This study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant activities of extracts from various parts of the pine tree, which is known as a good source of functional food material. While ethanol extraction yields of pine bud and cone were higher than water extraction yields of pine bud and cone, water extraction yield of pine needle was higher than ethanol extraction yield of the pine needle. The content of polyphenols in the pine cone ethanol extract was 5 times higher than that in the pine bud and needle. Further, the content of flavonoids in the pine cone ethanol extract was 8 times higher than that in the pine bud and needle. DPPH radical scavenging effect of the pine cone ethanol extract was 3~5 times higher that of the pine bud and needle extract. Regardless of the extraction solvents, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of the pine cone were stronger than those of the other parts of the pine tree. Taken together, it can be expected that the pine cone can be practically used as an antioxidant substance in food and beauty industries.
For the purpose of developing new immunomodulatory agents from broccoli, ethanol extract (BCEE), hot water extract (BCHW), and crude polysaccharide (BCCP) were isolated from broccoli, and their immunomodulatory activities and chemical properties were examined. In the in vitro cytotoxicity analysis, BCHW and BCCP did not affect the growth of tumor cells and normal cells. Murine peritoneal macrophages stimulated with BCCP showed higher production of IL-6, IL-12, and TNF- α cytokines than those stimulated with BCHW. Also, BCHW and BCCP did not show proliferation of splenic lymphocytes. In the in vitro assay for intestinal immunomodulatory activities, only BCCP enhanced GM-CSF secretion and the bone marrow cell-proliferating activity via cells in Peyer’s patches at 1,000 μg/mL. Also, BCHW mainly contained 33.7% neutral sugars, such as arabinose, glucose, and galactose, and 30.7% uronic acid, and BCCP consisted of 42.6% neutral sugars, including arabinose, galactose, and glucose, and 50.5% uronic acid. The above results lead us to conclude that crude polysaccharide (BCCP) isolated from broccoli causes considerably high cytokine production in peritoneal macrophages and bone marrow cell proliferation, and the polysaccharide extraction process is indispensable for separation of new immunomodulatory agents from broccoli.
We investigated the quality characteristics and the antioxidant efficacy of roasted maize tea according to different moisture contents (9% to 14%) using the puffing system (PS) and the roasting system (RS). Compared with the RS, the PS caused higher turbidity (0.017 vs. 0.003 in PS-14% vs. RS-14%), brown color intensity (0.170 vs. 0.059 in PS-14% vs. RS-14%), a-values (0.20 vs. -0.44 in PS－14% vs. RS-14%), b-values (7.90 vs. 5.57 in PS-14% vs. RS-14%), and a lower L-value (19.67 vs. 21.03 in PS-14% vs. RS-14%). Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of roasted maize tea were increased along with the moisture content and they were higher with the PS (polyphenol; 5.95 mg GAE/g, flavonoids; 1.27 CE/g in PS-14%) than with the RS (polyphenol; 5.39 mg GAE/g, flavonoids; 1.12 mg CE/g in RS-14%). The DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging effects of roasted maize tea were also increased along with the moisture content, and the scavenging efficacy was significantly higher with the PS (DPPH; 160 mg TE/100g, ABTS; 507 mg TE/100g in PS-14%) compared with the RS (DPPH; 120 mg TE/100g, ABTS; 362 mg TE/100g in RS-14%). The polyphenol levels were significantly correlated with turbidity, brown color intensity, and L, a, and b-values of the roasted maize tea. In addition, an increase of the total polyphenol content in roasted maize tea induced antioxidant activities. As a result, an increase in polyphenols during the roasting process induced antioxidant activities which could prevent damage from free radicals.
This study, analyzed the general and minerals composition of kamut and investigated its effect on blood components in mice fed a high fat diet. The content of each general component of kamut was as follows: 11.02±0.75% water, 13.16 ±1.28% crude protein, 1.85±0.19% crude fat, and 1.97±0.13% ash. The leptin level was the highest in the HF group(30.00± 0.00 ng/mL) when compared to the control group. There was a significant decrease of 23.65±5.54 ng/mL in the HFK group when compared to the HF group (p<0.05). The blood LDL-cholesterol concentration was the lowest in the control group at 10.00±2.00 mg/dL. The level was highest in the HF group at 28.00±0.00 mg/dL when compared with the other groups (p<0.05). The aspartate transaminase (AST) level was significantly higher in the HFK group (179.33±173.88 U/L) than in the control (61.00±12.73 U/L) and HF groups (132.00±0.00 U/L). According to the results of this study, the consumption of kamut lowers the blood LDL-cholesterol level more than the consumption of wheat flour. Additionally, kamut contains antioxidant substances such as selenium and zinc, which are thought to contribute to vascular health and thus aid in maintaining good health. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a variety of health foods using kamut; it should be used as a functional food for the maintenance of good health.
