Optimization of Muffin preparation upon Addition of Jerusalem Artichoke Powder and Oligosaccharide by Response Surface Methodology
This study was performed to determine the optimal composition of a muffin added with jerusalem artichoke powder and oligosaccharide. The experiment was designed based on CCD (central composite design), and evaluation was carried out by means of RSM (response surface methodology), which included 10 experimental points with three replicates each for the two independent variables jerusalem artichoke powder and oligosaccharide. The experimental muffin was prepared according to a traditional recipe, except that the flour was partially replaced by jerusalem artichoke powder (5, 15, or 25%) and the sugar was partially replaced by oligosaccharide (25, 50, or 75%). Using F-test, height, moisture, a-value, b-value, springiness, cohesiveness, texture, and overall acceptability were expressed as a linear model, whereas volume, pH, L-value, appearance, flavor and taste were expressed as a quadratic model. Increased amounts of jerusalem artichoke powder led to reduction of sensory scores for appearance, flavor, taste, texture, and overall quality. The optimum formulation determined by the numerical and graphical methods were similar: jerusalem artichoke powder 10.99%, oligosaccharide 71.40%.