This study aimed to develop an optimal processing method for the production of apple-mango jelly for domestic suppliers, by analyzing the quality attributes of the jelly. According to the central composite design, a total of 11 experimental points were designed including the content of apple-mango juice (X1), and the sugar content (X2). The responses were analyzed including the color values (CIE Lab and color difference), physicochemical properties (water activity, sweetness, pH, and total acidity), and textural properties (hardness and gel strength). Regression analysis was conducted, except for total acidity, and showed no significant difference for all the experimental points (p<0.05). Quadratic model was derived for all responses with an R square value ranging from 0.8590 to 0.9978. Based on regression model, the appropriate mixing ratio of apple-mango jelly was found to be 31.11% of apple mango juice and 14.65% of sugar. Through this study, the possibility for developing jelly product using apple-mango was confirmed, and it is expected that these findings will contribute to the improvement of the agricultural industry.
In this study, the effect of osmotic drying conditions of mangoes on hot air drying was investigated. Four different osmotic agents of 60 Brix, such as S60, SM10, HF80, and SG25, were prepared. Mango slabs were osmotically dried with the agents at a ratio of 1:4 (w/w) for up to 8 hours. SG25 showed the lowest weight reduction and moisture loss during the process. As a result of hot-air drying, all samples showed a high correlation with the Page model (0.9761~0.9997), and the required drying time of all samples that were osmotically dried was reduced compared to the non-osmotically dried group. After hot-air drying, the pH value increased according to the drying temperature. The L, a, and b values and the total polyphenol content also decreased. Through this study, the possibility of osmotic drying was confirmed to increase the efficiency of hot air drying of mangoes, which is expected to contribute to the industrial use of domestic mangoes.
In this paper, quality properties and antioxidant capacity of cooked black carrot has been studied. Five different cooking methods have been applied: microwave (45 sec), boiling (100℃, 14 min), steaming (100℃, 20 min), sous vide (75℃, 80 min), sous-vide (95℃, 30 min). The color value was slightly different (p<0.05), the boiling method was the highest in L-value and Sous vide 75℃ method was the lowest. The steaming method indicated the highest a-value at 5.50. The b-value was significantly different between the samples (p<0.05). The microwave method was the highest at 3.49 while the sous vide 95℃ method was the lowest at －0.34. No significant difference was observed between the samples when only the moisture content results were considered. The highest pH was observed in samples cooked using the boiling method. The softening (%) was higher when the cooking water was in contact with samples and it was dependent on the temperatures. In addition, this study shows that not only temperature but also cooking time and cooking media are very crucial in the preparation and cooking of black carrot to prevent the loss of the antioxidant compound. In conclusion, the comparison of the quality characteristics and antioxidant properties of black carrots indicated that the most appropriate cooking method is sous-vide method.
In this study, baked rice donuts with added psyllium seed husk were manufactured and their quality and retrogradation characteristics were investigated. Control (Con) was made only with wheat flour; Psyllium seed husk in the amount of 8, 12, 16 and 20 grams was added to make rice donuts (P8, P12, P16 and P20). Higher amounts of psyllium seed husk reduced the moisture loss and baking loss, and increased the moisture content and water holding capacity of the donuts. The specific volume of Con was the highest of all the groups. As the amount of psyllium seed husk increased, the lightness and yellowness of the crumb decreased, and the redness of the crumb increased. Hardness also increased as the amount of psyllium seed husk increased. The hardness of P16 was the most similar to that of Con. The scanning electron microscopy images also identified that the structure of the donuts got denser as the amount of psyllium seed husk increased. Rate constant (k) of the rice donuts with psyllium seed husk were lower than that of Con. In conclusion, it is considered that P16 is the sample that is the most similar to Con in terms of texture, but the retrogradation was more retarded in P16 than Con.
Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) seed is rich in protein and sulfur-containing amino acids. Tofu is a protein gel made from soybean, which is rich in lysine but lacking in sulfur-containing amino acids. This study was conducted to investigate the use of pumpkin seeds in tofu manufacture and to determine its quality and texture characteristics. Soybean was substituted with pumpkin seed to obtain pumpkin seed tofu at the following ratios: 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% (P10, P30, P50 and P70). Tofu manufactured only with soybean was used as a control (Con). The higher rate of pumpkin seed substitution significantly decreased the moisture content and yield rate (p<0.05). In contrast, pH value and turbidity were significantly increased with the increase in the amount of pumpkin seed (p<0.05). The L-value (81.74~79.04), a-value (－0.19~－3.89) and b-value (12.40~9.84) of samples significantly decreased with the amount of pumpkin seed (p<0.05). No significant difference in syneresis was found among the samples (p<0.05). The hardness tended to decrease with the increase in the amount of pumpkin seed. The microstructure analysis revealed that the pore size of pumpkin seed tofu was smaller than that of Con. These results suggest that the pumpkin seed protein is a useful ingredient in the manufacture of tofu. Increasing the pumpkin seed substitution levels improves the texture of tofu.
As the consumption of wheat has increased recently, the number of people who have digestive problems resulting from gluten in wheat has also increased. Teff has an attractive nutritional profile, as it not only gluten-free but also high in dietary fiber, protein, iron, and calcium. Seven samples were prepared for this study. The quality characteristics of gluten-free noodles were evaluated based on pH, salinity, water absorption, turbidity, color, texture properties, tensile strength, and SEM. The pH value was the highest in TF100 with a pH of 6.66 and the lowest in the control with a pH of 6.42. Salinity showed no significant difference among all samples, and it ranged from 0.02~0.04% (p<0.05). Water absorption was the highest in TFX with a value of 66.11%, and the lowest in the control with a value of 44.81%. Turbidity showed no significant difference among all samples, and it ranged from 0.14~0.21 O.D. (p<0.05). While the lightness and yellowness values decreased with an increase in teff flour content, the redness value tended to decrease. The color difference value was the highest in the sample group without gluten. Based on the texture profile analysis, the hardness was highest in the control with a value of 46.74 N and lowest in TF100 with a value of 18.34 N. The springiness showed no significant difference among all samples. The cohesiveness was highest in the control with a value of 0.92 N. The chewiness decreased with an increase in teff flour content. Although the control with gluten had the highest tensile strength at 3.42 kg/cm2, TFX had considerable tensile strength at 2.30 kg/cm2. This study demonstrated the processability of gluten-free noodles using teff flour.
An agricultural waste, pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel is known to be rich in total phenolics, which are flavonoids having strong antioxidant effects. In this study, pomegranate peel sponge cakes were prepared with varying ratios of freeze dried pomegranate peel powder (0, 1, 3, 5, 7% (w/w)) to examine their effect on quality characteristics, retrogradation and antioxidant activities. The specific gravity and moisture contents of 3, 5, and 7% pomegranate peel powder showed higher values than the control and 1% group. Addition of pomegranate peel powder increased the batter yield, while there was a significant decrease in baking loss. Increasing pomegranate peel powder content significantly decreased the lightness (L) (from 75.03 to 57.04) and pH values, whereas redness (a), yellowness (b) and ΔE were increased. Increasing concentration of the peel powder also increased the hardness and chewiness, while the springiness and cohesiveness decreased. Considering the Avrami equation, Avrami exponene (n) decreased from 1.8055 (control) to 0.9199 (7% pomegranate peel powder). Time constant (1/k) was lowest in control (at 17.64) and highest in the 7% group (39.84). Total polyphenol, flavonoid content, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities significantly increased with increments in the content of pomegranate peel powder. A sensory evaluation by the 7-point scaling method showed that the sponge cake containing 7% pomegranate peel powder had the highest scores in color, flavor, sweetness, chewiness and overall acceptability. Hence, it is considered that sponge cake supplemented with 7% pomegranate peel powder is the most appropriate for quality characteristics, retrogradation and antioxidant activities.
