This study assessed yearly trends of food and nutrient intake among high school students aged 16 to 18 years (n=2,377) using the 2007~2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Yearly trends of food or nutrient intake were analyzed via logistic regression analysis. The results showed that consumption of sugars & sweets, and beverages & alcohols was increased rapidly during this period (p<0.0001). Intake of meat & meat products, and fish & shellfish also was increased (p=0.0008). Intake of grains and grain products was increased until year 2011 but declined after 2012 (p=0.0025). Consumption of vegetables, and milk & milk products was decreased (p=0.0395). Intake of protein, fat, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and iron was increased (p=0.0445). Carbohydrate energy ratio was decreased, whereas fat energy ratio was increased (p=0.0235). Most nutrient intakes satisfied the dietary reference intakes for Koreans except dietary fiber (19.6~26.2%), calcium (46.9~55.2%) and sodium (more than 221.4%) during this period. There was a significant positive correlation between most food group intakes and most nutrient intakes (p=0.0468). Therefore, it is crucial to increase dietary fiber and calcium intake and decrease consumption of sugars, fats and sodium through diverse eating of food groups to ensure balanced nutrition of subjects.
In this study, the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of wet noodles added with doraji (Platycodon grandiflourm) powder at concentrations of 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%, respectively, were investigated. The crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, crude fiber, and moisture contents of the dried doraji powder were 11.00%, 0.95%, 4.10%, 29.64%, and 6.21%, respectively. As the added amount of doraji powder increased, weight, volume, and water absorption of the wet noodles after cooking decreased. However, the turbidity of the soup increased. Color L values of wet and cooked noodles decreased, while a and b values increased by the addition of doraji powder. Texture measurement indicated that hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and chewiness of the cooked noodles decreased by addition of doraji powder. The total polyphenol contents and DPPH radical scavenging activity in wet noodles added with doraji powder increased with increasing amounts of doraji powder. Finally, sensory evaluation of wet noodles added with doraji powder revealed that taste significantly decreased. However, flavor, color, texture, appearance, and overall acceptance scores for the 1% addition group ranked significantly higher than those of the other groups. In conclusion, these findings suggest that doraji powder could be used as functional food ingredients.
This paper scrutinizes the consonant alternations of Chinese Pidgin English in The Chinese and English Instructor(1862) that has been known as the representative text of CPE. The Chinese and English Instructor was written by Tong Ting-shu who was a comprador of Guangdong province, and composed of six volumes. Particularly, a part of volume 4 and a total of volume 6 consisted of CPE phrases or sentences. Therefore two volumes are very important for analyzing phonology, morphology and syntax of CPE. The CPE had been used primarily in Chinese southeastern coast from the early 19th century to the beginning of 20th century, and is a representative pidgin as a mixture of Cantonese and English. In CPE many consonants are replaced to others: from a fricative to a plosive and consonants cluster simplification etc. In The Chinese and English Instructor, particularly, we can see several consonants alternation. Firstly, [v] replaced [f], [w], and [p]/∅. Cantonese dose not have the [v] sound, so it changed to other consonants. Secondly, English plosives replaced aspirated voiceless plosives or unaspirated voiceless plosives because of the phonological system of Cantonese. However, this alternation is inconsistent and very complicated. Thirdly, [š] replaced the [s] sound in the condition that some vowels come after [š] or under the last syllable. But this vowel always replaced [syu] under some conditions. Fourthly, all of [θ] and [ð] sounds replaced [d], but only in the case ‘thisee’ and ‘the’ [ð] replaced [l].
