Antioxidant activities and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of Taraxacum officinale solvent fractions were measured. Extraction yields (relative to raw material) of 50% ethanol, hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water were found to be 10.29, 2.61, 5.54, 2.15, and 0.96%, respectively. Polyphenol and flavonoid contents were high in ethyl acetate extract of Taraxacum officinale at 56.88 mg gallic acid/g and 33.27 mg gallic acid/g, respectively. DPPH, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and SOD-like activity measurement (IC50%) of Taraxacum officinale 50% ethanol extract, hexane, butanol, ethyl acetate, and water fractions were 22.64, 18.65, 10.29, 20.81, 20.46 mg/mL, 24.68, 10.69, respectively. It was found to be 9.66, 15.81, 13.77 mg/mL, 32.84, 17.09, 12.73, 33.63, and 33.91 mg/mL, and was high in the ethyl acetate layer. Results showed that α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of Taraxacum officinale solvent fraction were 25.75, 15.93, 35.87, 15.96, and 2.88% for 50% ethanol extract, hexane, butanol, ethyl acetate, and water fractions, respectively.
The antioxidant activity and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the solvent fraction fractionated from the methanol extract of Saururus chinensis Baill were examined. As a result of measuring the yields of methanol, hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate, butanol, and water fractions, the extraction yield of fraction was 18.60, 3.38, 24.03, 7.75, 8.11 and 62.57%, respectively. The total polyphenol content of the methanol extract of Saururus chinensis Baill was 13.40, 4.62, 7.39, 31.24, 25.76 and 5.64 mg GAE/g, respectively. DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50%) results were 20.81, 5.47, 10.15, 22.63, 19.68 and 21.06 ug/mL, respectively, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (IC50%) results were 15.81, 2.69, 8.84, 12.80, 3.70 and 3.39 ug/mL. Hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity scavenging activity measurement (IC50%) showed 33.63, 8.88, 16.93, 32.84, 33.79, and 33.71 ug/mL in methanol, hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate butanol, and water fractions, respectively. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the solvent fraction fractionated with the methanol extract of 300 sec was measured for the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of methanol, hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate butanol, and water fraction, respectively, 15.85, 10.84, 15.74, 24.90, 2.58 and 35.70%.
Antioxidant properties and antioxidant activities were analyzed for water extracts and 50% and 70% ethanol extracts of the leaf of Angelica gigas Nakai. The polyphenol and flavonoid contents in water, 50%, and 70% ethanol extract of the leaf of Angelica gigas Nakai, it was found that the polyphenol contents were 18.75 mg GAE/g, 28.95 mg GAE/g, and 34.73 mg GAE/g, respectively, and flavonoid contents were respectively. The DPPH IC50 scavenging activity was 45.84 mg/mL, 36.44 mg/mL, 19.11 mg/mL, respectively, and theABTS+radical scavenging ability (1 mg/mL) was 28.73%, 22.79%, and 12.70%, respectively. Tyrosinase inhibitory activity, 70% ethanol extract, 50% ethanol extract, and water extract 33.14%, and 4.53%, respectively. Nitrite scavenging activity, 70% ethanol extract, 50% ethanol extract, and water extract were in the order of 1 mg/mL scavenging activity, 36.43%, 34.80%, and 18.85%, respectively.
The value of using rice flour processed into rice powder in preparing porridge was evaluated by measuring the moisture content, pH, total starch, reducing sugar, and color content. The moisture content of the rice flour and the pH of porridge made with rice flour were measured. Rice flour contained 77.55% moisture and the moisture content of the porridge made from rice flour processed into rice powder was 91.40 to 92.47%. The pH of rice flour porridge was acidic at 6.53 to 6.95. The color of the porridge was also measured. The L* values ranged from 82.62 to 97.55, the a* values ranged from －0.09 to 0.08, and the b* values ranged from －2.74 to 1.91.
In this study, polyphenol and flavonoid contents were measured, and DPPH, OH, H2O2 radical scavenging activity, and the α-amylase inhibitory activity were measured to study the antioxidant activity of 70% ethanol extract from Morinda citrifolia L. The polyphenol and flavonoid contents of noni 70% ethanol extract were 29.52 GAE/g and 12.48 CE/g, respectively. Also, the IC50 values of DPPH, hydroxyl radical, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity of 70% ethanol extract from noni were 18.70 mg/mL, 26.45 mg/mL, and 35.67 mg/mL, respectively. Measurement of the α-amylase inhibitory activity of 70% ethanol extract from noni showed 45% inhibitory activity at 10 mg/mL.
