In this study, we compared the differences and similarities between the Korean food culture and the Vietnamese food culture by surveying food resources and researching the process of Korean food being accepted into Vietnam. We suggest countermeasures for advancing Korean food into Vietnam. We conducted in-depth interviews regarding Korean food with Vietnamese food specialists who ate Korean food. As a result, Vietnamese foodies eagerly recognized that the most representative thing about Korean food was the special properties of its various and affluent side dishes. They were also aware of kimchi, made of various vegetables and condiments, as an excellent side dish compared to the Vietnamese who's staple is boiled rice. Furthermore, the flavor of Korean food was preferred by the Vietnamese who were familiar with foods such as Neue-ok-mom or fermented seafood. It was thought that the new food could be eaten with many vegetables. The specialists replied that the most typical functional property of Korean food was health. The acceptance process of Korean food into Vietnam was based on the acculturation theory. That made the Vietnamese easily experienced strange culture in the case of propagation by whom have already experienced, through the selective filter steps by various images of Korea, and made them accept the Korean food through temporary choose and acceptance step such as recommendations by friends. Globalization strategies for Korean food proposed by the Vietnamese foodies were public relations marketing in voluntary contact environments, distinguishing traditional Korean foods through research and development, and globalization by diversifying the Korean restaurant concept.
To examine the key success factors for long-lasting restaurants, we visited 10 restaurants with 30 or more than 30 years of tradition, located in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do districts, to research these restaurant menus and customer characteristics by observation and interview. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The outstanding feature noted was that each and every restaurant had its own simple and specialized menu. We found that this feature created a virtuous circle that reinforced itself through a positive feedback loop. The simple and specialized menu increased both the cooking efficiency and food quality while it reduced both food and labor costs, this enabled the customers to eat at an affordable price and have generous servings. This lead to customer satisfaction and revisits to the restaurant, which triggered word-of-mouth referral and expansion of their customer base. This in turn created higher operating profit margins that could be reinvested in the business. The secret recipes for cooking, invented by their founders, were passed on from generation to generation. Their customer base included customers of all ages from children to senior people. And their regular customers consisted of neighboring office workers and families traveling from a long distance. We hope that our findings on long-lasting restaurants, especially of the virtuous cycle created due to the simple and specialized menus with secret recipes, will contribute to the development of Korean style long-lasting restaurant model.
This study attempted to understand the perception and the degree of trust that consumers had in the national agricultural food accreditation system, to inquire into and examine the consumers' perception of traditional food quality certification performed for the protection of excellent traditional food, and to propose the right direction for the policies on the traditional food quality certification system and the plans to improve consumers' perception of the system. According to the results of this survey performed in married women, based on the 'the recognition of accreditation system' and 'the recognition of certification marks' of 'the seventh national agricultural food accreditation system' presently being used by the Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, the household food purchasers showed high recognition for eco-friendly agricultural product accreditation, processed food KS certification, and organically processed food certification in that order. Meanwhile, it was shown that they indicated low recognition for the traditional food-related accreditation systems such as 'traditional food quality certification' and 'food grand master'. It was found that reliability of the certification mark provided by the agricultural food accreditation system gained 3.54 points (on a 5-point scale), and 68.1% of the study subjects referred to the certification marks while purchasing agricultural foods. And most of them answered to the question of 'why they referred to the certification marks' saying that it was done 'to choose safe food'. The most frequent answer to question of 'the means to recognize the traditional food quality certification system' was 'broadcasting, advertising'. 57.3% of the subjects had a previous experience of buying a product certified by the traditional food quality certification system, and 93.2% of all the subjects had the intention to buy a product certified by the traditional food quality certification system later. And most of them answered that 'strengthening government policies' would be the most ideal way to inform the public of the traditional food quality certification system. According to the results of this study, while 'relying on the traditional food quality certification system in general' was relatively high among the consumers, 'intention to buy quality certified products by visiting a distantly located store' was low; thus, from this analysis, it can be seen that there is a need for diversification of places selling these quality certified products and to establish a distribution network for these products.