본 연구는 밤의 고부가치화를 위한 기반을 마련하기 위해 국내 주요 밤 생산지인 공주의 밤 가공업체에서 제조 가능 하고 상품성이 높은 밤 가공식품을 개발하고자 실시하였다. 이를 위해 우선 공주시 밤 가공업체를 대상으로 심층면접법 을 통해 실태조사를 하였다. 밤식품으로 밤음료 3종, 밤빵/밤 과자 9종, 테이크아웃 푸드 8종, 밤떡/밤한과 4종, 밤엿/밤양 갱 3종의 총 27종을 개발 가능한 품목으로 제안하였고, 이들 중 자문진 평가를 거쳐 10종-밤푸딩, 밤찰떡빵, 밤파운드케이크, 밤브리또, 밤수수부꾸미, 밤스프, 율편, 밤약과, 밤엿, 밤양갱-이 선정되었다. 이들 10가지 품목의 시제품을 제작하 여 관능검사를 실시하였다. 관능검사 결과, 자문진 의견, 업 체 의견 및 업체 여건을 반영해 상품화에 가장 적합한 제품 으로 밤파운드케이크와 밤약과가 선정되었다. 이 두 제품의 상품화를 돕기 위해 영양성분 분석을 통해 고열량·저영양 식품의 여부를 판별하였고 영양성분표시를 제작하였으며, 유 통기한을 설정하였다. 본 연구는 밤 가공업체의 실정과 요구 도에 맞는 식품을 개발하였을 뿐만 아니라 이들 제품의 등 록과 판매 등 즉시 상품화가 가능하도록 지원한 데 의의가 있다. 이후 연구에서는 건강기능성을 좀 더 고려한 레시피의 개발과, 관능검사 외에 객관적인 제품 평가 방법 등이 추가 될 필요성이 있다. 그리고 밤 가공식품 고급화와 다양화를 위해 최종 제품 개발에만 치우치지 않고 밤을 주재료로 한 중간식재료도 개발해 밤 가공식품의 다양화와 판로 확대를 기할 필요가 있을 것으로 사료된다.
The influence of aging on the flavor precursors and volatile compounds of top round beef was studied. The concentrations of free amino acids, nucleotides, creatine, dipeptides, and volatile compounds were measured after top round from Hanwoo was aged at 4℃ for 21 days. The amount of free amino acids in top round significantly increased with the increase of aging period. There was no effect of aging on the concentrations of adenosine monophosphate or inosine in top round. The inosine monophosphate content of top round significantly decreased with age, while the hypoxanthine content increased. The concentrations of creatine, carnosine, and anserine in top round were not influenced by aging. In total, 24 volatile compound were identified in aged, cooked top round. Of these, the quantities of aldehydes (propanal, pentanal, hexanal, heptanal, octanal, and nonanal), hydrocarbons (pentane and octane), 2-butanone, ethyl acetate, and pyridines (4-ethynyl-pyridine and 4-acetyl-pyridine) significantly increased after aging. We conclude that the flavor of top round can be improved by aging.
The purpose of this study was to estimate usage of vitamin and mineral supplements as over-the-counter (VM-OTC) drugs as well as examine factors associated with VM-OTC usage in Korean adolescents. A total of 1,407 adolescents attending middle or high school in all parts of country were included in the analysis. Prevalence of VM-OTC usage was 56.1%, and it was higher as monthly income, father’s education level, and socioeconomic status of family increased (p<0.001). VMOTC intake was higher in middle school students than in high school students as well as in rural areas or small & mediumsized city residents than big city residents (p<0.01). Subjects mainly received information on VM-OTC mainly from ‘family and relatives’ (46.6%), whereas only 20.3% received information from experts. Subjects took VM-OTC ‘when they are healthy’ (49.1%), ‘when they feel sick’ (17.7%), ‘when they are on a diet’ (17.3%), and ‘when they are stressful’ (15.9%). The effectiveness of taking VM-OTC were mainly ‘fatigue recovery’ (35.0%), ‘health improvement’ (30.6%), and ‘nutritional status improvement’ (13.2%). The most frequently used VM-OTC was vitamin C (49.1%), multi-vitamins (18.6%), multi vitamins & minerals (13.2%), and calcium (9.2%). Among VM-OTC users, only 21.9% replied that they usually check the nutrition facts when they buy products, 62.4% follow the recommended dosage, and 9.7% fully understand the nutrition labels of the products. According to logistic regression analysis, the most influential factor affecting VM-OTC use was parents’ and siblings’ VM-OTC consumption (p<0.001). In addition, school type (middle or high school) (p<0.01), residence (p<0.05), self-concerns about health (p<0.05), father’s education level (p<0.05), and socioeconomic status of family (p<0.05) all influenced VM-OTC use. These results show that VM-OTC use is widespread among adolescents, few users actually check and fully understand the nutrition labels when they purchase VM-OTC, and they are highly dependent on unprofessional advice and information. Therefore, it is necessary to educate adolescents to help them select proper VM-OTC and read nutrition labels.
