The purpose of this study is to determine the possibility of using Crataegi fructus as a natural food source. To accomplish this purpose, the contents of general and biological activities were measured. The contents of carbohydrate, crude protein, crude lipid and ash are 85.6%, 2.4%, 1.9% and 0.4%, respeectively. Further, the calories of Crataegi fructus was 369.1 kcal. The contents of essential and non-essential amino acids were 852.26 ㎎ and 1, 178.29 ㎎, respeectively. The K was the largest mineral followed by Ca, P, Mg, which means Crataegi fructus is an alkali material. Crataegi fructus extracts slightly(17.6～32.8) inhibited α-glucosidase activity. However, there is no inhibitory activity against α-amylase. In terms of proteslytic activity, Crataegi fructus extracts showed a strong activity than pancreatin(used as a positive control). These results indicate that Crataegi fructus can be used as a natural resource for material aiding digestion.
The purpose of this study was to assess the consumption patterns of Makoli and to provide age-specific suggestions to increase the popularity of newly developed products. The subjects of the study were 373 men and 329 women, and information was obtained by self-administered questionnaire in December of 2010. One major finding of the study was that regardless of gender, consumption of Makoli was correlated to age: older respondents drank more Makoli. Those in their thirties and older, especially women, drank Makoli at home with family. The reasons given for liking or disliking Makoli differed among age groups, but were the same between genders. More subjects in their twenties liked Makoli because of its distinctive taste, while more in their forties liked it for its cultural value. Subjects in their thirties disliked it because it caused headaches, while more in their forties complained of burping. Both genders in their twenties suggested that TV and internet advertisements may be the best strategy to increase the popularity of newly developed Makoli products, and women in their forties suggested promoting Makoli’s health benefits. The low calorie content of new Makoli products appealed to women of all age groups and men in their twenties and thirties. Women in their forties were also attracted by Makoli’s possible effect to alleviate constipation.
The objectives of this study were to form comparisons of total polyphenol compounds, the antioxidant activities and the urushiol contents of lacquer tree(Rhus verniciflua) bark and the sensory properties of chicken soup was made with lacquer tree bark that was cultivated from different cultivation areas; Hamyang, Wonju and China. Total polyphenol contents of Hamyang, Wonju and China were estimated as 375.28±3.48, 403.60±6.6 and 311.06±4.99 ㎎/g. The total flavonoids contents of Hamyang, Wonju and China were measured as 374±14.12, 683.70±12.64 and 334.64±18.40 ㎎/g. The total phenolic compounds and flavonoids concentration, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and ABTS radical scavenging of lacquer tree cultivated in Wonju were higher than the others; Hamyang and China. The urushiol content of lacquer tree bark from Hamyang was 4.59±0.04 ppm and higher than others. Urushiol was not detected in China lacquer tree bark. Sensory evaluation tests for chicken soup containing lacquer tree bark showed that the scores of Wonju lacquer tree bark chicken soup was highest, however there are no differences between Hamyang, Wonju, and China significantly(p<0.05).
A study was undertaken to examine the effect of the addition of coriander leaves(Coriandrum satovim L.) and brocolli stem powder addition on the quality attributes of pound cakes. Coriander leaves & brocolli stem powder was added to the batter, at a ratio of 10, 12.5 and 15%, respectively. The antioxidant activity was estimated by a DPPH free radical scavening activity, the total phenolic compounds content and flavonoid content in coriander leaves & brocolli stem powder and pounds cakes. Antioxidative activity had correlated highly with the total flavonoids contents of coriander leaves & brocolli stem powder of pound cakes, respectively(r=0.9096). The quality characteristics of coriander leaves & brocolli stem powder pound cakes were estimated in terms of the specific load volume, hardness, hunter value of crumb and crust, and the sensory quality of the cakes. The specific volume decreased significantly, with increasingly substituted level of coriander leaves & brocolli stem powder(p<0.01). The lightness was significantly decreased with increases in the coriander leaves & brocolli stem powder of pound cake crust and crumb(p<0.01). The hardness, chewiness and gumminess tended to reduce, and the cohesiveness decrease in both of powder. The consumer acceptability score for 10% coriander leaves & brocolli stem powder of pound cakes ranked significantly(p<0.01) higher than those of the other groups in taste, flavor and color. These results showed that coriander leaves & brocolli stem powder are good ingredients to increase the consumer acceptability and the health.