This study aimed to investigate quality characteristics of white bread with Tenebrio molitor L. powder (TMP). Because of the proximate composition analysis of the white bread with TMP, the content of protein and crude fat increased slightly in proportion to brown dough, and ash was highest in white breads with 7% added TMP. The bread volume decreased as TMP content increased. The control bread lightness was highest at 78.3, and was negatively correlated with the TMP content. The degree of redness increased with the TMP concentration. The total free amino acid contents were in the following order: white bread with 7% TMP > white bread with 5% TMP > white bread with 3% TMP. With respect to the texture, white bread springiness and cohesiveness with TMP decreased by storage period. The chewiness and brittleness of white breads with TMP decreased significantly with higher concentrations. With extended storage, the bread with TMP added showed lower springiness and cohesiveness; while bread with a lower TMP percentage maintained better chewiness and brittleness. The sensory taste preference was highest for white bread with 3% TMP. Residual appetite scores showed a lower taste preference as TMP content increased and was lowest for white bread with 3% TMP.
This study was investigated the quality characteristics and antioxidant of dried Dioscorea bulbifera with various pre-soaking concentrations of oligosaccharide. Dioscorea bulbifera are prepared by additions of 0, 4, 6, 8 and 10% oligosaccharide solution, and dried at 50℃. The effects of pre-soaking percent of Dioscorea bulbifera slices were evaluated by the moisture, soluble solid, pH, titratable acidity, color, browning degree, texture, antioxidant activities and sensory test. According to the percent of pre-soaking oligosaccharide solution was increased, the moisture was increased but soluble solids and titratable acidity were decreased. With respect to the result of colors, Dioscorea bulbifera slices that underwent the 10% pre-soaked process (85.86%) were lighter than control (73.88%). However, the redness and yellowness scores were the lowest than control. The springiness and cohesiveness of texture showed no significant differences among all groups. Gumminess and chewiness of texture results were increased according to per-soaking concentration increase. Also the polyphenol, flavonoid and DPPH (α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS [2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] radical scavenging activities were significantly increased with increasing immersion concentration. The Dioscorea bulbifera slices supplemented with 6% pre-soaking oligosaccharide solution treatment showed the highest total sensory score. The results of our study indicated that when pre-soaking oligosaccharide solution is used to immerse the Dioscorea bulbifera slice, it has browning inhibition and antioxidant effect.
Baking characteristics of gluten-free rice bread were investigated, when 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60℃ water was added during mixing. The temperature of the dough before fermentation was affected by the temperature of the water and the mixing time. When 60℃ water was added, the specific gravity of the dough was the highest before fermentation (p<0.01). The specific gravity of the dough after fermentation was 32~39% of the specific gravity of the dough before fermentation. When 50℃ water was added, the volume and the specific volume of rice bread were higher than those in addition of water at other temperatures (p<0.001). In case of adding water of 50℃, the shape of the rice bread showed the largest volume, high appearance and a round shape. After storage for 2 and 24 hours, the addition of water of 50℃ resulted in the lowest hardness and chewiness values of rice bread. The sensory descriptive analysis revealed that when 50℃ water was added, the air cell size, springiness and hardness values of gluten-free rice bread were lower than those in addition of water at other temperatures. There was a difference in the appearance and texture of gluten-free rice bread, when 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60℃ water was added during mixing.