This study investigated the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of gluten-free cookies containing teff flour. By substituting 0% (control), 25% (TF25), 50% (TF50), 75% (TF75), and 100% (TF100) of wheat flour with teff flour, five samples were produced. Baking loss rate was the highest in TF25 at 13.76% and the lowest in TF75 at 4.03%. Spread factor was significantly higher in cookies made with teff flour (83.00~85.00) than in the control (81.33) (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in density among the samples at 1.17~1.25 g/mL (p<0.05); however, pH significantly decreased at 6.42~6.04 (p<0.05). While the L-value and b-value significantly decreased with the amount of teff flour, the a-value significantly increased (p<0.05). The ΔE value was the highest in the control at 31.31 and the lowest in TF100 at 58.69. Hardness was the highest in the control at 42.04 N than in cookies containing teff flour. The content of polyphenols was the highest in TF100 at 3.37 μg GAE/mg and the lowest in the control at 1.32 μg GAE/mg. The content of flavonoids was the highest in TF100 at 3.66 μg QE/mg and the lowest in controls at 0.45 μg QE/mg. The value of DPPH IC50 was the highest in the control at 3,723.00 μg/mL and the lowest in TF 100 at 405.27 μg/mL. The value of ABTS IC50 was the highest in the control at 1,822.32 μg/mL and the lowest in TF100 at 529.30 μg/mL. In sensory evaluation, while control, TF75, and TF100 had a higher score in appearance at 5.52~5.60, all samples had no significant differences in flavor, sweetness, savory taste, chewiness, and overall acceptability (p<0.05). These results showed that the gluten-free cookies containing teff flour can improve the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of a cookie. We concluded that gluten-free cookies containing 100% teff flour are desirable.
Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed, originated from Central America, is a nutritious food especially rich in dietary fiber and protein. In this study, we investigated the quality and sensory characteristics of Yanggang with chia seed powder (CSP). Red bean paste was replaced with CSP at 0% (Control), 1% (CSP1), 2% (CSP2), 3% (CSP3) and 4% (CSP4). The pH values of chia seed Yanggang tended to decrease from Control (6.84) to CSP4 (6.67); whereas, the moisture contents of Yanggang samples tended to increase. The soluble solid contents of CSP4 were the highest (3.33 ˚Bx), as compared to the Control which showed the lowest values (2.77 ˚Bx). In the CSP-added groups, the L-value (lightness), a-value (redness) and b-value (yellowness) were increased, while the ΔE (total color difference) was decreased, as compared to the control group. Hardness and springiness were both increased from control (49.77 g/cm2 and 464.80%, respectively) to CSP4 (72.21 g/cm2 and 532.43%, respectively). However, cohesiveness decreased from control (47.41%) to CSP4 (37.34%). Chewiness and adhesiveness showed no significant group-wise difference (p<0.05). Total polyphenol content ranged from 7.23 to 10.73 mg GAE/100 g, with a lower ABTS IC50 of the CSP-added groups than that of the control group. Samples from the CSP-added as well as Control groups showed no significant differences among all items on the sensory evaluation test, except flavor. The results indicated that CSP had significant effects on the soluble solid contents and texture of Yanggang. Thus, the addition of 2% of CSP is desirable for making Yanggang.
Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) is a shrub which grows well in a tropical climate. There are large amounts of anthocyanins, organic acids and other compounds in roselle. Mostly, roselle is cultivated to use its red calyx. Its calyx is used as a natural food colorant and commonly consumed as a tea. This quality study was conducted to investigate the characteristics and antioxidant activities of Sulgidduck with roselle calyx powder. Four samples and a control were made with different ratios of added roselle calyx powder (0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%). The moisture content of the 0.5%-sample was the highest as 40.60%, and that of the 2%-sample was the lowest as 37.37%. The pH of samples significantly decreased from 6.26 to 3.65 as the amount of roselle calyx powder increased (p<0.05). The L-value of samples also significantly decreased (p<0.05). In contrast, a-value and △E of samples significantly increased with elevated amounts of roselle calyx powder (p<0.05). The b-value of roselle calyx added Sulgidduck samples significantly increased compared to the control (p<0.05). Hardness and chewiness of Sulgidduck samples with added roselle calyx also significantly increased compared to the control (p<0.05). Cohesiveness of Sulgidduck samples with roselle calyx significantly decreased compared to control (p<0.05), with the exception of the 1% sample. There were no significant differences in springiness among samples. Total phenolic contents significantly increased when roselle calyx powder was added above a level of 1.5% (p<0.05). The flavonoid content of the control was the lowest as 0.73. ABTS radical scavenging activity significantly increased with increasing amounts roselle calyx powder (p<0.05). The 2%-sample got the lowest sensory preference scores in sweetness and overall acceptability. In contrast, the control and 1%-sample got the highest sensory preference scores. Based on these study findings, addition of 1% roselle calyx powder optimized the preparation of Sulgidduck and roselle calyx is therefore a useful natural colorant and antioxidant.
