The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inlfammatory effects of glycyrrhiza glabra Linne extract on ulcerative colitis induced by 3% dextran sulfate sodium in mice. The experimental animals were divided into six groups: control(normal), DSS-induced colitis(control), 1㎎/㎏, 10㎎/㎏, and 100㎎/㎏ of glycyrrhiza glabra Linne extract, and 150㎎/㎏5-aminosalicylic acid(5-ASA)(positive control). We evaluated the pathological disease activity index(DAI), change in weight, colon mucosa damage and myeloperoxidase(MPO) in colon mucosa. Treatment with 10㎎/㎏ and 100㎎/㎏ of glycyrrhiza glabra Linne extract led to significant loss of body weight, the decrease of MPO activity and clinical symptoms such as DAI and histological change. In particular, 100㎎/㎏ Glycyrrhiza glabra Linne extract led to markedlygreater improvement than 150㎎/㎏ 5-ASA treatment. These results suggest that glycyrrhiza glabra mediated anti-inflammatory action on colorectal sites may be a useful therapeutic approach to ulcerative colitis.
Effect of brine mineral water(BMW) on contact hypersensitivity reaction(CHR) was estimated using trimellitic anhydride (TMA) induced CHR in the mouse. BMW exhibited potent inhibitory activity on TMA induced CHR. BMW treatment suppressed the ear swelling, and attenuated hyper-activated lymph nodes stimulated by TMA challenge, thereby reduced their weight. The immunological index was analyzed after BMW administration in CHR. The level of serum IGE was significantly down regulated after BMW treatment. Furthermore, BMW showed inhibitory property of cytokine production. BMW treatment suppressed not only Th2 type cytokine, IL-4 but also pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6. From the histological analysis, the inflammatory context appeared by atopic dermatitis lesion after challenging with TMA are diminished by BMW treatment. Our results suggest that BMW may attenuate the development of CHR, and can be available for functional ingredient.
In this study, Boehmeria nivea were extracted with water and ethanol, and antioxidative activity was investigated along with the quality of cookies prepared with added Boehmeria nivea, as a functional food. Among the water and ethanol extracts, high electron donating abilities were found. we selected various quantities of Boehmeria nivea(0%, 3%, 6%, 9%, 12%, 15%) to add to the cookies as an independent variable and performed sensory tests, as well as, measured chromaticity, and property of matter measurements. The rates of brightness, redness, and yellowness(p<0.001) changed significantly with increasing quantities Boehmeria nivea. The rates for spread ratio, hardness, brittleness, and chewiness(p<0.001) also changed siginificantly with increasing amounts Boehmeria nivea. Finally, texture(p<0.05), appearness, sweetness(p<0.01), bitterness, and overall quality(p<0.001) were examined in sensory tests and showed significant differences. Based on the above results, the cookies that contained 3~9% of Boehmeria nivea presented the best quality.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate nutrient and food intake status and dietary, quality according to obesity based on nutrient and food group intake, in female university students. Surveys were conducted using questionnaires and 3 days, dietary record in 360 female university students residing in Seoul. The subjects were divided into two groups by percent of body fat: an overweight group(percent of body fat more than 23%, n=249) and normal group(percent of body fat below 23%, n=111). The overweigh group had a larger proportion of subjects who binged compared to the normal group. There was no significant difference in energy intake between the two groups. The densities of plant calcium and dietary fiber in the overweight group were significantly lower than those of the normal group. However, animal fat density was significantly higher in overweight subjects. The Korean`s dietary diversity score(KDDS) of the overweight group was 4.65, and that of the normal group was 4.67, indicating no significant difference. There was no significant difference of DQI-I between the overweight group(50.8) and normal group(51.1). However, the macronutrient ratio score was significantly lower in the overweight group. These results indicate that overweight female college students may have improper dietary habits, and have lower overall balance aspect macronutrient ratios.
This study was conducted to investigate the physicochemical properties of Kefir. The general composition of Kefir cultured in skim milk or milk was, respectively, 90.0 and 87.8% water, 3.2 and 3.0% protein, 0.45 and 3.64% lipid, 3.96 and 4.14% lactose, and 0.77 and 0.68% ash. Titratable acidity(TA) and pH of Kefir were 0.77 and 4.55, respectively. The amount of CO2 production was 6.23%, and the concentration of alcohol was 1.4%. Kefirgrain as observed by scanning electron microscope was a complex mixture of lactic acid bacteria and yeast in a symbiotic association.