This study aimed to evaluate the utilization of the top of a low intake of root, through the analysis of the antioxidant activity of the powder of hydroponic-cultured ginseng. Quality characteristics and antioxidant activity were compared and analyzed with Korea’s traditional dessert Gaeseong-Juak, which is made of the powder of hydroponic-cultured ginseng's leaf by adjusting the added volume. DPPH radical scavenging activity of the hydroponic-cultured ginseng by the part powder was in the following order: highly stem, leaf and root. It was measured as 67.9%, 42.9%, and 25.9% at the 1 mg/m level. Gaeseong-Juak was prepared by adding hydroponic-cultured ginseng leaf powder at 0%, 0.3%, 0.6%, and 0.9% of the rice powder. As the content of hydroponic-cultured ginseng leaf powder increased, moisture content, L-value, and a-value were significantly decreased, while the b-value was significantly increased. The texture profile analysis of Gaeseong-Juak was not significantly different among the samples. In the sensory test, the sample containing 0.6% hydroponic-cultured ginseng leaf powder achieved good scores. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of Gaeseong-Juak was significantly increased, as the addition level increased, compared to the original. Based on the above results, hydroponic-cultured ginseng leaf was verified to be a possible natural antioxidant. It can increase food's nutritional values and possibilities when made of hydroponic-cultured ginseng, using leaf which is added to the traditional dessert Gaeseong-Juak.
Food environment has been going through significant changes with the introduction of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). This study was conducted to investigate the current development status of ICT related to food delivery service by analyzing the relevant registered patents according to consumer buying process. Patents registered between 2002 and 2016 were searched with ‘food’ and ‘delivery’ as main keywords through Korea Intellectual Property Rights Information Service (www.kipris.or.kr). The search resulted in 624 patents among which 219 patents were related to food delivery service; 108 patents based on ICT were selected and analyzed. The patents were examined by applicant and year. The patents were classified into the six steps of consumer buying process: ‘need recognition’, ‘information search’, ‘evaluation’, ‘choice’, ‘purchase’, and ‘postpurchase evaluation’. Patents belonging to more than one step were coded to all the corresponding steps. The patents were registered mainly by domestic companies (50.9%) and individuals (35.2%), having shown dramatic increase of registration since 2012. Over 2/3 (67.6%) of the patents were related to the ‘purchase’ step. About 32% were associated with the 'information search' step. Approximately 18% of the patents were relevant to the 'evaluation' and 'choice’ steps, respectively. The numbers of patents related to the 'postpurchase evaluation (13.9%)’ and 'need recognition (12.0%)' steps were relatively low. The current ICTs related to food delivery service in Korea were largely associated with service providers' profit generation rather than consumers' benefit. There is still much room for technology development that could contribute to increasing consumers' benefit.
The objective of the this study was to identify the potential relationship between eating breakfast together as a family and the nutritional status among Korean adolescents based on the 2013~2015 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey data. This study investigated 1,300 adolescents ranging in agee from twelve to eighteen years-old. In this study, according to their eating breakfast together as a family or skipping breakfast, we classified the subjects into the eating breakfast together as a family (EBF group) (male=379, female=295), eating breakfast alone (EBA group) (male=177, female=169) and skipping breakfast (SB group) (male=152, female=128). Both male and female, age in the EBF group was lower than those of the EBA and SB group (p<0.0001, respectively). In the male, the EBF group exhibited significantly higher fiber (p=0.0168) and potassium density (p=0.0065) and lower beverage intake (% energy) (p=0.0040) than the EBA and SB groups. No difference was observed the proportion of subjects who practiced a healthy diet between three groups, however, the EBF and EBA groups had a smaller proportion of subjects who were in a condition of hypo-nutrition compared to the SB group (p<0.0001, respectively). The present findings suggest that the practice of eating breakfast together as a family in adolescents may bean important consideration in relation to micro-nutrient intake status.
In the current study, we investigated the inhibitory activity of water soluble β-glucan from oat (Avena sativa) against various digestive enzymes such as α-glucosidase, sucrase, maltase and glucoamylase. Inhibition of these enzymes involved in the absorption of disaccharide can significantly decrease the post-prandial increase of blood glucose level after a mixed carbohydrate diet. The β-glucan had the highest documented rate of small intestinal sucrase inhibitory activity (2.83 mg/mL, IC50) relevant for potentially managing post-prandial hyperglycemia. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of β-glucan on the level of post-prandial blood glucose in animal model. The post-prandial blood glucose levels were tested two hours after sucrose/starch administration, with and without β- glucan (100, and 500 mg/kg-body weight). The maximum blood glucose levels (Cmax) of β-glucan administration group were decreased by about 23% (from 219.06±27.82 to 190.44±13.18, p<0.05) and 10% (from 182.44±13.77 to 165.64±10.59, p<0.01) in starch and sucrose loading test, respectively, when compared to control in pharmacodynamics study. The β -Glucan administration significantly lowered the mean, maximum, and minimum level of post-prandial blood glucose at 30 min after meal. In view of the foregoing, it is felt that our findings suggest that β-glucan from oat serves to reduce post-prandial blood glucose rise secondary to slower absorption of glucose in the small intestine, via carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes inhibition.