This study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant activities on hydropoic-cultured ginseng roots (HGR) and leaves (HGL). The samples were lyophilized, extracted with 80% ethanol, and then evaluated the antioxidant activities compare with conventional- cultured ginseng. Total polyphenol content of ginseng, HGR, and HGL were 128.85±0.41, 115.74±1.28, and 282.15±5.15 mg/g, respectively. The DPPH radical scavenging activity(IC50) was the highest value of 6.47±0.13 mg/mL in the HGL. The ABTS radical scavenging activity was the highest value of 29.37±0.37 mg AA eq/g in HGL, and ginseng and HGR were 10.23±0.49 and 8.18±0.37 mg AA eq/g, respectively. The reducing power of ginseng, HGR, and HGL were 0.56±0.01, 0.53±0.01, and 0.68±0.01, respectively. Chelating effect was the highest value of 92.65±3.42% in HGL. The results of this study suggest that antioxidant activities in hydropoic-cultured ginseng leaves could have significant health benefits.
For the purpose of promoting the consumption of rice powder, 5 cultivars were applied differently to establish the optimal manufacturing conditions and measured Hunter color values, hardness and expansion rate of Yakgwa for the optimal conditions. Looking into the optimal manufacturing conditions of Yakgwa, the commercial flour-facilitating Yakgwa is shown to have a great shape when the mold is made with a thick paste for C-2 manufacturing method, Hangaru 100 mesh for H100-2 manufacturing method, Hangaru 200 mesh for H200-2 manufacturing method, Shingil 100 mesh for S100-2 manufacturing method, and Shingil 200 mesh for S200-1 manufacturing method. It also showed a trend of chewy taste after frying without cracks. Hunter color values (L) and red chromaticity and value b of yellow chromaticity indicated a lower value for the commercial flour and Hangaru 200 mesh in its entirety. The hardness of Yakgwa is within the range of 1,981.41~3,756.45 g and the degree of hardness is shown differently for each rice powder exclusive cultivars. Rice flour developed as rice powder 5 cultivars, and as a result of measuring chromaticity, hardness and expansion rate of Yakgwa for the quality characteristics, the item of hangaru 200 mesh had outstanding quality characteristics for Yakgwa.
This study attempts to analyze the physicochemical characteristics of rice flour developed as rice powder for exclusive use, steamed rice cake recipes developed as basic recipefor rice cakes. The study also aims to compare the quality characteristics of steamed rice cakes in an effort to establish the possibilities of developing various rice cake recipes. The moisture content and amylose content increased as the rice powder particles for exclusive use became finer. With regards to water uptake, in the case of the Hungara type, the water uptake increased as rice powder particles increased in size. In the case of the Shingil and commercial types, the water uptake decreased as rice powder particles increased in size, and solubility and swelling force decreased as rice powder particles increased in size. In the case of chromaticity, Sulgidduk made with rice powder for exclusive use the brightness (L value) increased as powder particles became finer and the yellow indexes (b value) decreased, and this was especially pronounced in the Shingil type. The measurements of changes in the mechanical textures of Sulgidduk showed that rice types with larger particles led to lower hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and chewiness.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of roasted and germinated peanut flours. This study also aims to utilize it as a functional material to be applied to processed foods. The moisture, crude protein, crude fat and ash carbohydrate contents of the common peanut powder used in this study were 1.27, 25.63, 42.19, 2.38, 28.20 g / 100 g, respectively. The moisture content, crude protein, crude fat and ash carbohydrate in germinated peanut powder were 1.47, 25.86, 42.86, 2.25 and 26.66 g / 100 g, respectively. 26.52, 45.02, 2.33, 24.70, g / 100 g, and the dietary fiber content of peanut, roasted peanut and germinated peanut powder was 12.27, 13.05 and 14.22 g / 100g, respectively. The antioxidants and radical scavenging ability of polyphenols and flavonoids in peanut powder treated with germination and germination compared to ordinary peanuts. Resverasterol content was high in the germinated peanut powder. Especially, germinated peanut powder can act as a natural antioxidant.