The purpose of this study was to identify the determinants of traditional food perception, by taking the generation effect into account. This study also analyzed the preference patterns of traditional snacks and the strength as well as direction of improvement for traditional foods. Data were collected from 304 housewives living in the Baeong-Nyeong-Do island. Regression analysis showed that the determinants of traditional food perception varied depending on the generation of housewives. In the 30s age subgroup, income and family type were significantly related with the degree of traditional food perception. In the 40s age subgroup, household income, education, and hometown location were significant, whereas household income, family type, number of years of life spent in the Baeong-Nyeong-Do island, hometown location were the significant factors in the 50s and 60s age subgroup. The results of factor analysis showed that there were three preference patterns of traditional snacks. The results of chi-square analysis proved that foods for strength, and direction of improvement for traditional foods were different among the generation groups. In this article, similarities and differences between determinants of traditional foods, the strength and direction of improvement for traditional foods are discussed, and their implications for nutritionists as well as food marketers are provided.
This article examines the types of Jwabans as recorded in 21 old books of the Joseon dynasty (1392-1909). The ingredients used in Jwabans during the Joseon dynasty were root vegetables, sea algae, seeds nuts, bird, meat, and fish. In the early, middle, and late eras of the Joseon dynasty, 10, nine, and 181 kinds of Jwabans were prepared, and two, one, and seven kinds of Jwabans were prepared using root vegetables (根菜類). During the early and late eras of the Joseon dynasty, one and 14 kinds of Jwabans were prepared using sea algae (海藻類), respectively, and four kinds of Jwabans were prepared using seeds nuts during late eras of the Joseon dynasty (種實類). During the early, mid and late eras, one, two, and 17 kinds of Jwabans were prepared using bird (鳥類), three, one, and 47 kinds of Jwabans were prepared using meat (肉類), and one, five, and 81 kinds of Jwabans were prepared using fish (魚類). The frequency of the Jwabans ingredients in order were fish (30.5%), meat (23.5%), pheasant (7%), root vegetables (5%), abalone (全鰒) (5%), laver (海苔) (4%), shellfish (貝類) (3%), fish eggs (魚卵) (2.5%), fleshy prawn (大蝦) (2.5%), sea tangle (昆布) (2%), dried tangle (海草) (1.5%), sparrow meat (雀肉) (1.5%), and etc during the Joseon dynasty. It seems that the appearance and supplementation with different ingredients increased throughout the Joseon dynasty. This may be associated with the commercial industrial development that prevailed during the late Joseon dynasty. Further study will be conducted on recipes and ingredients recorded in these old books to develop a standardized recipe to globalize Jwabans.
The current research aims to verify whether distance learning can be adopted in practical cooking class for Korean foods in a two-year college. The distance learning education can be a supplementary method to the traditional cooking class. The face-to-face teaching method and the distance learning method were compared in order to determine which of the one is more effective teaching method in the practical cooking class. The results of the present experimental study were analyzed based on the participant's learning expectation and satisfaction, the evaluation of the experimental process, and the academic performance. The results of this study showed that the participants in the face-to-face class evaluated their class experience higher than those in the distance learning class with respect to the participant's learning expectation and satisfaction, and the evaluation of the experimental process. On the contrary, regarding the academic performance, the participants in the distance learning class showed higher scores than those in the face-to-face class. The end result supports the claim that the distance learning method is more effective in the participants for gaining cooking knowledge.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between 'family-work conflict/work-family conflict', job burnout, job satisfaction, and individual job performance in the employees at the restaurants in Daegu City. The sample of this study consisted of employees at the restaurants in Daegu City who visited the 2010 Daegu Food Tour Expo between October 7 and October 10. A total of 302 questionnaires were analyzed using statistical methods of factor analysis, reliability test, and covariance structural analysis. The research findings were as follows; firstly, work-family conflict was positively related to job burnout, secondly, job burnout was negatively related to job satisfaction and individual job performance and thirdly, job satisfaction was positively related to individual job performance. However, there was no relationship between family-work conflict and job burnout. The reason for rejection of the relationship between family-work conflict and job burnout was that family-related affairs were not important enough to affect job burnout among restaurant employees in Korea. This phenomenon happened differently in the US. Therefore, currently, restaurant managers in Daegu City should pay much attention to work-related affairs so as to mitigate job burnout as much as possible among their employees.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of customer perceptions of control within the dining experience on customer satisfaction. Customer perceptions of the resulting pace of the service encounter negatively impacted their satisfaction ratings during the stages of ordering, production, and payment in a restaurant. The moderating influence of perceived service pace satisfaction during service stages in a restaurant on the relationship between perceived service pace and customer satisfaction was also examined. Perceived service pace satisfaction was examined using expectancy disconfirmation theory. The effect of perceived pace on customer satisfaction was moderated by perceived service pace satisfaction during the production stage with a greater tolerance to a faster pace during the ordering stage. The management needs to consider the negative effect of service encounter pace on customer satisfaction. Perceived service pace satisfaction during the service stages in a restaurant should also be factored into strategy development for duration control.