The purpose of this study was to estimate the consumption prevalence of vitamin and mineral supplements as health functional foods (VM-HFF) and to examine the factors associated with VM-HFF consumption behaviors in adolescents. A total of 1,407 adolescents attending middle or high schools from various cities and rural communities in Korea participated in this study. The prevalence of VM-HFF consumption was 41.7%, with boys showing a higher consumption than girls (p<0.01). VM-HFF consumption was higher in families with higher socioeconomic status and for families with parents that exhibited higher concerns about their child's health, growth, and nutritional intake (p<0.001). Most consumers of VM-HFF consumed HFFs 'when healthy' (50.1%), and acquired nutritional information from 'their families & relatives' (50.9%). Most consumers responded that VM-HFF was 'a little effective' (54.3%), followed by 'no obvious effects' (37.1%), and 'very effective' (7.4%). The effectiveness of consuming VM-HFF was mainly for 'fatigue recovery' (39.0%) and 'health improvement' (28.2%). Most consumers purchased HFFs at 'pharmacies & oriental medicine clinics' (53.8%) and at 'health functional food stores' (18.8%). Most consumers 'occasionally' (51.1%) or 'seldom' (27.3%) checked nutrition facts when purchasing, with 58.9% of consumers understanding the nutritional label for 'the most part', but only 8.7% of them understanding it 'very well'. Among the VM-HFF, consumers preferred calcium- and vitamin C-supplements. Consumers' mini-dietary assessment scores were higher than those of non-consumers. The results above showed that VM-HFF consumption was widely spread among adolescents, but few consumers checked and understood the nutrition label when they purchased VM-HFF, and were highly dependent on the advice and information from non-professional nutritionists, such as families & relatives. Therefore, it is necessary to educate adolescents to help them read nutrition labels and select the proper VM-HFF.
This study was performed to investigate the consumption of coffee beverages and energy contribution ratios of coffee beverages and accompanying snacks by college students in Deajeon City and Chungnam Province in Korea. Questionnaire survey, dietary survey, and snack survey using food record method during 3-days were carried out. As a result, we found that 86.9% of male students and 75.6% of female students consumed coffee beverages usually, with no differences between the two groups. However, the frequency of coffee beverages consumed by female students out-numbered that of male students by 1 cup a day to 1-2 cups a week (p<0.05). Furthermore, male students most likely consumed coffee beverages at schools or academies, but female students consumed them at coffee shops (p<0.01). The reasons male students gave to consume coffee beverages were for scent, taste, fatigue, and to stay awake. Similarly, the reasons female students gave to consume coffee beverages were for scent, taste, habit, and to stay awake (p<0.01). Fully 58.1% of male students and 80.0% of female students ate snacks along with coffee beverages (p<0.01). Most male students substituted a coffee beverage and accompanying snack for a regular meal once a month. Female students were doing it at most 2-3 times a month (p<0.05). The mean daily dietary energy intake of male students was 1,924 kcal/d, and of female students was 1,518 kcal/d (p<0.001), which both were below the estimated energy requirements. Male students obtained 285.6 kcal/d and female students obtained 289.5 kcal/d from coffee beverages and accompanying snacks. There was a significant different in dietary intake of energy (p<0.05), calcium, and iron (p<0.001) for each ratio of reference intake between male and female students. The students who ate larger amounts of coffee beverages and accompanying snacks consumed less dietary energy, protein, calcium, and iron, respectively (p<0.05). These results show that many students consume coffee beverages regularly and obtain large amounts of energy from coffee beverages and accompanying snacks. It also shows that student's dietary nutrient intake tends to be poorer, as he or she obtains more energy from coffee beverages and accompanying snacks. Therefore, it is critical to monitor the influence of consumption of coffee beverages and accompanying snacks on the dietary nutrient intakes and health of college students, and to provide nutrition education about the proper consumption of coffee beverages and accompanying snacks based on scientific evidence.
