This study was conducted to evaluate the characteristics of bread and the rheology of flour dough containing jochung. In the farinogram test, the addition of jochung changed water absorption, development time and mixing tolerance index for making bread As the amount of jochung increased, the water absorption, mixing tolerance index decreased and the development time increased. In the extensograph test, the degree of extension decreased with increasing of jochung content whereas degree of resistance was enhanced with addition of jochung. After fermentation treatment, the volume of the dough with 20% sucrose were less than that of the dough containing 20% of jochung. The dough with 5% jochung showed the lowest dough raising power compared to the other doughs. The bread consisting of 15% jochung showed the highest volume of loaf and specific volume. Therefore, high quality of bread can be achieved by adding jochung instead of sucrose for making bread.
In this paper, quality properties and antioxidant capacity of cooked black carrot has been studied. Five different cooking methods have been applied: microwave (45 sec), boiling (100℃, 14 min), steaming (100℃, 20 min), sous vide (75℃, 80 min), sous-vide (95℃, 30 min). The color value was slightly different (p<0.05), the boiling method was the highest in L-value and Sous vide 75℃ method was the lowest. The steaming method indicated the highest a-value at 5.50. The b-value was significantly different between the samples (p<0.05). The microwave method was the highest at 3.49 while the sous vide 95℃ method was the lowest at －0.34. No significant difference was observed between the samples when only the moisture content results were considered. The highest pH was observed in samples cooked using the boiling method. The softening (%) was higher when the cooking water was in contact with samples and it was dependent on the temperatures. In addition, this study shows that not only temperature but also cooking time and cooking media are very crucial in the preparation and cooking of black carrot to prevent the loss of the antioxidant compound. In conclusion, the comparison of the quality characteristics and antioxidant properties of black carrots indicated that the most appropriate cooking method is sous-vide method.
In this study, bread was prepared using various amount of ‘Fuji’ apple juice, and quality and antioxidant properties investigated. Bread was prepared with water, butter, yeast, salt, sugar, wheat flour, skim milk powder and 10, 20 and 30% (w/w) ‘Fuji’ apple juice. Leavening ability and pH of dough were also investigated. Volume, pH, specific volume, baking-loss rate, chromaticity and texture were investigated as quality properties, whereas the total polyphenol content, ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activity as the antioxidant properties of bread containing various amount of apple juice. The pH and leavening ability of dough were observed to decrease with increasing amount of apple juice. In the quality properties of bread, pH, volume, specific volume, and baking-loss rate decreased. Regarding chromaticity and texture of bread prepared with increasing amount of ‘Fuji’ apple juice, L (bright) values at crust and crumb of bread decreased, while hardness, chewiness and gumminess increased. Total polyphenol content increased with increasing amount of apple juice, while DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities showed no significant differences. Consequently, these results support the possible use of apple juice for baking foods in food industry, as addition of apple juice enhances the quality and antioxidant properties of bread.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of fermented Kalopanax pictus (KP-F) on macrophage activation and its effect as a competitive inhibitor of LPS and inhibitory effect on endotoxemia. The results showed that KP-F could activate macrophage in a dose-dependent manner, and KP-F was confirmed to act as a ligand for TLR4. Also, it was found that KP-F did not exhibit the same biotoxicity as LPS in intraperitoneal injection, and that it could suppress the neutrophil migration induced by LPS administration. In normal mice, the body weight, tissue weight, and amount of nitrite and pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum showed no significant changes with KP-F diet for 2 weeks, confirming that administration of KP-F in normal mice did not lead to over activation of immune response and biotoxicity. In the mouse model of endotoxemia induced by LPS and D-galactosamine(D-GalN) in sub-lethal dose, the diet of KP-F effectively inhibited the amount of nitrite and cytokines in the blood, and thus was found to be able to relieve the hepatic and kidney injury. In addition, in the endotoxemia mouse model induced by LPS and D-GalN of lethal dose, the survival rate was increased by KP-F diet in a dose-dependent manner.
This study evaluates the quality properties of soy-paste soybean cultivar for fermented soybean products. The six soybean varieties that include Jinpung, Saedanbaek, Daepung 2, Pyeongwon, Cheonga and Saeolkong were used in the experiment. The range of water uptake ratio, hardness after soaking and hardness after steaming were 117.00~131.33%, 1.65~3.30 kg and 0.05~0.14 kg, respectively. The physicochemical analysis indicated the following: Moisture content, 63.27~68.72%; pH, 6.43~6.60; total acidity, 0.27~0.45%. Color values for L value (lightness), a value (redness), and b value (yellowness) ranged from 39.07~67.92, 7.64~11.79, and 7.48~20.67, respectively. The amylase and protease activities of the Saedanbaek samples were the highest among all cultivars. The amount of viscous substance in the fermented soybean products by cultivars ranged from 5.93 to 8.37%, and Saedanbaek was the highest. The total viable cells counts for soybean fermented products were 9.11~9.42 log CFU/g. The amino-type nitrogen contents of all samples were in the range of 401.07 to 524.47 mg% and Saedanbaek cultivars showed the highest content (524.47 mg%). Based on the results, Saedanbaek will be suitable as a soy-paste soybean cultivar and the quality standards for the fermentation process of the fermented soybean products.
