The purpose of this study was to prevent excessive softening of seasoned spinach by heating and freezing through the pre-heating treatment in calcium chloride solution. The pre-heating temperature was set at 60℃, which supports the highest activity of pectinesterase around 60℃. Pre-heating spinach in calcium solution does not affect the chromaticity characteristics of spinach leaves and significantly improves its texture compared to conventional blanching only and pre-heating in water. The improvement of the firmness is related to the formation of strongly cross-linkages between carboxyl groups and Ca2+ by the action of the pectinesterase in spinach. For reheated spinach, the firmness of calcium chloride treated stems were 37.80~44.44 kg, and the control was 28.73 kg. The firmness of calcium chloride treated leaves was 19.73~40.79 kg, and the control was 9.63 kg. Additionally, the total aerobic bacteria in the fresh samples were 3.25~3.99 log CFU/g and 1.97~2.72 log CFU/g in the reheated samples. And the total coliform was not detected in the reheated samples. Considering the color, texture, microbial characteristics and taste quality, the optimum pre-treatment conditions to prevent excessive softening of spinach were 3% calcium chloride solution and 15minutes of treatment.
Cabbage is a biennial plant that is native to the shores of the Mediterranean. It contains dietary fiber, minerals, vitamin A, vitamin C, and anticarcinogenic phytochemicals. For the test, cabbage powder was added (5%, 10%, 20%, and 30%) to flour. The addition of cabbage powder significantly increased the specific gravity and viscosity of the batter and pH of both the batter and chiffon cake. The moisture in the chiffon cake increased due to the addition of cabbage powder. Also, the lightness of the cake significantly increased, whereas the redness and yellowness decreased as the amount of cabbage powder increased. The lightness and redness of crumbs from C0 were higher than other samples as each 59.48, －3.17, respectively. Except for the resilience, the hardness, gumminess, fracturability, and adhesiveness showed similar values in the C0, C5, and C10. In terms of consumer perception, the color, softness, flavor and overall consumer preference for the control chiffon cake were higher than C5, C10, C20, and C30. Nonetheless, for those that contain cabbage powder, C5 and C10 had relatively higher consumer preferences than C20 and C30. As a result, the optimum amount of cabbage powder for the chiffon cake would be from 5~10%.
This study was conducted to evaluate the functionality of fermented black garlic extracts under various conditions. Black garlic powder was prepared by aging for 0~72 hours at 80℃ depending on relative humidity (RH). It showed the highest antioxidant effects among the samples; the total antioxidant activity of black garlic powders at RH 75%, 84%, and 90% for 72 hours was increased 31.9 times, 28.2 times, and 22.6 times compared with that of the fresh garlic powder, respectively. Also, the alliin content was gradually decreased. S-ally-L-cysteine and S-ethyl-cysteine levels were increased; the highest values were 495.9 μg/g and 1,769.7 μg/g after aging for 72 hours at RH 75%. Aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels were increased following high fat diet feeding, but the rise was obviously reduced by administration of black garlic extract. The total cholesterol, LDL/VLDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride contents in serum were significantly lower in methionine and choline deficient (MCD) diet treatment groups than in the positive control group. The concentration was increased following the intake of black garlic and fermented black garlic extracts. Therefore, black garlic extracts could be an ideal material as a dietary supplement in healthy functional foods to improve the effects on fatty liver.
In this study, a survey was conducted among university students (119 men and 134 women) in Chungbuk province using questionnaires to investigate the variables and eating patterns related to the use of food delivery apps. A survey was conducted from March 22, 2019 to April 3, 2019. Of the total respondents, 77.2% reported that they had ordered food at least once using food delivery apps on smartphones. Further, 63.3% of the total subjects had ordered food delivery through smartphone apps once or twice a month, and the most preferred cuisine for food delivery was fast food, followed by Bunsik (Korean street food/snack), western food, and Chinese food. The average satisfaction scorefor food delivery apps was 3.8 points, and the satisfaction score was the highest with the convenient ordering process (4.0), followed by good taste (3.9) and good portion (3.8). The subjects who used smartphone food delivery apps three times or more a month showed a significantly higher frequency of instant food intake (p=0.0132), dining out (p=0.0282), and late-night eating (p=0.0047) than the subjects who ordered food using delivery apps less than three times a month. In conclusion, these study results may be applied as baseline data for dietary education among university students.
