한국유아교육연구 제10권 (p.69-104)

교사가 지각한 유아의 기질과 자기조절력

Young Children's Temperament Perceived by Teachers and Self-regulation
키워드 :
자기조절력,self- regulation

초록

본 연구는 교사가 지각한 유아의 기질에 따라 집단 간에 그리고 집단 내에서 기질과 성차의 특성이 자기조절력에 어떻게 반영되고 있는지를 알아보는데 그 목적이 있다. 위와 같은 목적에 따라 다음과 같은 연구 문제를 설정하였다. 1. 교사가 지각한 유아의 기질에 따라 자기조절력은 어떻게 나타나는가? 1-1. 교사가 지각한 유아 기질의 집단 간에 자기조절력은 성별에 따라 어떠한 차이가 나는가? 1-2. 교사가 지각한 유아 기질의 집단 내에 자기조절력은 성별에 따라 어떠한 차이가 나는가? 자기조절력은 구성요인 중 인지조절의 하위요소인 계획하기, 점검 및 평가, 정서조절의 하위요소인 정서인식, 정서억제, 대처하기 모두에서 성별에 따라 유의한 차이가 없는 것으로 나타났다
This study investigated how young children's characteristics of temperament and gender according to their temperament between and within groups perceived by teachers would be reflected in their self-regulation. For the purpose, following research questions were set up: 1. How does young children's self regulation emerge according to their temperament perceived by teachers? 1-1. Is there any difference of young children's self-regulation between temperament groups perceived by teachers according to gender? 1-2. Is there any difference of young children's self-regulation within temperament groups perceived by teachers according to gender? Subjects were 47 easy children (14 boys and 33 girls) and 36 difficult children (28 boys and 8 girls) who were selected after the Young Children's Temperament Test for Teachers administered to 277 five-year-old children attending 11 public kindergartens in Sooncheon, Jeonnam. Selected subjects' age ranged from five years and four months to six years and one month and their age average was five years and ten months (five years and ten months for both boys and girls). To measure young children's temperament, Kang's (1997) scale for teachers consists of four subscales, that is, approach or withdrawal, adaptability, quality of mood, and intensity of reaction. This scale was revised version of Gordon's (1981) scale which used five subscales from the Instrument for Young Children's Temperament (Thomas, Chess, & Korn, 1977). As a measure of young children's self-regulation, the Young Children's Self-regulation Scale for Teachers (Yang, 2006) was used. The means and standard deviations of young children's temperament and self-regulation were first computed from collected data. t-tests were then conducted to investigate any difference of self-regulation between easy and difficult children groups perceived by teachers according to gender. Secondly, t-tests were also conducted to investigate any difference of self-regulation within easy and difficult children groups perceived by teachers according to gender. Results of this study were as follows: First, self-regulation scores between easy and difficult boy groups showed significant difference in cognitive and emotional regulations (p< .001). Specifically, boys' children's self-regulation showed significant differences according to temperament in cognitive regulation factors such as planning and monitoring/evaluation and emotional regulation factors such as emotional recognition, emotional control, and emotional management (p< .001). Second, self-regulation scores between easy and difficult girl groups showed significant difference in cognitive and emotional regulations (p< .001). Specifically, girls' self-regulation showed significant differences according to temperament in cognitive regulation factors such as planning and monitoring/evaluation and emotional regulation factors such as emotional recognition, emotional control, and emotional management (p< .001). Third, young children's self-regulation within easy temperament group showed significant difference according to gender in emotional regulation (p< .05). Cognitive regulation showed no significant difference, however. Specifically, young children's self-regulation showed no significant difference according to gender in cognitive regulation factors such as planning and monitoring/evaluation and emotional regulation factors such as emotional recognition and emotional management. Conversely, emotional control showed significant difference (p< .01). Fourth, young children's self-regulation within difficult temperament group showed no significant difference according to gender. In other words, cognitive and emotional regulation according to gender showed no significant difference. Specifically, young children's self-regulation showed no significant difference according to gender in cognitive regulation factors such as planning and monitoring/evaluation and emotional regulation factors such as emotional recognition, emotional control, and emotional management.