Various types of tea are consumed as a popular beverage worldwide particularly in Asian countries such as Korea, China, and Japan. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mineral contents, antioxidant properties and anticancer activity of Yak-Sun tea that is prepared by six oriental medicinal herbs. The results of the mineral contents were as follows; Ca, Mg, and Na contents were higher than those of green tea, whereas Fe, P, and K contents were lower than those of green tea. The total phenolics and flavonoid content of the Yak-Sun tea were higher than those of green and black teas. The IC50 values of DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging of Yak-Sun tea were 0.78, 1.58, and 2.04 ㎎/㎖, respectively, whereas the radical scavenging values of α-tocopherol was 0.06, 0.05, and 0.09 ㎎/㎖, respectively. When cancer cells were treated with Yak-Sun tea, the anticancer activity increased in a dose dependent manner. HCT116 colon cancer cell lines were dramatically increased, as compared to other cancer cell lines, such as MCF-7, H460, and MKN45 cell lines. The results of this study demonstrated that Yak-Sun tea could function as a tea to enhance health conditions for antioxidant and anticancer activity.
The objective of this study was to investigate the perception of ginseng and ginseng products among university students living in Yeongsu, Ganwon-do. 196 university students participated in the survey for our study. The ginseng intakes of male students(59.1%) was significantly(p<0.05) higher than the intake of female students(40.9%). The primary reasons for consuming ginseng were to “Maintain my [one’s] health” and to, “Restore my [one’s] energy”. The reasons for not consuming ginseng were “Taste” and, “Physical constitution”. Consumers purchased the following ginseng products at the market: For males, ginseng wine(21.7%), ginseng beverage(17.4%), ginseng candy(17.4%) and ginseng kimchi(17.4%) for females, Korean ginseng snacks(23.3%), ginseng yogurt(20.9%), ginseng candy(14.0%), and ginseng jelly(11.6%).
On the basis of the cookbooks and Data Base of the Korean Classics(http://db.itkc.or.kr/itkcdb/mainIndexIframe.jsp), this paper analyzed the fermented soybean listed in the general documents of the Chosun Dynasty(1392～1897) and the Goryeo Dynasty(918～1392). In the Goryeo Dynasty, there are 15 kinds of Jang(soybean paste or solution), among which are Jang (soybean paste fermented by mold)(6 documents), Yeomgjang, Yeomshi(2), and Gaejang(1). However, the cookbook at that time is defunct. The Goryeo Court relieved the famine-stricken people by proving them with Jang. In the Chosun Dynasty, 111 kinds of Jang were listed in the general documents, and 153 kinds in cookbooks. There were 55 kinds of general Jang, such as Jang(204), Yeomjang(63), Chojang, Goojang(7), and Gaejang(6), are listed in the general documents, and in the cookbooks, there are 55 kinds of Jang, such as Sookwhangjang(9 cookbooks), Daemaekjang(8), Myeonjang(8), Saengwhangjang (8), and Yooinjang(8), and among them, 13 kinds belong to the Chinese origin. A total of 9 Kinds of Ganjang(soybean solution fermented by mold), such as Soojang(30), Cheongjang(23), Gamjang(8), and Ganjang(3) are found in the general documents. In the cookbooks, 12 kinds of Jang, as Cheongjang(10), Cheonrijang(4), Ganjang(3), and etc., are listed. There were 9 kinds of Gochoojang(red pepper-soybean paste), such as Chojang(12), Gochojang(3), and etc., are listed in the general documents, and 9 kinds as Gochojang(7), Manchojang(7), rapid Manchojang(4), and etc., are in the cookbooks. In addition, 16 Kinds of Yookjang(fermented soybean-meat paste) as Haejang(15), Hyejang(11), Yookjang(11), and etc., are found in the documents, and 22 kinds as Nanjang(9), Gejang(6), Yookjang(5), Shoigogijang(4), and etc., are in the cookbooks. Eighteen Kinds of Shi(soybean paste fermented