In this study, the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of wet noodles added with doraji (Platycodon grandiflourm) powder at concentrations of 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%, respectively, were investigated. The crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, crude fiber, and moisture contents of the dried doraji powder were 11.00%, 0.95%, 4.10%, 29.64%, and 6.21%, respectively. As the added amount of doraji powder increased, weight, volume, and water absorption of the wet noodles after cooking decreased. However, the turbidity of the soup increased. Color L values of wet and cooked noodles decreased, while a and b values increased by the addition of doraji powder. Texture measurement indicated that hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and chewiness of the cooked noodles decreased by addition of doraji powder. The total polyphenol contents and DPPH radical scavenging activity in wet noodles added with doraji powder increased with increasing amounts of doraji powder. Finally, sensory evaluation of wet noodles added with doraji powder revealed that taste significantly decreased. However, flavor, color, texture, appearance, and overall acceptance scores for the 1% addition group ranked significantly higher than those of the other groups. In conclusion, these findings suggest that doraji powder could be used as functional food ingredients.
The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activities and quality characteristics of jelly added with 0%, 8%, 16%, 24%, and 32% rhubarb stem juice (RSJ). The moisture content and water activity of jelly samples increased significantly with increasing content of RSJ. The pH was highest in control samples; and the more the amount of RSJ added, the lower. Hunter color value of the jelly showed that L was highest in control samples, but it was not significant in RSJ-added samples. The A value was increased significantly with the addition of RSJ. Hardness, gumminess, and chewiness was highest in samples with 0~8% RSJ, and it decreased by increasing RSJ addition. DPPH radical scavenging activity results showed 60% activity in samples with 32% RSJ. ABTS radical scavenging activity was lowest in control samples and samples with 8~32% RSJ showed 70~80% activity, but it was not significant in samples with 8~32% RSJ. The total polyphenol was increased respectively with increasing levels of RSJ. In terms of consumer acceptance, overall acceptability did not show any significant difference among samples, and the color showed the highest value in samples with 32% RSJ and the lowest value in samples with 8% RSJ.
This study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant activities on hydropoic-cultured ginseng roots (HGR) and leaves (HGL). The samples were lyophilized, extracted with 80% ethanol, and then evaluated the antioxidant activities compare with conventional- cultured ginseng. Total polyphenol content of ginseng, HGR, and HGL were 128.85±0.41, 115.74±1.28, and 282.15±5.15 mg/g, respectively. The DPPH radical scavenging activity(IC50) was the highest value of 6.47±0.13 mg/mL in the HGL. The ABTS radical scavenging activity was the highest value of 29.37±0.37 mg AA eq/g in HGL, and ginseng and HGR were 10.23±0.49 and 8.18±0.37 mg AA eq/g, respectively. The reducing power of ginseng, HGR, and HGL were 0.56±0.01, 0.53±0.01, and 0.68±0.01, respectively. Chelating effect was the highest value of 92.65±3.42% in HGL. The results of this study suggest that antioxidant activities in hydropoic-cultured ginseng leaves could have significant health benefits.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity and β-glucan content of extracts extracted by varying the temperature at 30, 55 and 80℃ after hot air drying or freeze drying of Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus eryngii. For the analysis antioxidant activity of each mushroom, β-glucan, total phenol, flavonoid contents, and DPPH․ABTS+․Nitrite assay were measured. Also, the β-glucan content, total flavonoid content and ABTS+ scavenging activity increased with freeze drying rather than hot air drying, and increased with increasing extraction temperature in both mushrooms. However, the total phenol and nitrite scavenging activity increased with hot air drying rather than freeze drying, and decreased with increasing temperature in both mushrooms. DPPH scavenging activity was not significant in both mushrooms, but decreased with increasing extraction temperature. Pearson’s correlations between total flavonoid content and antioxidant activities were r=0.719~0.753 (p<0.01). As a result, the β-glucan content, total flavonoid content, and ABTS radical cation scavenging activity were highest during freeze drying and extraction at 80℃. And the highest total phenol content, DPPH radical scavenging activity and nitrite scavenging activity were obtained during hot air drying and extraction at 30℃.
This study examined the effect of the trust of a restaurant brand on the quality of brand relations centered on the mediating effect of brand promise. The survey was conducted on September 18, 2018 to October 2, 2018, with a total of 707 end users, who are under the age of 19~59, using the restaurant brand for the last six months. The panel survey was conducted by distributing a questionnaire address (URL) email through an online questionnaire. As a result, if you apply the parameters of brand commitment between brand trust and brand relationship quality, brand promise an important role and influence. In particular, only one of the three elements of differentiation, consistency and continue, which are sub-dimensions of brand promise, was continue. This means that consistently long term continue are paramount between brand trust and the quality of brand relationships. These results can be applied to the brand marketing and operations of catering companies.