The purpose of this study was to conduct a survey on coffee intake habits, preference of coffee and other beverages, and awareness of caffeine in coffee by college students in some areas of Jeonbuk province. According to the survey result, 83.9% of subjects drank coffee usually, and males (46.4%) and the females (54.2%) drank coffee at school stores and coffee shops, respectively. Companions to drink coffee with were mainly friends, and frequency of coffee intake was one to two cups daily for males and females. Males and females drank coffee at any time (60.0%) and after lunch (38.7%), respectively. Most males and females drank only coffee without snacks. Males preferred more soft drinks and sports drinks than females, but females preferred more milk and dairy products, tea, and coffee than males. Coffee was consumed most frequently, among several beverages. Reasons for drinking coffee was to prevent sleepiness (64.6%), and to enjoy its taste and aroma (38.0%) for males and females, respectively. Male (47.2%) and female (73.5%) subjects could detect caffeine, and most of them could detect caffeine in coffee. Additionally, all subjects agreed that less intake of caffeine was better for their health. Based on the survey of intake habits of coffee, the university students need nutrition education relative to labeling caffeine contents in coffee and intake of caffeine, and need to make an effort to overcome the potential damage of caffeine intake.
Curcumin is a hydrophobic polyphenol extracted from turmeric that exhibits a variety of biological functions has albeit with limited efficacy as a functional food material owing to its low absorption when administered orally. The newly developed curcumin powder formulation exhibits improved absorption rate in vivo. This study evaluates the anti-oxidant effects of Theracurmin® (TC), which is highly bio-available in curcumin powder. The antioxidant activity of TC was investigated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, ferrous reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, NO radical, superoxide radical, H2O2 scavenging activity, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Additionally, we evaluated the antioxidant activity of TC in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed streptozotocin (STZ)-induced Type 2 diabetic rats. As a result of oral administration of TC for 13 weeks in type 2 diabetic rats, the group administration of 2,000 mg/kg significantly increased FRAP, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced the level of glutathione (GSH) in liver tissue 1.9, 1.2, and 1.2-times, respectively. Furthermore, serum TAC levels increased by 1.3-fold after the rats were administered with a dose of 500 mg/kg. These results were consistent with the in vitro assay results. In conclusion, TC exhibited its potential as a functional food material through its antioxidant properties.
In this study, we examined antioxidative effects and the anti-adipogenesis effect of different parts of Cudrania tricuspidata (C), and Morus alba (M). Total polyphenol contents were highest in M-root (34.56±0.045 mg GAE/g), and there was no significant difference, between C-root and M-leaf. Total flavonoid contents of C-root were highest (23.07±0.004 mg QE/g). To examine antioxidant activities of C and M extracts, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity, and FRAP assay, was used. Results show that antioxidant activities of C and M extracts increased, in a dose-dependent manner. Adipocytes are generated by preadipocyte differentiation, during adipogenesis. Matured adipocytes accumulate in abnormal and cause obesity. We investigated effects of leaf and root extracts of C and M, on lipid accumulation, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Changes in cell morphology, and degrees of lipid accumulation in adipocytes, were evaluated by Oil Red O staining. Root extracts of C and M, reduced lipid content in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, root extracts of C and M, may be good candidates for managing obesity.
The aim of this study was to select compounds for the standardization of fermented Kalopanax pictus Nakai (KP-F), to develop the analysis method using HPLC-PDA and to perform method validation. KP-F is a fermented powder developed to improve the original physiological activities and create a new functionality. Eleutheroside E, Acanthoside B, and Syringaresinol were selected as the standard compounds and developed our own method for simultaneous analysis. The analyte was isolated using C18 column with a gradient elution of 0.05 M phosphoric acid in water and methanol as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 mL/min and detected at 210 nm. As a result, all standard compounds showed good linearity with an R2 (coefficient of correlation) of 1.000 and for the limit of detection range of 0.710~0.831 μg/mL, and the limit of quantification as 2.150~2.520 μg/mL. The precision was RSD (%) of less than 4.80%, while the accuracy was 4.70%>RSD (%) for the range 102.44~110.48%. In conclusion, the developed analysis method is suitable for the detection of Eleutheroside E, Acanthoside B, and Syringaresinol in KP-F.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of roasted and germinated peanut flours. This study also aims to utilize it as a functional material to be applied to processed foods. The moisture, crude protein, crude fat and ash carbohydrate contents of the common peanut powder used in this study were 1.27, 25.63, 42.19, 2.38, 28.20 g / 100 g, respectively. The moisture content, crude protein, crude fat and ash carbohydrate in germinated peanut powder were 1.47, 25.86, 42.86, 2.25 and 26.66 g / 100 g, respectively. 26.52, 45.02, 2.33, 24.70, g / 100 g, and the dietary fiber content of peanut, roasted peanut and germinated peanut powder was 12.27, 13.05 and 14.22 g / 100g, respectively. The antioxidants and radical scavenging ability of polyphenols and flavonoids in peanut powder treated with germination and germination compared to ordinary peanuts. Resverasterol content was high in the germinated peanut powder. Especially, germinated peanut powder can act as a natural antioxidant.