The purposes of this study were to identify the evaluation categories, areas, attributes of the hospital food service and to define the relative importance of the evaluation categories, areas, attributes of the hospital food service using analytic hierarchy process. A survey was conducted from January 8th to 25th in 2007. Questionnaires were mailed to the 310 directors of dietetic departments of hospitals that included 160 primary hospitals, 107 secondary hospitals, and 43 tertiary hospitals. The result of the analytic hierarchy process indicated that relative importance of evaluation category was 0.5259 for food service management and 0.3407 for nutrition care. The food service management consisted of four subcategories, which are equipment standard, sanitation, production, and delivery service. Sanitation(relative importance: 0.2652) was the most important area among the subcategories and it was followed by equipment standard(0.2067), delivery service(0.1864) and production(0.1848). The nutrition care has two subcategories, menu management and meal management. The relative importance of menu management(0.4174) was higher than that of meal management(0.3555). The quality of food service and nutrition care to inpatients can be improved by the evaluation system based on appropriate applications of the developed evaluation indicators for hospital food service systems.
This study was performed to investigate the quality characteristics of sponge cake made with leek(Allium tuberosum Rottler) powder. In order to evaluate the physical and sensory properties of different cake, the leek powder was added to wheat flour at various ratios(3, 5, 7, 9%, w/w). The specificgravity of bread dough tends to increase with the addition of leek powder. The moisture levels of the sponge cakes made with leek powder were higher than that of the control. Crumb color values, lightness(L) and redness(a) decreased by leek powder addition, while yellowness(b) was significantly increased (p<0.05). In texture analyses, hardness, cohesiveness, springiness andgumminess decreased with the addition of leek powder. In sensory evaluations, the 3% leek powder sponge cake showed higher sensory property scores than others(p<0.05).
With an increase in the number of people suffering from ageing-related diseases in our rapidly aging society, interests in natural products such as maca(Lepidium meyenii), which has properties of enhancing cognition and sexual performance, have increased. This study was conducted to assess the effects of 7 weeks of maca extract supplementation(0.5~2.0g/㎏ BW) on scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice and on sperm count in male mice. All doses of maca supplementation significantly protected against scopolamine-induced amnesia as determined by a Morris water maze, but not according to passive avoidance tests. Maca supplementation did not affect acetylcholinesterase activity in the whole brain, nor the testicular sperm count of male mice. This study suggests that maca may have some neuroprotective properties in mice, which will be further examined by future studies.
This study conducted a questionnaire survey of 482 male and female second graders in middle schools located in Cheongju, Chungcheongbukdo. This study lays its purpose on establishing the nutrition facts labeling system by understanding eating habits and analyzing the actual state of reading nutrition facts labels and degrees of understanding them among middle school students, and helping them to engage in right food purchasing activities and through it result in developing sound eating habits by providing them with basic material to be employed to actively utilize nutrition facts for choosing and buying healthy foods. As a result of surveying regarding the actual state of reading food labels, regarding degrees of recognition of food labels, it was revealed that 91.1% of female students recognized them, while 42.1% of male students did not recognize them, indicating lower levels of recognition among the male group. Regarding reasons for not checking food labels, 49.2% indicated habitual purchasing, followed by poor contents in the label(20.2%), ununderstandable contents(17.7%), and the lower reliability of the contents(6.9%). As a result of surveying regarding the actual state of reading nutrition facts labels, in recognition of nutrition facts labels, female rather than male students showed higher degrees of recognition, and degrees of recognition were found to differ according to parents` total income and mothers` educational attainments.