This study was performed to investigate patterns of fortified food (FF) consumption and intake of vitamins and minerals from FFs among 577 Korean children (12.4 years of age) who attended elementary or middle school. FFs eaten by children as a snack were surveyed using the food record method during 3 days, including 2 week days and one weekend. As a result, 114 FF items were eaten by the children, and several kinds of nutrients such as vitamin A, D, E, B complex, C, calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) were fortified in these foods. Ca-FFs (65.8%) were most frequently consumed, followed by vitamin C-FFs (33.4%) and vitamin D-FFs (33.3%). The number of FF items in each food group was the most in the milk group (n=24, 21.0%), followed by the beverage group (n=19, 16.7%), and the cookie/bread/cake group (n=17, 14.9%). Fortified nutrients in FFs were in various combinations, but the major combination patterns were Ca, Ca plus vitamins, Ca plus vitamins plus other minerals, and Ca plus other minerals. Daily mean intakes of vitamins and minerals from the FFs were 66-300% more than those of the recommended nutrient intake (RNI ) or adequate intake (AI) for most vitamins and minerals. Daily maximum intakes (95th percentile) of vitamins and minerals from FFs were 1-15 times the RNI or AI for most vitamins and minerals. Vitamin and mineral consumption ratios from each FF group were different according to the kind of fortified nutrient. For example, vitamin C was mostly eaten in fortified beverages (46-54%), and Fe was mostly eaten in fortified cookie/breads/cakes (87%). The above results show that FF consumption varied widely among the children, and that most of the children's foods were fortified with several vitamins and minerals without a common rule; thus, subjects risked over consuming vitamins and minerals by eating FFs. Therefore, practical guideline on FF use for children's optimal nutrition and health should be provided through nutrition education.
The elderly is a target group for health functional foods (HFFs). We surveyed 825 Korean elderly (71.4- years-of-age) for HFF use and significant variables for HFF use including demographic characteristics, health related variables, and nutritional beliefs. The prevalence of HFF use was 48.7%, and among all types of HFF, red ginseng products were eaten most frequently, followed by ginseng products, nutritional supplements, and mushroom products. The mean age of users of HFFs was lower than nonusers (p<.01). HFFs were eaten more frequently by subjects from families living with a spouse or unmarried children (p<.01) and those with higher levels of monthly pocket money (p<.001). HFFs were also eaten more frequently by subjects or their spouses with a higher education level (p<.001). The social activity participation ratio (p<.01) of subjects and the HFF usage ratio by the spouse (p<.001) were higher in users of HFF than in nonusers. Dietary assessment scores were not different between the two groups, and users had a more positive view concerning the potential health benefits of HFFs than did nonusers (p<.001). Most users of HFF ate HFFs "when they were healthy" (52.2%) and experienced some effect through HFF use (45.8%). Most users of HFFs received information on HFFs through their families or relatives (38.1%) and most purchased HFFs at the pharmacy or oriental medicine clinic (44.8%). HFF users preferred multivitamin- and Ca-supplements most among the vitamin and mineral supplements belonged to HFFs. The above results show that HFF use is widely spread among subjects, and that use of HFF is influenced by various factors. Thus, practical guidelines for HFF use should be provided for the elderly through elderly focused-nutrition education based upon significant variables and consumption behaviors for their HFF use of present study.
We surveyed 848 university students, 21.4±2.5 years of age, attending university in Seoul, Kongju, Chongyang-Gun in the Chungnam province of Korea, for their use of health functional foods (HFF) and for significant variables in this use, namely demographic characteristics, health related variables, dietary variables and nutritional beliefs. The prevalence of the use of HFF was 33.6%. Among all types of HFF, nutritional supplements were taken most frequently, followed by (in order) red ginseng products, apricot extract products and ginseng products. HFF use was higher in females (p<.05), in subjects living in a dormitory (p<.05) and those from families with a relative high socioeconomic status (p<.001). Self-health concern (p<.05) and usage ratio of HFF by family (p<.001) was higher in users than in nonusers of HFF. The total score of dietary assessment was higher in users than in nonusers of HFF (p<.001), and users had a more positive point of view concerning the potential health benefits of HFF than did nonusers (p<.001). Most users took HFF when they were healthy (37.2%) or when they were sick (27.4%). They did not feel special effects through the HFF use (49.8%). Most users got the information about the specifics of HFF from family and/or relatives (55.8%). Most of users confirmed nutrition facts when they purchased the HFF (70.9%), but a considerable number of users could not understand these nutrition facts (48.1%). Users preferred vitamin C- and Ca-supplements most among vitamin · mineral supplements belonged to HFF. These results show that the use of HFF is common among university students. As well, the use of HFF by students is affected by various variables. Supplementary nutritional education should be undertaken among university students, in order to give them a reasonable guideline for the use of HFF, based upon influencing factors and usage behaviors that we learned from this survey.