We evaluated the sensory characteristics of Gangjung base obtained from various manufacturers, using a sensory descriptive analysis. Significant differences were observed for all sensory attributes of Gangjung samples with the exception of 'toothpacking'. Sample A showed high intensities for 'external color', 'external roughness', 'sweetness', 'toasted soybean powder flavor', 'crispness', 'fracturability', 'oiliness', and 'loose particles,' whereas it had low intensities for 'rice flour flavor', 'hardness', and 'toughness' compared to those of other samples. Sample B had more 'sourness', 'butyric acid flavor', 'fermented rice flavor', and 'degree of melting' but lower 'air cell size', 'fracturability', and 'flake roughness'. Sample C showed high intensities for 'expansion', 'hardness', 'crispness', and 'flake roughness', whereas sample D showed low intensities for 'expansion' and 'sourness'. These results indicate that Gangjung base samples are markedly different depending on the manufacturer.
The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal mixing conditions for three different amounts of mulberry juice, sugar, and agar powder for Yanggaeng prepared with mulberry juice. The experiment was designed according to the central composite design for estimating the response surface, which demonstrated 16 experimental points including 2 replicates for mulberry juice, sugar and agar powder each?? The mechanical and sensory properties of test materials were measured, and these values were applied to the mathematical models. A canonical form and perturbation plot showed the influence of each ingredient on the final product mixture. Measurement results of the mechanical properties showed a significant increase or decrease?? in pH, sugar content, water content, viscosity, l-value, a-value, b-value, hardness, springiness, chewiness, gumminess, cohesiveness. Also the sensory measurements showed a significant improvement?? in appearance, flavor, color, sweetness, texture, overall quality. As a result, the optimum formulation by numerical and graphical methods was calculated as mulberry juice 41.99 g, sugar 90.00 g, agar powder 3.18 g.
This study was performed to investigate patterns of fortified food (FF) consumption and intake of vitamins and minerals from FFs among 577 Korean children (12.4 years of age) who attended elementary or middle school. FFs eaten by children as a snack were surveyed using the food record method during 3 days, including 2 week days and one weekend. As a result, 114 FF items were eaten by the children, and several kinds of nutrients such as vitamin A, D, E, B complex, C, calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) were fortified in these foods. Ca-FFs (65.8%) were most frequently consumed, followed by vitamin C-FFs (33.4%) and vitamin D-FFs (33.3%). The number of FF items in each food group was the most in the milk group (n=24, 21.0%), followed by the beverage group (n=19, 16.7%), and the cookie/bread/cake group (n=17, 14.9%). Fortified nutrients in FFs were in various combinations, but the major combination patterns were Ca, Ca plus vitamins, Ca plus vitamins plus other minerals, and Ca plus other minerals. Daily mean intakes of vitamins and minerals from the FFs were 66-300% more than those of the recommended nutrient intake (RNI ) or adequate intake (AI) for most vitamins and minerals. Daily maximum intakes (95th percentile) of vitamins and minerals from FFs were 1-15 times the RNI or AI for most vitamins and minerals. Vitamin and mineral consumption ratios from each FF group were different according to the kind of fortified nutrient. For example, vitamin C was mostly eaten in fortified beverages (46-54%), and Fe was mostly eaten in fortified cookie/breads/cakes (87%). The above results show that FF consumption varied widely among the children, and that most of the children's foods were fortified with several vitamins and minerals without a common rule; thus, subjects risked over consuming vitamins and minerals by eating FFs. Therefore, practical guideline on FF use for children's optimal nutrition and health should be provided through nutrition education.