This study was conducted to assess blood components caused by metabolic syndrome increasing in postmenopausal elderly women. The blood samples of these subjects were analyzed to investigate the correlation of plasma taurine levels and plasma homocysteine levels, and serum lipid profiles. The subjects were 33 elderly women(72.8±4.4 years). Their mean height, weight and BMI were 150.5±5.7㎝, 57.5±6.3㎏ and 25.4±2.5㎏/㎡. 16 women of this study subjects have been chronic diseases such as hypertension or diabetes. Their fasting blood glucose was 98.2±24.0㎎/㎗, and their plasma total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, LDL-C, triglyceride(TG) were 216.5±29.9, 52.1±10.7, 145.7±27.9 and 141.2±59.6㎎/㎗, respectively. Their blood lipid profiles were higher than the standard levels of metabolic syndrome, thus these levels of lipid profiles may play a role as risk factors on the elderly person. Plasma taurine level of the subjects was 278.5±48.1 μMol/ℓ, and their plasma homocysteine level was 12.8±2.9 μMol/ℓ. The concentration of plasma vitamin B12 was significantly decreased by aging(p<0.05). The correlation of plasma homocysteine and plasma folate showed significantly negative(p<0.05). Thus, the decreased levels of plasma vitamin B12 and folate by aging might affect on the plasma homocyteine concentration acting as a risk factor of cardiovascular diseases for elderly person. The correlation of plasma taurine and hemoglobin, and their platelet showed significantly positive(p<0.05). In conclusion, the diet on the elderly person is one of the important factors to prevent their health from chronic diseases. This study recommends that well balanced diets are needed for elderly person to keep their health and prevent from metabolic syndrome.
It was conducted to assess GABA(γ-aminobutyric acid) producing capacity and vitamin contents of germinated brown rice soaked in different soaking solutions. For germination, samples were soaked in 5% glutamic acid solution and 5% lactic acid solution as test group to investigate GABA producing capacity, and samples soaked in the solution without glutamic acid and lactic acid were set as control groups(rice and non-germinated brown rice). The GABA contents of the samples were 44.80 ㎍/g for rice, 59.90 ㎍/g for non-germinated brown rice, 146.70 ㎍/g for germinated brown rice, 203.20 ㎍/g for germinated brown rice soaked in glutamic acid solution and 222.5 ㎍/g for germinated brown rice soaked in lactic acid solution, resulting in a significant difference(p<0.05). GABA producing capacity was enhanced by the addition of glutamic acid and lactic acid in the soaking solution for brown rice germination. The GABA contents of the germinated brown rice soaked in lactic acid solution greatly increased, along with increases in niacin and vitamin E contents without losing vitamin B1. In conclusion, the addition of lactic acid in soaking solution is most suitable for germination of brown rice.
Flaxseed has recently gained attention as a functional food. In this paper, physicochemical analyses of flaxseed and its oil were performed. Crude fat content ranged from 37~43%, moisture 0.2~6.8%, carbohydrate 30~35%, crude protein 18~23%, and crude ash 3~4%. Flaxseed is also an important source of dietary fiber. The TDF(total dietary fiber) contents of the flaxseed samples were 28~31%, and the SDF(souble dietary fiber) content of roasted flaxseeds was higher than that of raw flaxseeds. The major minerals found in flaxseed were calcium, potassium, magnesium, and phosphate. The flaxseeds were rich in γ-tocopherol with 234.3㎎/㎏ in raw brown flaxseed and 134.1㎎/㎏ in raw gold flaxseed, respectively. Roasted flaxseeds showed slightly lower vitamin and amino acid contents than those of the raw samples. The iodine, saponification, and acid values of brown flaxseed oil were 204.1g/100g, 193.6㎎/g, and 1.59㎎/g, and for gold flaxseed oil were 203.0g/100g, 189.9㎎/g, and 2.35㎎/g, respectively. α-Linolenic acid(ALA, C18: 3n-3) was highly concentrated in the flaxseed oil, which constituted about 55.5~56.1% of total fatty acids. Thus, flaxseed oil is a good source of omega-3 fatty acids and beneficial for the heart. Flaxseed contains high levels of dietary fiber including lignans, as well as minerals and vitamins, which may have antioxidant actions and help protect against certain cancers.