Herb soy sauce was prepared by extracting rosemary, lemon balm, spearmint and peppermint at a low temperature in fresh soy sauce. The antioxidant and physicochemical properties of herb soy sauces were examined. Herb soy sauces were prepared by adding 2.5% (w/v) of herbs to fresh soy sauce at 60℃. The total polyphenol, DPPH%, ABTS% increased with extracting time but five minutes extraction with sufficient antioxidant herb soy sauce could be prepared. The antioxidant powers of herb soy sauces were higher in lemon balm extract, and the rosemary extract showed the lowest. Soy sauces added with herbs had lower pH and salinity (p<0.05) and higher sugar content than without herbs. The colorness according to the type of herbs showed significant difference.
The purpose of this study was to provide the basic data of butternut squash (Cucurbita moschata) according to the drying methods. The proximate composition and chromaticity of freeze-dried and hot air-dried Cucurbita moschata powders were evaluated, and the antioxidant effects of these ethanolic extracts were analyzed by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, reducing power activity, total phenolic, and flavonoid content. As a result, Cucurbita moschata was revealed to have high carbohydrate and crude protein contents, while crude ash and crude fat contents were relatively low. Also, it was confirmed that the hot air-dried Cucurbita moschata had lower L, a, and b values than the freeze-dried Cucurbita moschata. Additionally, as a result of analyzing the antioxidant activity of Cucurbita moschata ethanolic extracts, hot air-dried Cucurbita moschata ethanolic extract showed significantly superior antioxidant activity than freeze-dried Cucurbita moschata ethanolic extract. Also, hot air-dried Cucurbita moschata ethanolic extract was revealed to have a higher polyphenol content, but slightly lower flavonoid content than freeze-dried Cucurbita moschata ethanolic extract. Based on the data from this study, further experiments on Cucurbita moschata material are necessary.
The purpose of this study was to analyze a cohort, age, and time effects on sodium and sodium-calorie intake using the 2007~2017 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). For analysis, we have constructed cohort panel data that combine KNHANES data in a time series. The age effect gradually increased from age 45~49 and then decreased afterwards. The time effect showed an increase in average sodium intake until 2010 followed by a subsequent decrease. The cohort effect showed that the sodium intake was the highest for the War of Liberation 1946~1953, and that the younger the latter, the lower the sodium intake. According to a cohort analysis, the younger the generation, the lower the sodium intake compared to the calorie intake, according to the baby boomers. Based on the results of this study, efforts should be made to educate and promote the dieting and providing low-salt meals to reduce sodium intake by generation. An analysis of the health hazards including sodium by generation and age is thought to enable the establishment relevant policies.
In this study, fingerroot (Boesenbergia pandurata) and ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) were extracted with water, 70% and 100% ethanol, respectively. The contents of polyphenols, flavonoids and ascorbic acid, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of these extracts were measured. With respect to the polyphenol compound content, both fingerroot and ginger extract showed the highest in 70% ethanol extract, and the fingerroot extract showed a generally higher content than the ginger extract. The content of flavonoids, fingerroot and ginger extracts showed values of 1,247.14~1,259.93 μg%, and there was no big difference between extracts. The content of ascorbic acid was the highest in 100% ethanol extract in both fingerroot and ginger. Fingerroot extract was slightly higher than ginger extract in all extracts. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of fingerroot and ginger extracts showed the highest antioxidant activity in 100% ethanol extract, and fingerroot showed a slightly higher activity than ginger. The ABTS radical scavenging activity was high in 70% and 100% ethanol extracts of both fingerroot and ginger. In the activity between fingerroot and ginger extracts, ginger was higher in water extract and fingerroot was slightly higher in ethanol extract. Fingerroot and ginger extracts showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus.
The purpose of this study is an application of Lee’s Menu Engineering (LME) method for menu analysis on the eight kinds of pizza selected from 17 kinds of pizza served by an Italian restaurant near by the Keimyung College University campus. The eliminated nine items were in the third quadrant or below the trend line. The LME method is more efficient than generally used methods such as the Miller, Kasavana & Smith, Uman, Pavesic and Merricks & Jones method. The LME method comprises reference lines and four quadrants created by x, y axes and its average values. The x and y axes comprise the sales ratio (MM%, percentage of the Menu Mix) and the weighted contribution margin (WCM%, percentage of the Weighted Contribution Margin) respectively. The obtained results are such that total sales increased by 1.59% from 58,747,200 won to 59,684,000 won, despite the decrease in sales volume. Total contribution margin also increased from 35,248,320 won to 35,810,400 won. The trend line also shows from y=0.9147x (R2=0.703) to y=0.9944x (R2=0.9893). These results indicate that the LME method is superior in practical applications.