본 연구에서는 발아와 고압처리에 따른 검정콩 조사포닌 추출물의 in-vitro 항암 활성을 확인하기 위하여 검정콩을 발아시킨 후 고압처리하고, 조사포닌 추출물을 제조한 후 인체 유래 유방암(MCF-7), 대장암(HCT-116), 전립선암(PC-3) 및 위암(AGS) 세포주에 대한 증식억제효과를 검토하였다. 대조구의 조사포닌 추출물은 400 μg/mL 농도에서 4종의 암세포주에 대하여 67.02~91.70% 범위의 생존율을 보여 항암 효과가 낮았지만, 발아 4일차 콩을 150 MPa의 압력에서 고압처리한 검정콩의 조사포닌 추출물은 23.94~57.37% 범위의 생존율을 보여 발아와 고압처리에 의해 암세포 성정억제효과가 증가하였다. 특히, 위암세포(AGS)의 경우 다른 세포주에 비해 저농도에서도 세포증식효과를 보여 가장 높은 암세포 증식억제 효과를 나타내었다. 이상의 결과로부터 항암 활성을 나타내는 Soyasaponin, B group의 soyasaponin 및 soyasapogenol의 함량은 발아와 고압처리에 의해 증가하였고, 고압처리 발아콩으로부터 항암 활성을 나타내는 사포닌 추출물의 개발이 가능할 것으로 생각된다. 또한, 추후 항암 활성 물질의 분리동정과 메커니즘 규명에 대한 연구가 수행되어야 할 것으로 판단된다.
쌀가루의 활용도를 높이기 위해서 제과 품목 중에 쌀파이를 제조하였고, 쌀파이에 볶음땅콩가루, 새싹땅콩가루를 첨가하여 쌀파이의 품질 특성을 분석하였다. 수분함량은 밀 파이에 비해 쌀파이가 낮았고, 볶음땅콩가루, 새싹 땅콩가루 등 부재료를 첨가했을 때 수분함량이 낮게 나타났다. pH는 밀파이에 비해 쌀로 만든 파이에서 pH가 낮게 나타났으며, 볶음땅콩가루나 새싹 땅콩가루를 첨가하였을 때 pH가 높게 나타났다. 반죽의 밀도는 밀파이에 비해 쌀로 만든 파이에서 밀도가 낮게 나타났으며, 볶음땅콩가루나 새싹 땅콩가루를 첨가했을 때 쌀파이보다는 밀도가 높게 나타났다. 손실률은 밀파이에 비해 쌀로 만든 파이에서 높게 나타났으며, 볶음땅콩가루나 새싹 땅콩가루를 첨가했을 때 쌀파이보다는 손실률이 낮게 나타났다. 쌀로 제조한 파이에서 볶음땅콩가루와 새싹땅콩가루를 첨가했을 때 명도(L)와 황색도(b)는 감소하고, 적색도(a)는 증가한 경향을 보였다. 쌀파이의 경도는 밀파이보다는 쌀가루로 만든 파이에서 경도가 증가하였으며, 볶음땅콩가루, 새싹땅콩가루를 첨가할수록 경도는 낮아졌다. 쌀파이의 지방산 조성은 포화 지방산은 myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid로 나타났다. 단일불포화지방산은 주로 oleic acid로 구성된 것으로 확인되었고, 다가불포화지방산의 조성은 linoleic acid로 구성된 것으로 확인되었으며, 밀에 비해서 쌀가루로 제조한 파이에서 높게 나타났다.