Isopentenyl diphosphate(IPP) isomerization to dimethylallyl diphosphate(DMAPP) is an important step for the efficient production of isoprenoids such as lycopene, β-carotene, astaxanthin, etc. The type Ⅱ isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase gene from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803(sll1556, Syidi2) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli DH5α. When E. coli DH5α harboring lycopene synthesis genes, crtE, crtB, and crtI and mevalonate pathway genes, MvK1, MvK2, and Mvd, was cultured on LB medium containing mevalonate, the strain grew very slowly be due to the toxicity of isopentenyl diphosphate derived from mevalonate. When Syidi2 was introduced to E. coli DH5α harboring the lycopene synthesis genes and mevalonate pathway genes, growth on mevalonate medium was fully restored and the colony showed red color indicating lycopene formation. The growth rate of the mutant strain, E. coli DH5α(idi::Δkm), was very slow because of IPP accumulation and DMAPP deprivation. Ultimately the idi mutant was complemented by introducing the Syidi2 gene.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the dietary habits and food intake by age, based on the nutrition counseling data of medical health examination. The subjects were 5, 511 adults(3, 139 males and 2, 372 females) who took comprehensive medical test in Gyeonggi area, and they were evaluated from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2007. Survey samples were divided by age groups: 30>, 30~39, 40~49, 50~59, 60~69, 70≤ years. The subjects were composed of 57% male and 43% female. The results showed that the dietary habits of ≥50 group were relatively good. On the other hand, in 30> yrs group had more dietary habit problems, they had irregular meals and the ratio of skipping breakfast was high. And they frequently had meals out. regularity of meals, eating breakfast was higher in ≥70 yrs groups than in other groups(p<0.001). frequency of overeating was higher in 30>, 30~39≥yrs groups than in other groups(p<0.001) and speed of eating meal were fast in 50~59 yrs groups than in other groups(p<0.01). For foods with high cholesterol and fat, it was shown that the older the subject, the fewer the frequency of consumption(p<0.001). For kimchi and salty foods, food intake showed a negative relationship with age(p<0.001), whereas for fresh vegetables and high-calcium fish, it showed a positive relationship(p<0.001). All in all, it was shown that as the people get older, their dietary habits tend to get more appropriate. In conclusion nutrition education based on their dietary habit by age should be taught, so that people have a healthy dietary habit and food intake for the rest of their life.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Acanthopanax senticosus extracts(ASE) on alcohol administered mice. The administration of Acanthopanax senticosus extracts(60㎎/㎏) had beneficial actions toward alcohol degradation in acute alcohol treated mice. In the acute alcohol degradation experiment, serum alcohol concentration were lower 3 and 6 hours after taking ethanol(5g/㎏) in ASE treated mice. The oral administration of ASE showed decreased gastric mucous membrane damage produced in ethanol treated mice. In addition, intraperitoneal(i.p.) administration of ASE showed anti-inflammatory effects in inhibition tests of vascular permeability produced by acetic acid. ASE also reduced concentrations of nitric oxide(NO), tumor necrosis alpha(TNF)-α and interleukin(IL)-6 in macrophages that were activated by LPS. These results demonstrate that Acanthopanax senticosus extracts possesses the potential to stimulate alcohol degradation and inhibit inflammatory effects in mice.
This study was conducted to investigate rheological and sensory characteristics of Sulgidduk added with pine mushroom powder. The moisture content of the Sulgidduk ranged from 34.79 to 36.93%. Increasing the amount of pine mushroom powder in the Sulgidduk tended to decrease the pH value, but to increase the brix˚ value. Increasing the amount of pine mushroom powder in the Sulgidduk tended to decrease the lightness(L) in Hunter color value, but to increase the redness(a) and yellowness(b). For the textural characteristics, the addition of pine mushroom powder decreased the adhesiveness and springiness. In sensory evaluation, the addition of 3% pine mushroom powder had the best score in appearance, odor, taste and overall preference. Therefore, this results suggest that adding 3% pine mushroom powder would be feasible for making pine mushroom Sulgidduk.
Tomato fruits(Lycoperisicon esculentum) synthesize the glycoalkaloids dehydrotomatine and α-tomatine, possibly as defense against bacteria, fungi and insects. We developed a new effective method to prepare and purify dehydrotomatine and α-tomatine that exists in tomato fruits using alumina column chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The tomato glycoalkaloids(TGA) in tomato was extracted with 2% acetic acid, and then precipitated with ammonium hydroxide(pH=10.5). The dry precipitate substance was applied on alumina column, and then fractionated with water saturated n-butylalcohol. The TGA(Fr. No. 26~36) were collected and dried under reduced pressure. The TGA was performed on a reverse phase HPLC(Inertsil ODS-2, 5 ㎛), eluted with acetonitrile/20mM KH2PO4(24:76, v/v) at 208 ㎚. Two peaks were detected on HPLC, and individual peak was collected by repeating HPLC. Furthermore, to confirm the identity dehydrotomatine and α-tomatine, each peak isolated was hydrolyzed with 1N HCl into sugar and aglycone tomatidine. The sugars were converted to trimethylsilyl ester derivatives. The nature and molar ratios of sugars were identified by gas-liquid chromatography(GLC) and the aglycone by high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). The first peak (Rt=17.5 min) eluted from HPLC was identified as dehydrotomatine, and second peak(Rt=21.0 min) was as α-tomatine. This technique has been used effectively to prepare and isolate dehydrotomatine and α-tomatine from tomato fruits.