This study was carried out to investigate the changes in the antioxidant activity of Cheonggukjang with the addition of hazelnut. The number of Bacillus subtilis and the content of crude fat were increased with the addition of hazelnut. The addition of hazelnut made the color of Cheonggukjang lighter. The flavonoid and polyphenol content were sharply increased in proportion to the addition of hazelnut. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of Cheonggukjang was also increased with the addition of hazelnut. Taken together, it was found that the addition of hazelnut had a positive influence on Cheonggukjang by increasing the antioxidant activity.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary addition of pegmatite for Hanwoo steers on the carcass characteristics. Based upon the findings yielded by the research referenced above, the results may be summed up as follows : Oleic acid was for the most part, higher as T2 plots (45.40%) and T3 plots (44.20%) compared with Con. plots (42.50%). As well, this study has shown that the treatment plots in unsaturated fatty acid (UFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) were largely higher than that of Con. plots, and of them all, T2 plots were highest. As for the melting point of fat, T2 plots (29℃) were largely lower than that of Con. plots (31.9℃). This study has shown that the treatment plots were significant higher as the content of total essential amino acid and total amino acid and inosine monophosphate in the nucleotide compound for the Hanwoo beef was treatment plots when compared with Con. plots.
The objective of this study is to investigate the satisfaction of elementary, middle and high school nutrition teachers in the Chungnam province concerning the free school food service. We surveyed satisfaction related to policies on school food service and the school food service center. Satisfaction on the school food service center was separated according to four dimensions; perception, food materials, operational system and service. Furthermore, we analyzed factors that affect satisfaction with the school food service center with a multiple regression model. First, satisfaction about the free school food service and dietary life education are higher than the total average of satisfaction with the policy about the school food service. Second, satisfaction about a variety of food materials and reasonable prices are lower than total average of satisfaction with the school food service center. Third, when more teachers have a high level of a positive perception and have higher satisfaction with the operational system of the school food service center, then they also subsequently display higher satisfaction with the school food service center. Therefore it is necessary to improve or make up for pricing and diversity on food materials by the school food service center.
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of rice (R) and brown rice (BR) flour on the quality characteristics of morning bread. The quality characteristics of morning bread were determined by measuring the pH of the dough, dough raising power, moisture content, baking loss rate, specific volume, height, color value, texture analysis and sensory evaluations. The pH of the bread dough was highest on R1:BR2 and R0:BR3. The dough raising power and moisture content steadily and significantly decreased as the amount of added brown rice flour increased. The baking loss rate was highest on R3:BR0. The specific volume and height of morning bread were highest on R3:BR0 and R2:BR1. In color value, the L value decreased significantly as the amount of added brown rice flour increased, while a value and b value increased. The hardness, gumminess and chewiness of morning bread increased with an increase in brown rice flour. In consumer acceptability, R3:BR0, R2:BR1 and R1:BR2 showed the highest scores in all parameters. Characteristic intensity rating of roasted taste was lowest on R3:BR0. These results indicate that R2:BR1 showed similar quality characteristics as compared to morning bread without brown rice flour, with the optimal results appreciated with a 2:1 ratio of rice flour to brown rice flour.
The properties of rice were studied on five rice cultivars (Ilpumbyeo, Samkwang, Goami-4, Dodamssal, and Thai rice), and employed two kinds of saccharification treatment methods (treatment : rice shape, treatment II: grinding rice shape). Thai rice showed differences in width and length when compared to other cultivars of rice, and the Goami 4 had the lowest thousand-grain weight. The Goami4 and Dodamssal each showed high contents of amylose and resistant starch, and the water absorption rate was close to maximum at 90 minutes as well as the highest level of Goami 4 at all times. The qualities of highest water-binding capacity, solubility and swelling power was most significant in Thai rice. The lowest hardness level of wet rice resulted in the lowest hydration-related characteristics. High amylose content rice, in particular, showed low sugar content and slightly increased sugar content as the saccharification process improved (treatment II). On the other hand, high amylose cultivars had the same high degree of hardness as boiled rice. From these results, the Dodamssal was found to have the lowest viscosity at all temperatures but highest viscosity during the saccharification process, suggesting it may be successfully implemented as a thickener in rice beverage processing. The purpose of this study was to attempt to provide basic data on the development of rice beverage manufacturing technology, based upon the quality characteristics related to beverage processing of rice cultivars.