by bacteria) as Yeomshi(40), Shi(35), Shijang(6), and etc., are recorded in the documents, and 19 kinds as Jeonkookjang(6), Shi(4), Sooshijang(4), and etc., are in the cookbooks, and among them 11 kinds belong to the Chinese origin. Six kinds of Jipjang(aqueous soybean paste) as Jipjang(7), Uoopjang(4), Pojang (2), Jangzoop(2) are recorded in the documents, and 15 kinds as Jipjang(9), Zoopjeo(7), and Hajeoljipjang(5) are in the cookbooks. Soybean paste, or solution for relieving hunger is not recorded in the documents. However, the Chosun court, for the purpose of relieving famine-stricken people, used general Jang. Such 21 Jang to relieve the famine-stricken people as Pojang(7), rapid Jang(6), and Sasamgilgyeongjang(4) are listed in the cookbook. Geonjang(dried soybean paste), Nanjang (egg-soybean paste), Doojang(soybean paste), Maljang(random soybean paste), Myeonjang(wheate-soybean paste), Sodoojang (red bean-soybean paste), Yookjang(soybean-meat paste) and Jang(soybean paste) are recorded in the documents, as well as in the cookbooks. Chinese-original Jang and Shi are recorded in the cookbooks, with no list in the general documents. Therefore, it seems that it didn't pass down to the general public.
In this study, a survey was carried out on 208 students at middle schools in Gyeonggi-do through May 1 to July 20, 2011, with the purpose of figuring out how eating attitudes of middle school students affect their psychological achievement and self control. The results were as follows. First, the effect of eating attitudes on the psychological achievement of middle school students demonstrated that regular dietary life, dietary life and health had a statistically significant positive effect on psychological achievement. Second, the effect of eating attitudes on self control in middle school students showed that balanced dietary life, dietary life and health had a statistically significant positive effect on self control. The above findings confirmed that regular and healthy dietary life connected directly with health, which was a factor that makes them think positively about psychological achievement. Besides, for eating self control, as balanced dietary life in eating attitudes was important. And as this had a positive effect on their self control, could improve their eating attitudes. Consequently, the regular eating attitudes and balanced dietary life in eating attitudes of middle school students can make their psychological achievement and eating self control for the nutrition and health care.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the appearance, sensory and physicochemical characteristics of muffin added glutinous(GSP) and non-glutinous sorghum powder(NGSP). As increasing the amounts of sorghum powder, proximate (moisture, ash and protein) and minerals composition(K, Ca, Mg and Na) of muffin were significant difference. The weight, volume, height, lightness(L-value) and yellowness(b-value) were decreased as increasing the amounts of sorghum powder. In the results of sensory evaluation, appearance, color, flavor, taste, texture and overall quality of untreated muffin were 1.4, 1.6, 1.4, 1.0, 1.1 and 0.9, and muffin added 10% GSP and NGSP were scored relatively high. Antioxidant compounds contents of muffin added sorghum powder were increased as increasing the amounts of sorghum powder. DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging activities on methanolic extracts of untreated muffin were 0.74 and 1.31 ㎎ TE/g ER, respectively. DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging activities of 100% GSP muffin were 9.40 and 19.14 ㎎ TE/g ER, and 100% NGSP muffin were 10.59 and 18.78 ㎎ TE/g ER, respectively. The results of this study show that notable antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity on muffin added sorghum powder are considered to have significant health benefits.
