Effects of Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) Leaf Powder on Quality Characteristics, Antioxidant Activities, and Retarding Retrogradation by Shelf-life of Sponge Cake
This study investigated the quality characteristics, antioxidant activities, and retarding retrogradation of sponge cakes made with 0%, 1%, 3%, 5% and 7% pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) leaf powder. Specific capacity significantly increased with the addition (0.33~0.38), but baking loss and dough yield were not significantly different (p<0.05). In color, there was a decrease in the L-value, a-value and b-value, but △E increased in proportion to the amount of pumpkin leaf powder. Moisture content increased in the 0~3% additions, from 27.90~31.68%, but decreased in 5% and 7% (22.37% and 28.15%, respectively). pH tended to decrease significantly according to the amount of pumpkin leaf powder (p<0.05). Hardness increased with the addition of pumpkin leaf powder, and pumpkin leaf groups presented higher springiness and cohesiveness than the control. Chewiness was not significantly differ (p<0.05). In retarding retrogradation, Avrami exponent (n) showed that addition of 5% (0.1329) had more retarding retrogradation effect than the control (0.4319), whereas time constant (1/k) showed both 3% (100.00) and 5% (70.42) addition had more effect than control (18.45). Total phenols and flavonoids content increased proportionate to the addition levels. ABTS radical scavenging activity tended to increase according to the level of pumpkin leaf powder. In sensory properties, 5% addition showed maximum color, and 3% addition had the highest scores in flavor, moistness, sweetness, chewiness and overall acceptability. These results suggested that pumpkin leaf was a good addition to improve the quality characteristics, health and sensory preferences. The most appropriate proportion to have the effect of retarding retrogradation in sponge cake is 3%.