thailand. We use panel data of four entities; ten banks in Vietnam, eight banks in Malaysia, nine banks in Thailand and all 27 commercial banks from the period 2012 to 2016. Particularly, Return on Asset, Return on Equity and TOBINQ are defined as profitability indicators, which are impacted by three main types of independent variables, namely bank-specifics, which include CAR, NPL, Cost to income, Liquidity ratio and Bank size, industry-specific variable-concentration HHI and macroeconomic-specific variables, which consist of GDP growth and Inflation. Using panel data regressions, the paper identifies several similarities and differences among empirical results on the models of four entities, each of three countries and the overall sample. The most outstanding similarity is that all entities record the significantly negative relationship between operational risk and banking profitability. Likewise, the significantly negative influence of bank size to profitability is found on models of Vietnam and Thailand and no significant effect on the model of Malaysia. Meanwhile, the most controversial result comes up with the negative relationship between CAR and profitability indicators as well as the positive association between credit risk and banking profitability.