We analyzed the contents of γ-oryzanol, which is contained in brown rice of the nation rice varieties Chucheong, Heukjinju and Sindongjin, by HPLC. Furthermore we also performed experiments on its biological activity, to prove the effectiveness of rice bran. The contents of γ-oryzanol contained in hulled rice showed 1, 587 ppm for Heukjinju, followed by Chucheong(1, 038 ppm), and by Sindongjin(472 ppm). In anti-oxidative activity, we performed an experiment, by measuring the radical scavenging activity of DPPH. Heukjinju showed the best effect, and Chucheong showed the worst effect. In cholesterol lowering activity, Heukjinju showed the best activity and Sindongjin showed the worst effect. In anti-bacterial activity as well, Heukjinju showed the best activity, and Sindongjin showed the worst effect. Through these experiments, we compared the contents of γ-oryzanol, which is contained in hulled rice(Chucheong, Heukjinju, Sindongjin). Also, we found the anti-oxidation effect, cholesterol lowering effect, and anti-bacterial activity of the γ-oryzanol extracts. Based on our research, we expect that γ-oryzanol can work as a new drug, or nutritional supplement.
This study evaluated the quality characteristics of rice-doenjang prepared with Aspergillus oryzae MD05 and Bacillus subtilis HJ18-4. The physicochemical characteristics of rice-doenjang prepared with three types of meju, such as grain type(Rice 1), disc shape(Rice 2), and brick shape(Rice 3), were compared. We determined amino and ammonia nitrogen contents, protease and amylase activities, reducing sugar content, and total aerobic counts and lactic acid bacteria counts. The amino nitrogen and reducing sugar contents in all meju types gradually increased during fermentation. The amino nitrogen contents reached 151.5～200.0 ㎎%. Rice 3 were had the highest levels among the 4 types of rice-doenjang. After 42 days of fermentation, amylase and protease activity of Rice 3 were 366.57 and 94.26 unit/g, respectively, which were the highest levels among the 4 types of rice-doenjang. The total aerobic bacteria counts were not changed during 42-day fermentation. This results suggest that high quality characteristics of brick-shaped meju(Rice 3) were better than those of the other meju preparations.
This research was planned and executed to evaluate how the composition of Yack-sun tea can affect the health conditions of people who are suffering from diet-related such as being overweight, are obese and have hyperlipidemia, by taking Yack-sun tea in a form of a nutritional supplement with our daily meals. We produced Kangjieum with Lycium chinense Mill., Polygonum multflorum Thunb, Cassia tora L., Crataegus pinnatifida Bge and Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. Thus, we approach of oriental diet therapy area research of Kangjieum and analysis proximate composition, water soluble antioxidant content. The content(%, dry basis) of total carbohydrate was 60.23%, crude protein was 18.18%, crude ash was 11.36% and crude fat was 10.23% in Kangjieum. Total water soluble antioxidant content was 1.027 ㎍/㎖ of Kangjieum. We think that scientific and objective evaluation was done on the components of the Kangjieum prescription. This basic data could help guide the application of oriental medicinal resources into other foods and serve as a stepping-stone for use of Kangjieum in the burgeoning field of nutraceutical foods. Last, the scientific effects of oriental medicinal foods developed according to oriental medicinal theory. This theory is believed to be essential for government policy development concerning validation of medicinal effects and assessment, with the aim of fostering systematic development and providing guidance to food development in the interest of national health.
This study was performed to develop a therapeutic diet against aging and obesity, using Yangha(Zingiber mioga R.). Before development of a therapeutic diet, we performed cell viability assay, analysis of general composition, macrominerals and antioxidantive activities of Yangha. Based on the findings from analyzing the results, mook using Yangha powder(0～ 20%) was processed, and tested for quality characteristics such as color values, sensory evaluation and mechanical properties. The result of cell viability assay of myoga, using liver cells, revealed that within the concentration range from 500 ㎍/㎖ to 10, 000 ㎍/㎖, cell survivability increased in line with the concentration rate. Therefore, it will not be harmful to consume it as food. Regarding the normal substance of myoga, the water substance of myoga was 94%, which exceeds that of ginger and tumeric with 89% and 83%, respectively. As for crude protein, fat, carbon hydrates and ash, myoga contained less than the other two, which I think is due to the high water substance. Regarding the minerals, potassium had the highest contents among macrominerals of 234.74 ㎎%. As for the antioxidant test, hydroxy radical scavenging activity and superoxide radical scavenging activity were shown. As for the production of Yangha mook(Yangha powder levels were 0～ 20%) for quality characteristics, the more of the powder, the less the L, but the greater the a and b values. Also, for the material property, an increased amount of the powder, resulted in chewiness and springiness, but less gumminess in a correlated manner. However, there were no significant differences in the springiness and cohesiveness in relation to the powder. For the sensory test, jelly type ZM5 with 5% powder showed highest overall preference. According to the sensory test, based on the powder substance, the jelly with 5% powder showed the highest overall score, including preference.