This study examined the characteristics of Sulgidduk with different amounts of apios powder (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40%). The moisture content of Sulgidduk significantly increased with the addition of apios powder. Also, the pH values of Sulgidduk significantly decreased with the addition of apios powder. The addition of apios powder in the Sulgidduk decreased the lightness (L) in Hunter’s color value, but increased the redness (a) and yellowness (b). By increasing the quantity of apios powder, the hardness, gumminess, and chewiness of Sulgidduk decreased and its springiness increased. The addition of apios powder in the Sulgidduk increased the total polyphenol content and DPPH-radical-scavenging activity. In the sensory evaluation, the addition of 20, 30% apios powder had the best score in taste and overall preference. This study suggests that apios powder is an excellent ingredient for improving the sensory preference and functionality of Sulgidduk. The study also shows that it was the addition of 30% apios powder can be used to make functional Sulgidduk.
Amyloid-β protein (Aβ) is known to increase free radical production in neuronal cells, leading to cell death by oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of PineXol® on Aβ25-35 induced neuronal cell death. Rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells were pre-treated with 100 μg/mL of PineXol® for 2 h. The cells were exposed to single dose of 30 μM Aβ25-35 for 24 h. Cell death was assessed by a cell count kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, lactate and dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay. An Apoptotic process was analyzed by a protein expression of the Bcl-2 family using western blotting. Cell viability increased in PC-12 cells treated with both Aβ25-35 and PineXol®, compared to the control group. PineXol® induced a decrease of the Bcl-2 protein expression (p<0.05), while Bax and Sod1 increased (p<0.05), indicating attenuation of Aβ25-35 induced apoptosis. These results suggest that PineXol® may be a good candidate for the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease(AD).
In this study, Pyracantha angustifolia (Franch.) C. K. Schneid was extracted with 70% methanol at room temperature for 48 hrs and concentrated under reduced pressure to measure its total polyphenol contents; furthermore, the effect of electron donating ability was examined. Methylene chloride, ethyl acetate, and methanol were used to fractionate the extract to testify total polyphenol contents, electron donating abilities, the removal abilities of superoxide radical as well as hydrogen peroxide. The total polyphenol contents were 2007.30±109.28 μg GAE/mL in 70% methanol extract, 273.39±10.19 μg GAE/mL in methylene chloride fraction, 80.57±0.64 μg GAE/mL in ethyl acetate fraction, and 1,160.87±44.71 μg GAE/mL in methanol fraction. The total polyphenol contents showed significant differences (p<0.05) between the solvents. The electron donating ability was 79.07±7.31% for 70% methanol extract, 22.34±0.64% for methylene chloride fraction, 5.33±0.28% for ethyl acetate fraction, and 32.26±1.10% for methanol fraction. The electron donating abilities were significantly different(p<0.05) between the solvents. The removal ability of superoxide radical was 0.018±0.003 for 70% methanol extract, 0.007±0.002 for methylene chloride fraction, 0.0147±0.003 for ethyl acetate fraction, and nothing for methanol fraction. The measurement of hydrogen peroxide decomposition was 0.022±0.0046 for 70% methanol extract, 0.0027±0.0015 for methylene chloride fraction, 0.0037±0.0012 for ethyl acetate fraction, and 0.0009±0.0001 for methanol fraction.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-adipogenic activities of Ligularia stenocephala (L. stenocephala) extract. The contents of the total polyphenol of the extract was 55.950 mg GAE/g residue. Antioxidant activities of L. stenocephala were evaluated by free radical scavenging ability and a reducing power test. 2,2'azino-bis- (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and α-α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activities of the extract were approximately 90% and 70%, respectively. Reducing power of the extract was 258.833 mg TE/g residue. The anti-adipogenic activity of L. stenocephala extract was examined in 3T3-L1 cells. During adipocyte differentiation, the 3T3-L1 cells were treated both with and without the extract. L. stenocephala extract suppressed the lipid accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner in the 3T3-L1 cells. The L. stenocephala extract inhibited the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and adipocyte protein 2 (aP2) proteins, compared with control adipocytes. These results indicate that L. stenocephala could be regarded as a potential source natural antioxidant and an anti-obesity agent.