쌀 함량 100%인 쌀 쿠키를 제조하여 밀도, 퍼짐성, 색도, 경도, 지방산 함량을 측정하였다. 밀도는 밀쿠키와 쌀 쿠키에서 유의적인 차이가 나타나지 않으나, 쌀 쿠키에서 반죽의 밀도가 높은 경향을 나타냈다. 퍼짐성의 결과는 밀쿠키보다 쌀 쿠키에서 퍼짐성이 낮아지는 경향을 보였다. 쌀 쿠키의 색도는 명도를 나타내는 L값은 밀쿠키보다 쌀 쿠키에서 명도가 높게 나타났으며 적색도를 나타내는 a값은 밀쿠키보다 쌀 쿠키에서 낮은 값을 나타냈다. 황색도를 나타내는 b값은 밀쿠키와 쌀 쿠키에 차이가 나타나지 않았으며, 쌀 쿠키에서 경도가 낮아지는 경향을 보였다. 쌀 쿠키의 지방산 함량은 포화지방산은 myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid로 나타났다. 밀쿠키에 비해 쌀 쿠키에서 포화지방산함량이 낮아지는 경향을 보였다. 단일불포화지방산은 주로 oleic acid로 구성된것으로 확인되었다. 다가불포화지방산의 조성은 linoleic acid로 구성된 것으로 확인되었으며, 밀쿠키보다는 쌀 쿠키에서 높게 나타났다. 필수지방산인 linoleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidonic acid의 경우, 밀로 제조한 것보다는 쌀 가루로 만든 쿠키에서 함량이 높게 나타났다.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the proximate components (water, crude ash, crude protein, crude fat, and carbohydrates) and nutritive components (vitamin A, C, E, minerals, amino acids, and fatty acids) of rice flour and develop several rice bread recipes using rice flour. The water, crude ash, crude protein, crude lipid, carbohydrate contents of rice flour were measured to be 8.53%, 0.10 g, 6.80 g, 0.14 g and 84.43 g, respectively. No vitamin A was detected in the rice flour, and vitamin C and E contents were found to be 8.30 and 0.3467 mg/100 g, respectively. Calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, and sodium contents were measured as 6.23, 65.05, 9.78, 0.17 and 2.84 mg/100 g; the large amount of potassium helps to discharge the sodium. Rice flour has nine kinds of essential amino acids in it; essential amino acids form 45.15% of rice flour’s content. which is higher than 32.3%. Fatty acids were barely detected in the rice powder; saturated fatty acids were measured as 31.25 mg/100 g, and unsaturated fatty acids as 25.54 mg/100 g. Regarding essential fatty acids, linoleic acids were measured as 41.01 mg/100 g, and linolenic acids as 2.20 mg/100 g. The researcher used rice loaf bread as the base and developed rice bread recipes using rice flour to make a total of 11 items: 8 items with 75% rice flour (rice bagel, rice sweet red-bean bread, rice butter roll bread, rice mocha bread, rice buttertop bread, rice custard cream bread, and rice streusel), 2 items with 80% rice flour (stollen and rice hobbang), and 1 item with 85% rice flour (rice donut).
This study analyzed the general components of rice bread with 75% rice content such as water, crude ash, crude protein, crude fat and carbohydrate, and its nutrients such as vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin E content, minerals, amino acids, and fatty acids. The contents of crude protein were high and those of crude fat were low with the contents of crude ash, crude protein, and crude fat being 1.61, 18.50, 0.04 g/100 g respectively. Vitamin A was not detected and the contents of vitamin C and vitamin E were 3.85 and 3.04 mg/100 g, respectively. The calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron and sodium contents were 222.0, 117.90, 24.12, 2.30, 555.90 mg/100 g respectively. Rice bread contains 9 essential amino acids such as valine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, threonine, lysine, phenylalanine, histidine, and arginine. The analysis of rice bread fatty acid showed 58.04 mg/100 g of saturated fatty acid, 26.31mg/100 g of monounsaturated fatty acid and 15.64 mg/100 g of polyunsaturated fatty acid. The total essential fatty acid content was 15.49 mg/100 g. With the rising interest in processed rice products, well-being, and diet, it is necessary to develop processed rice foods that are nutritional and low in calories using rice powder that is nutritionally better than flour.
This study investigated the nutritional composition of green pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. DangZo). Specifically vitamin C, minerals and amino acids content in green peppe were measured. The crude ash, crude protein, and crude fat contents of green pepper were found to be 0.64, 2.10 and 1.20 g/100 g, respectively. The ascorbic acid content in green pepper was 99.34 mg/100 g. The K content was found to be the highest with regard to mineral. This was followed by P, Mg, Na, Ca, Zn, Cu, Mn which means green pepper is an alkali material. The K, P, Mg, Na, Ca, Zn, Cu, Mn contents of green pepper found to be 980, 68.33, 60, 34.14, 30.88, 5.87, 5.25 and 3.07 mg/100 g respectively. The total amino acid content ranged from 7.0 to 1,625.3 mg/100 g, respectively. With regard to amino acid contents, arginine and citrulline were found to be abundant. From the results, green pepper could be suggested as beneficial for food processing.