This study examined the manufacturing characteristics of sweet potato doenjang in order to gain a more efficient use of the sweet potato. Sweet potato(Sinwhangmi, Sinjami) koji(mixed sweet potato paste and soybean powder in a ratio of 1:1) was cultured with Aspergillus oryzae KCCM 11372 at 35℃ for 48 h. Sweet potato doenjang was fermented for 60 days using a sweet potato koji(20%, 45%) and steamed soybean(70%, 45%), with salt accounting for 10%. The glutamic acid content was determined to be much higher in sweet potato doenjang using Sinwhangmi koji(45%) and steamed soybean (45%), than that of general doenjang. The DPPH radical scavenging activity has the largest EC50(0.9 ㎎) in sweet potato doenjang using Sinjami potatoes 45%. Sensory evaluation indicated a good preference for sweet potato doenjang using Sinwhangmi(45%) and steamed soybean(45%).
The objective of this work was to study the effect of far infrared ray-vacuum drying having reflection and dispersion functions(RD-FRVD) and hot air drying(HAD) on the quality changes of dried vegetable flakes. HAD was regarded as a control. Browning degrees, color value, titratable acidity and pH value were measured as chemical evaluations. Rehydration and electron micrographs were investigated as physical evaluation. Microbial cells were counted. The color value and browning degrees were increased in both RD-FRVE and HAD. In case of degree of those changes, RD-FRVD made less changes than HAD. Especially, green bean sprout had no differences in color value and browning degrees between raw material and dried-rehydrated material. There were no significance differences in titratable acidity and pH value between raw material and dried-rehydrated material. The total microbial counts were gradually reduced in RD-FRVD. The rehydration rates of dried vegetable flakes were typically increased in RD-FRVD. Also, these results were investigated electron micrographs evaluation. Therefore, these results showed that the quality of dried-rehydrated vegetable flakes was typically enhanced by using RD-FRVD.
This study was performed to evaluate the biological activity and protective effect of Cassia tora ethanol extracts against D-galactosamine induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were grouped into normal group, D-galactosamine treated group(control), D-galactosamine plus 0.25% Cassia tora extracts treated group and D-galactosamine plus 0.5% Cassia tora extracts treated group. Normal and control group were fed control diet and Cassia tora extracts treated groups were fed experimental diets containing 0.25% or 0.5% Cassia tora ethanol extracts for 5 weeks. Body weight gain and liver weight of rats were not significantly different between groups. Cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in serum and liver were significantly lower in rats treated only with D-galactosamine compared to normal group, and improved in Cassia tora extracts supplemented rats. D-galactosamine treatment significantly increased serum aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, gamma glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase, however, the activities of aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase were significantly decreased in Cassia tora extracts supplemented rats when compared with D-galactosamine treated control group. Cassia tora extracts significantly suppressed the D-galactosamine-induced elevation of liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances(TBARS) contents. Superoxide dismutase activity was decreased by D-galactosamine treatment, however by the supplementation of Cassia tora ethanol extracts, significantly increased in dose-dependent manner. Glutathione peroxidase activity in rats fed diets containing Cassia tora extracts was decreased compared to control. Based on these results, we concluded that Cassia tora ethanol extracts may prevents the D-galactosamine-induced hepatotoxicity probably via an antioxidant mechanism.
The object of this research is to analyze and classify the preference on Korean traditional desserts by age groups. More women than men were observed to have a healthy diet. In addition, with regards to age, children and young people were founf to have a healthier diet than the median age. Women showed a preference for dessert more so than men. Both men and women showed to eat dessert when reminded, and the young, as well as middle-aged were found to eat dessert often. Korea sign a survey on the traditional dessert, like rice cake, were the preference for women, whereas men were fixated in soft drinks, fruit punch and Schisandra chinensis fruit punch with Rhododendron. Young people liked rice cakes, while the median age liked chajongryu hangwaryu. In soft drinks, fruit punch and watermelon Sikhye was preferred by two of the young, while the middle-aged preferred baesuk and Schisandra chinensis fruit punch.