We surveyed 821 children (ages 12-15 y) in Daejeon city and Cunngcheong province, Korea for their use of vitamin·mineral supplements (VMS), either over-the-counter drugs and/or health functional foods (HFF). We also considered the significant variables of VMS use, including demographic characteristics, health-related variables, eating habits and nutritional beliefs of VMS by subjects. The frequency of VMS use was 24.8% and, in comparison to counterparts, it was higher in subjects attending middle school (p<0.001), in those living in a large city (p<0.001), in those with a high monthly family income (p<0.05), and in those with high concerns about school performance by parents (p<0.01). Selfhealth concerns by subjects (p<0.05) and concerns about health of offspring by parents (p<0.01) were higher in users than in nonusers. Eating habits of subjects did not affect the use of VMS. Users had a more positive view concerning the potential health benefits of VMS than did nonusers (p<0.05). Most users took VMS when they were healthy (78.9%) and expected ‘disease prevention and health maintenance’ (44.6%). However, most users did not feel any special effects from VMS use (58.8%), and they got their information on VMS through family and relatives (53.9%). Users of VMS preferred vitamin C supplements (44.2%) and Ca-supplements (56.9%). Therefore, the results show that VMS use is widely spread among the subjects, and that use of VMS is influenced by multiple variables and subjective criteria. Therefore, practical guidelines on VMS use for children’s health and growth should be given through nutritional education.
This study was performed to compare the dietary intake and food sources of zinc (Zn), using a database of Zn composition developed in this study, between elementary schoolchildren in a remote rural area (RA, n=58, 9.9±1.7 yrs) and those in an urban area (UA, n=60, 9.4±1.8 yrs) in Chungnam province in Korea. A dietary survey for three days by food record method was performed. All kinds of foods (n=273) consumed by subjects were collected by aliquot sampling method, and the Zn content of these foods were analyzed by wet technique. The results showed that the daily mean intakes of energy, calcium, iron, and vitamin C from diet in the RA were in the range of 49-88% of the Korean DRI (KDRI), while those in the UA were similar to or greater than the KDRI, except for calcium and iron. The daily mean intake of Zn from the RA diet was 7.0±0.5 mg/d (114.1±8.4% of the KDRI), and 16.0±1.0 mg/d (258.3±16.3% of the KDRI) in that of the UA (p〈0.001). The percentage of dietary intake of Zn less than 2/3 of the KDRI was 19.0% in the RA, in comparison to 1.7% in the UA. Those in the RA consumed Zn from plant foods more often than did those in the UA (p〈0.001). Beef rib stew was the food source with highest Zn amount for the total subjects, followed by beef rib meat, roasted; and beef soup w/seasoned red pepper sauce. These results showed that some children in the RA had poor Zn nutrition based upon low intakes and poor food sources of Zn, while overall, children in the UA had good Zn nutrition. Therefore, those in RAs should have their Zn nutrition improved through government policy and nutrition education.