This study was conducted to investigate the hypocholesterolemic effects of porphyran and insoluble dietary fiber isolated from laver in rats fed high fat diet containing 1% cholesterol, 0.25% sodium cholate and 12% lard. Rats were fed, ad libitum, diets containing 5% diet fiber as cellulose(normal control or high fat control), porphyran or insoluble dietary fiber for 4 weeks. Among the groups fed high fat diet, liver weight was significantly lower in high fat porphyran group than high fat control. Plasma GOT, GPT, total cholesterol, cholesteryl ester, LDL-cholesterol and liver total cholesterol concentration were significantly lower in high fat porphyran group than high fat control. The feeding of porphyran significantly increased fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretion. The feeding of insoluble dietary fiber had no significant effect on either plasma or liver cholesterol levels, although fecal cholesterol level in the insoluble dietary fiber group was significantly higher than that in the high fat control. The results indicate that porphyran isolated from the laver may exert their hypocholesterolemic effect by increasing excretion of fecal bile acid and cholesterol.
The purpose of this study was to assess dietary variety by body mass index, waist circumference and exercise habits in 138 female university students residing in Bucheon and its adjacent area. Body mass index(BMI), waist circumference (WC) and exercise habits were assessed via a self reporting questionnaire, and a 3-day dietary recall survey was conducted by interviewing. Dietary variety was assessed by dietary diversity score(DDS), meal balance score(MBS), and dietary variety score(DVS). The average BMI, WC, DDS, MBS, and DVS were 20.7±2.59㎏/㎡, 69.3±5.03㎝, 3.87±0.57, 7.27±1.48, and 12.59±3.14, respectively. The DDS for breakfast, lunch, supper and snack were 1.80±0.92, 2.45±0.48, 2.49±0.55 and 0.53±0.52, respectively. DDS, MBS, and DVS were not significantly correlated with BMI, WC and exercise habits. However, DDS for breakfast and supper were significantly higher(p<0.05) and lower(p<0.05) respectivly in subjects who exercised regularly compared to those who did not exercise regularly. And DDS for snack was significantly higher in subjects whose awareness of health status was good or somewhat compared to those whose that was bad(p<0.05). These findings suggest that nutritional education based on female university students` eating variety and regular exercise may be required to improved dietary variety.
본 연구에서는 녹두 유전자원의 지방산 함량을 신속 대량 검정하는 기술을 개발하여 유전자원 활용 및 육종 촉진에 기여하고자 하였다. 유전자원 평가에 적합한 신속하고 비파괴적인 지방산 함량 평가기술을 개발하기 위해 공시자원 1, 125점의 녹두 종자를 종실상태와 분쇄한 분말상태로 근적외선분광분석기(NIR)를 이용하여 1, 104~2, 494 ㎚에서의 스펙트럼을 얻고 이들 중 스펙트럼이 중복되지 않는 원산지가 다양한 대표자원 106점을 선발하여 일반적인 방법으로 지방산 함량을 분석하고, 이 값과 NIR 스펙트럼 흡광도값 간의 상관분석을 위한 calibration set로 활용하였다. 그 결과 palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid 및 total fatty acid에 대한 NIR 흡광도와의 상관 계수 R2이 각각 0.74, 0.18, 0.12, 0.72, 0.48 및 0.78로 나타났고, 이들 중 R2가 높은 검량식을 미지의 시료 10점으로 검증한 결과, palmitic, linoleic 및 total fatty acid에 대한 검증 상관계수 R2이 0.96, 0.74, 0.81로 나타나, 다양한 녹두 유전자원의 지방산함량 신속 대량 예측에 유효하게 활용될 수 있는 것으로 나타났다. 한편, 공시된 녹두 유전자원 115점 중에서 자원번호 IT208075 자원은 저 지방산 자원(14.24 ㎎g-1)으로 선발되었고, IT163279 자원은 고 지방산자원(18.43 ㎎g-1)으로 선발되어 향후 녹두작물의 성분육종에 유용할 것으로 생각된다.