This study investigated the quality characteristics, antioxidant activities, and retarding retrogradation of sponge cakes made with 0%, 1%, 3%, 5% and 7% pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) leaf powder. Specific capacity significantly increased with the addition (0.33~0.38), but baking loss and dough yield were not significantly different (p<0.05). In color, there was a decrease in the L-value, a-value and b-value, but △E increased in proportion to the amount of pumpkin leaf powder. Moisture content increased in the 0~3% additions, from 27.90~31.68%, but decreased in 5% and 7% (22.37% and 28.15%, respectively). pH tended to decrease significantly according to the amount of pumpkin leaf powder (p<0.05). Hardness increased with the addition of pumpkin leaf powder, and pumpkin leaf groups presented higher springiness and cohesiveness than the control. Chewiness was not significantly differ (p<0.05). In retarding retrogradation, Avrami exponent (n) showed that addition of 5% (0.1329) had more retarding retrogradation effect than the control (0.4319), whereas time constant (1/k) showed both 3% (100.00) and 5% (70.42) addition had more effect than control (18.45). Total phenols and flavonoids content increased proportionate to the addition levels. ABTS radical scavenging activity tended to increase according to the level of pumpkin leaf powder. In sensory properties, 5% addition showed maximum color, and 3% addition had the highest scores in flavor, moistness, sweetness, chewiness and overall acceptability. These results suggested that pumpkin leaf was a good addition to improve the quality characteristics, health and sensory preferences. The most appropriate proportion to have the effect of retarding retrogradation in sponge cake is 3%.
Black tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) is known to have more β-carotene, lycopene, and vitamin C than general redcolored tomatoes. In this study, we evaluated the quality properties, antioxidant activities and sensory characteristics of black tomato cookies. Cookies were prepared by replacing 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7% of flour with black tomato powder. Density of black tomato cookies tended to be decreased between control (1.20) and 3% added groups (1.12). pH value was decreased from control (6.66) to 7% added group (5.16). Spread factor and loss rate were increased with increasing amounts of black tomato powder. Hardness was gradually increased from 107.77 g/cm2 in control to 170.50 g/cm2 in 7% added group. Color measurement indicated that L-value (brightness) was highest in control (70.46) and lowest in 7% added group (45.23); whereas, a-value (redness) increased while b-value (yellowness) tended to decrease with increasing amounts of black tomato powder. Total polyphenol contents and DPPH radical scavenging activities were directly proportional to the amount of black tomato powder. Consumer preference scores in color and flavor of black tomato powder added group were higher than those of control. Characteristic strength test was not significantly different among the groups. Overall, the results indicated that adding 5% black tomato powder is desirable for making black tomato cookies.
본 연구에서는 기능성 제빵제품 개발의 일환으로 라디치 오 분말을 첨가하여 스펀지 케이크를 제조하고, 분말 첨가 비 율(1~7%)에 따른 스펀지 케이크의 품질 특성 및 항산화 활성을 분석하여 적절한 라디치오 분말 첨가량을 제시하고자 하 였다. 라디치오 스펀지 케이크의 pH는 라디치오 분말을 첨가 함에 따라 유의적인 차이를 보이지 않았다으나, 감소하는 경 향이 나타났다. 스펀지 케이크의 비중은 유의적으로 증가하 는 결과를 보였다. 수분 함량은 감소하였으며, 굽기 손실률은 증가하는 경향을 보였다. Crust의 색도는 라디치오 분말의 첨 가 수준에 따라 L, a, b값이 유의적으로 감소하였고, Crumb의 색도는 L값과 b값이 감소하고, a값은 증가하는 경향을 보였 다. 조직감 측정에서는 경도와 씹힘성이 점차 감소하였고, 응 집성과 탄력성은 유의적인 차이가 없었다. 라디치오 분말 첨 가량에 따라 총 폴리페놀 함량이 유의적으로 증가하였고, DPPH 라디칼 소거능 측정에서 IC50은 점점 감소하여 라디치 오 분말을 첨가할수록 스펀지 케이크의 항산화력이 높아지 는 것으로 나타났다. 관능검사 결과, 향미, 단맛, 촉촉함, 씹힘 성 등이 분말 첨가에 따라 감소하였으나, 3% 첨가군에서 색 상 및 전반적인 기호도에서 높은 점수를 받아, 라디치오 분말 을 첨가한 스펀지 케이크 제조 시 밀가루의 3%를 라디치오 분말로 대체하는 것이 가장 적절한 것으로 사료된다.