To determine the relationships between soybean food intake, dietary isoflavone intake, and osteoporosis incidence, questionnaire surveys, bone mineral density measurements, and dietary surveys by food record were performed with 19 postmenopausal women (57.6±7.3 yrs of age) in Daejeon city. The subjects were divided into two groups: an ‘osteoporosis group’ (OG, n=10) and a ‘normal group’ (NG, n=9). Mean age, height, and body weight were similar between the two groups but BMI was higher in OG than in NG. Mean age at menarche was not different between the two groups. However, mean number of childbirths was greater in OG than in NG and mean total period of lactation was shorter in OG. Mean exercise time per week was similar between the two groups, and mean time of sunlight exposure tended to be shorter in OG. Mean daily intake of calcium was lower in OG whereas sodium intake was higher in OG. Mean daily intakes of total soybean food (OG: 203.8±84.6 g/d, NG: 285.0±146.3 g/d) and total dietary isoflavone (OG: 29.1±14.3 mg/d, NG: 38.3±23.1 mg/ d) were not different between the two groups. However, greater intakes of soybean food and dietary isoflavone were associated with higher bone mineral density, respectively. The above results indicate that osteoporosis incidence tends to be influenced by BMI, maternal factors, dietary nutrient intakes, soybean food intakes, and dietary isoflavone intakes in postmenopausal women; although no significant differences in soybean food and dietary isoflavone intake were found between the two groups. This tendency implies that greater intakes of soybean food and dietary isoflavone lead to lower incidence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.
This study is performed to examine the meal management attitudes of housewives who had elementary schoolchildren in the remote rural areas(RA: n = 318, 37.2±0.3 years of age) in comparison to those in their vicinity urban area(UA: n = 349, 36.9±0.2 years of age) in the Chungnam province in Korea. The subjects were asked to fill out the questionnaire on their attitudes of meal management for their families. The results obtained in this study were as followings: (1) Most husbands of the subjects had a farming job in the RA while they had salaried workers in the UA(p〈0.001). Education levels of both subjects and their husbands were lower in the RA than in the UA. Nuclear families were dominated by both groups, however single parent-family and step parent-family were more prevalent in the RA than in the UA. (2) in terms of ways of getting foods such as grains, meats, eggs, vegetables and fruits, the RA housewives relied more often on self-production than did the UA housewives(p〈0.001). (3) The frequency of purchasing unprocessed foods was lower in the RA than in the UA(p〈0.001). The RA housewives purchased the convenient foods such as instant noodles(p〈0.05), ready to eatsoups(p〈0.001), retort pouch foods(p〈0.05) and instant teas(p〈0.05) more frequently than did the UA housewives, while tuna, canned in oil(p〈0.01), milk and their products(p〈0.001), soybean products(p〈0.001) and snacks(p〈0.01) were purchased less often by the RA housewives. (4) Family members except housewives engaged more often in meal preparation in the RA than did those in the UA(p〈0.001), which was more strongly observed for dinner. The time spent in preparing the dinner was shorter in the RA than in the UA(p〈0.001). (5) The degrees of endeavor to provide the subjects' offspring with balanced meal(p〈0.001) and nutrition education(p〈0.01) were lower in the RA than in the UA. The RA housewives had more difficulty for performing meal management because of 'over work-related fatigue', 'insufficient money to purchase foods' and 'far distance from grocery' than the UA housewives(p〈0.001). The RA housewives had lower score on nutritional knowledge(p〈0.001) and wanted more strongly nutritional knowledge to improve the quality of family's meal than did the UA housewives(p〈0.01). Therefore, the RA housewives had various problems regarding meal management such as 'over work related to fatigue', 'food-purchasing inconvenience', 'low economic status of family' and 'lack of nutritional knowledge'. As a consequence the RA housewives relied on cheap convenient foods more often in order to prepare the meal easily than did the UA housewives. These findings emphasize the need in the RA for nutrition education for housewives and a range of nutrition policies that focus upon the social and economic determinants of food choice within families to improve the nutritional status of the RA residents.