To evaluate the anti-oxidant and anti-tumor potential of the green pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. DangZo), total polyphenol content, radical scavenging activities and anti-tumor properties were measured. The total polyphenol content of the 70% ethanol extracts from green pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. DangZo) was 30.29 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract. The DPPH radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of 70% ethanol extracts of green pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. DangZo) were documented at 2.87 and 10.55, respectively. For α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activity, 70% ethanol extracts of green pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. DangZo) were documented at 35.67% and 58.41% respectively. The green pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. DangZo) demonstrated greater capability in terms of anti-neoplastic activity vis-a-vis colon cancer cell lines when compared to other cancer cell lines.s. er (Capsicum annuum L. cv. DangZo) higher activities of anticancer activities on colon cancer cell lines compared to other cancer cell lines.
This study investigated the quality characteristics and biological activities of rice germ fermented by Bacillus spp. During the milling process, the contents of rice germ in the rice bran (Control) were adjusted to 30% (RG30) and 70% (RG70). The approximate composition, pH, total acidity, total soluble solid, total sugar, polyphenol and flavonoid contents were measured. DPPH radical scavenging activity, xanthine oxidase (XO) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activities were also determined. We observed that the moisture content decreased after fermentation, while the crude protein was significantly increased. Fermentation remarkably lowered the pH from 5.83~6.26 to 4.77~4.93, thereby elevating the total acidity. Fermentation also increased the total solid contents, from 0.40~0.87 °Bx to 1.63~2.20 °Bx. The total sugar decreased to 136.81~151.53 mg/mL from 377.56~450.64 mg/mL. Polyphenol contents were the highest in control (0.59 and 0.73 mg/mL before and after fermentation, respectively). Fermentation significantly affected the increase of the polyphenols in both rice germ 30% and 70% samples, from 0.26 and 0.28 mg GAE/g before fermentation, to 0.52 and 0.70 mg GAE/g after fermentation, respectively. There was a slight increase in the flavonoid contents after fermentation. The IC50 value of the electron donating ability, as evaluated by the DPPH method, was the lowest in control (3.77 and 3.36 mg/mL before and after fermentation, respectively). Fermentation increased the XO inhibition activity up to 63.69% in control, 49.81% in rice germ 30%, and 59.32% in rice germ 70%. The ACE inhibition activities were also increased in the fermented control, rice germ 30% and 70%, to 40.51%, 22.69% and 33.91%, respectively.
In this study, we evaluated the nutritional components and functional activities of Wooung (burdock, Arctium lappa L.) and Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tea. Roasting burdock’ contained 75.87% carbohydrates; in addition, the moisture content, crude fat, crude protein, and crude fiber were 10.43%, 1.77%, 8.50%, and 3.43%, respectively. Roasting Jerusalem artichoke showed 77.477% carbohydrate content, with moisture content, crude fat, crude protein, and crude fiber of 10.67%, 1.23%, 7.83%, and 2.80%, respectively. Roasting burdock’s water-soluble dietary fiber content was 4.8 g/100 g and insoluble dietary fiber content was 1.5 g/100 g; whereas, roasting Jerusalem artichoke’ water soluble dietary fiber content was 2.4 g/100 g and insoluble dietary fiber content was 1.6 g/100 g. The highest mineral contents in roasting burdock and Jerusalem artichoke were potassium and magnesium, in order. The results of amino acid analyses s indicated a total of 25 types in roasting burdock, with total amino acid content of 1,382.112 mg/100 g, and essential amino acid content of 766.031 mg/100 g. In total, 24 types of amino acids were separated and identified in roasting Jerusalem artichoke, with total amino acid content of 2,678.018 mg/100 g, and total essential amino acid content of 157.294 mg/100 g. Roasting burdock and Jerusalem artichoke’ polyphenol contents were 32.56 and 29.56 mg GAE/g each, and their flavonoid contents were 16.54 and 16.71 CE/g each. IC50 values of DPPH radical-scavenging activity of roasting burdock and Jerusalem artichoke were 12.99 and 19.74, respectively; and IC50 values of hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity were 25.96 and 22.93, respectively.