Selenium was initially considered toxic to humans, but it was then discovered that selenium is essential for normal life processes. Selenium plays important roles in antioxidants. It is expected that chitosan microcapsules containing nano-selenium will be able to be used as a key material in bio-medical and cosmetic applications. The high concentration of chitosan derivatives guaranteesincreased antioxidative activity. Both inorganic and organic forms of selenium can be nutritional sources. The antioxidant properties of selenoproteins help prevent cellular damage from free radicals. The objective of this experiment was to study the antioxidative activity of chitosan nano-selenium. Our experiments were divided into five groups, in the presence of various concentrations(0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5%, 0.7%, and 0.9%) of chitosan. We performed an assessment of the antioxidant properties and cytotoxicity of respective concentrations of chitosan nano-selenium. The antioxidant activity was examined by the free radical scavenging activity on 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) assay. The cytotoxicity effect was measured by means of 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide(MTT) assay. As a result, the electron donating abilities of 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5%, 0.7%, and 0.9% of chitosan nano-selenium exhibited effective andioxidant scavenging activity at 12.5 ㎍/㎖ against DPPH radicals. 0.3% chitosan nano-selenium did not show cytotoxicity on human keratinocytes. In general, the cytotoxicity of 0.1% and 0.9% chitosan nano-selenium showed the lowest effects. Though low cytotoxicity of 0.5% and 0.7% chitosan nano-selenium exhibited 29.67% and 38.4% against human keratinocytes on adding 100 ㎍/㎖ and 50 ㎍/㎖, respectively, cell vitality was recovered with 200 ㎍/㎖. These findings support the notion that chitosan nano-selenium may be useful as a new active ingredient source for bioactive compounds.
Compound K(ginsenoside M1) is one of saponin metabolites and has many benefits for human health. This study was to investigate Compound K produced from ginseng crude saponin extract with commercial cellulolytic complex enzyme(cellulase, β-glucanase, and hemicellulase) obtained from Trichoderma reesei. The effect factors(temperature, pH, ginseng crude saponin extract and enzyme concentration, and reaction time) on production of Compound K from ginseng crude saponin extract were determined by one factor at a time method. The selected major factor variables were ginseng crude saponin extract of 2%(w/v), enzyme of 7%(v/v), reaction time of 48 hr. Based on the effect factors, response surface method was proceeded to optimize the enzymatic bioconversion conditions for the desirable Compound K production under the fixed condition of pH 5.0 and 50℃. The optimal reaction condition from RSM was ginseng crude saponin extract of 2.38%, enzyme of 6.06%, and reaction time of 64.04 hr. The expected concentration of Compound K produced from that reaction was 840.77 ㎎/100 g. Production of Compound K was 1, 017.93 ㎎/100 g and 862.31 ㎎/100 g, by flask and bench-scale bioreactor(2.5ℓ) system, respectively.
This study was performed to investigate the eating habit, body image, and weight control behavior by BMI in Korean female high school students. Data on the 16, 574 subjects was obtained from the sixth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (2010). Only 52.2% of the subjects had regular breakfast. The rate of skipping breakfast was higher in the underweight group than in the obese group, but the rate of skipping dinner was on the contrary to this. Underweight students had a higher intake frequency of fruits, fast food, instant noodle, and snacks than the obese groups. 3.5% of underweight students considered themselves to be overweight or obese. 53.4% of obese students considered themselves to be overweight. The experience of weight control increased according to BMI, but underweight students considered weight control as an effort to be slimmer. Meal restriction was used more frequently to control weight. The perceived stress level was higher in obese student, especially due to appearance. Therefore, an appropriate, integrated and personalized high school nutrition program should be established for proper body image perception and to develop the self-esteem of female high school students.