Fortified foods are consumed widely in modem society according to increased concern on health oriented foods. This study investigated the patterns of vitamin-and/or mineral-fortified food use among 677 teenage students(13-18 years of age) in Chungnam province and Daejeon city in Korea using questionnaire. More than 63.7% of total subjects consumed more than one package of fortified foods belonged to more than three categories of five categories including sweets/biscuits, ramyons, beverages, milk and dairy products, and breads as a frequency of more than 1-2 times/week during previous three months prior to present survey. Consumption of fortified foods was higher in middle school students than in high school students(p<0.05), and in females than in females(p<0.001). Users of fortified foods took the snacks more often(p<0.001), and they tended to believe more positively that fortification can be helpful in health maintenance than did non-users. Users preferred vitamin C and Ca(calcium) as a fortified nutrient. Major fortified nutrients in fortified foods taken by users were various; vitamin B-complex and Ca from sweets/biscuits, Ca from ramyons, vitamin C and Ca from beverages, Ca and iron from milk and dairy products and breads. These results suggest that fortified foods are used commonly and are influenced by several factors among teenagers. Types of fortified nutrient, in fortified foods taken by subjects, are various and fortification is performed unspecifically. As a consequence both nutrition education and government regulation on fortified foods should be enforced to maximize the benefits and minimize the hazard of their use.
본 조사는 서울시, 충남 대전시, 경북 영주시, 충남 서천군에 거주하는 530명의 주부를 대상으로 1987. 11. 16~11. 28 사이에 떡의 이용실태와 시판제품의 품질특성에 대한 주부들의 평가도를 조사했던 바 여기에서 얻어진 결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다. (1) 조사대상자의 가정에서 이용하는 떡의 종류는 총 37종 이었고 그중 인절미(67.9%), 송편(66.6%), 흰떡 (51.4%), 개피떡(43.4%) 등 일부 도병류의 이용율이 높았고 전병류, 단자류 및 일부 증병류의 이용율은 아주 낮았다. (2) 의례시 떡의 이용율은 혼례때 가장 높았고 상례때 가장 낮았으며 돐, 혼례, 회갑때는 백일, 어른과 아이의 생일, 제사, 상례때보다 떡의 이용율이 높은 경향이었다. (3) 의례시 가장 많이 이용하는 떡은 백일, 돐, 아이의 생일에는 백설기로 어른의 생일, 혼례, 제사, 회갑에는 인절미로 나타났다. (4) 어른과 아이의 생일에는 케이크의 이용율이 (36%내외) 떡보다 높은 경향이었다. (5) 절식시 떡의 이용율은 설날에 가장 높았고 그 다음이 추석으로 나타났으며 그밖의 절식은 조사대상자의 가정에서 거의 지켜지지 않고 있었다. (6) 전체조사대상주부들중 61.7%가 앞으로도 계속 가정에서 떡을 만들겠다고 응답했던 바 아직까지 대부분의 주부들은 의뢰 또는 구입하기보다는 가정에서 직접 만들고 싶어하는 경향임을 알 수 있었다. (7) 조사대상주부들이 시판제품을 구입하는 이유는 간편해서가(65.8%) 가장 많았고 또한 시판제품을 구입하지 않는 이유는 내 손으로 직접 만들고 싶어서가(44.3%) 가장 많았던 바 두가지 이유가 상반되는 경향이었다. (8) 조사대상주부들은 시판되는 떡의 품질특성중 맛과 색 등 관능적인 면은 비교적 좋게 평가하는 경향이었고 가격, 위생성, 포장 및 저장성 등을 나쁘게 평가하는 경향이었다. 시판제품의 색은 주부의 거주지에 따라 농어촌에 거주하는 주부가 도시에 거주하는 주부보다 더 좋게 평가하는 경향이었다. (p〈0.05) 위생성은 주부의 학력과 거주지에 따라 주부의 학력이 높을수록, 농어촌지역보다는 도시에 거주하는 주부일수록 시판제품이 더 비위생적이라고 평가하는 경향이었고(p〈0.01) 포장에 대해서는 주택형태에 따라 농가나 아파트에 거주하는 주부가 단독주택이나 연립주택에 거주하는 주부보다 더 나쁘게 평가하는 경향이었다. (p〈0.05) (9) 조사대상주부들은 시판제품의 가장 개선해야 할 점으로 위생성(37.0%), 가격(23.8%), 포장(15.6%), 맛(11.1%), 저장성(10.1%) 및 색(2.4%) 등의 순으로 지적하였고 주부의 거주지에 따라 대도시에 거주할수록 위생성을, 농어촌에 거주할수록 가격을 가장 개선해야 할 점으로 보는 경향이었다. (p〈0.05)