This study examined 'traditional' and 'modern' food use in Korean adults. Using a 24 hour recall method, trained interviewers assessed dietary intakes of 240 subjects aged 20's to 50's living in Seoul. Depending on the cultural characteristics of foods, 495 different kinds of foods eaten by the subjects were classified into 6 (Korean, Western, Eastern, modified Korean, modofied Western, modified Eeatern) types. The foods were also divided into 3 ('main dish', 'side dish', 'others') categories. Based on these categories, the dietary intakes of the subjects were analyzed in terms of proportionate frequencies of individual food items. The most frequenctly eaten food was the Korean food (67.68%), followed by the Western (22.61%), modified Eatern (2.31%), modified Western (1.65%), and modified Korean (1.36%) foods. Regarding the main dish category, the Korean food received the highest proportion due to the Korean's frequent intake of rice. Korean style foods were the most frequenctly consumed side dish (43.97% of total food consumption). In particular, kimchi consisted of 27.4% of the foods consumed as a side dish. In the 'others' category, Western style foods obtained the highest proportion owing to coffee consumption. The results of the study indicates some methodological problems and suggests a need for further studies.
This study presents a sociocultural study of 'traditional' as well as contemporary dietary construtions among Seoulites. It also represents the first interdisciplinary study of food between nutritional science and anthropology in Korea. This study was performed a case study based on in- depth interviews with those who were born around the Japanese occupation period and raised in Seoul experiencing radical social changes modern Korean history. The participants were mostly in their late sixties and very knowledgeable of 'traditional' foods of Seoul and the ways they were made and consumed. This interview data show the historicity of foods were used and understood differently in past and represented different understandings of, for instances, 'nature' and 'culture' of Seoulites. This study not only provides new approaches to food study but also identifies the common ground on which an interdisciplinary study of food between nutritionists and anthropologists can develop.
The purpose of this study was to get an information on hotel cook. So the food and beverage (F and B) enterprise is one of the most promising industry on post-industry society, and the cook is real agent to lead the F and B enterprise, we need to have a data, information and knowledge on cook to improve a culinary art training program and working environment. This study was surveyed by 216 cook to work for deluxe hotels at Pusan. The results were summarized as follows: 1. The almost cook worked with restaurant for 8~9 hours/day, and a half of cook earned a million won in a month. A higher grade cook worked longer hours and earned more money than a lower grade one. 2. The most popular workplace of the cook was Western restaurant, the male cook working at a Western restaurant were more than female, the more female cook and novices worked at a Korean restaurant. 3. The most popular qualification that the cook take were a western culinary art one, and next were Korean one and Japanese one. The 77.8% cook worked at the place that fitted in with their culinary art qulification. 4. A half of cook insisted that they were a expert of western culinary art, and the next was the Korean, Japanese one in order. 5. The cook were unsatisfied with pay, work environment, human relation and promotion, and if they change their workplace, a lot of cook wished to manage their own restaurant. 6. The 63.4% of cook changed their workplace more than a time. The male cook got a more chance to change workplace than female one. The higher grade cook got a more chance to charge workplace. Almost cook got a no chance to study a culinary art at overseas. The most favorite place that the cook want to visit for studying was Europe, and next were Japan, America, Southeast Asia in order.
Generally, the culture of dietary life in a country is closely related to the heritage of racial culture, and it is very important to inherit and develop the culture of the traditional dietary life. This research is to investigate consciousness and behaviors of dietary life using a questionnaire survey for 521 housewives living in Seoul and Kyonggido. The data was analyzed with frequency, percentage, T-test, 2 (Chi-square)-test, dispersion analysis, Pearson's correlation and hierarchical multiple-regression analysis. The results of the survey are summarized as follows; 1. Consciousness of Traditional Foods. They thought that traditional foods were Sinsollo, sorts of beverage, Dduk (Korean cake), Kim-chi, Hankwa (Korean cookies), and Kujolpan, and that traditional foods were proud for its various tastes. But they thought the cuisine of the traditional food is very complicated, accordingly the frequency of traditional food was decreased. Therefore they thought that its tastes was important to develop and spread traditional foods. 2. Dietary Life Behaviors for Traditional Food. They take traditional foods on big holidays and religious service days. It is their mother who taught them the traditional cooking method. Most ftequently used cooking method is boiling. They gave their children a traditional snack such as 'Dduk (Korean cake), noodles, and fried food. Frequency of taking beverage, Hankwa (Korean cookies), Juk (guel) and Dduk (Korean cake) have been decreased. 3. The Correlation of General Environment and Consciousness, Knowledge, Dietary Life Behaviors of Traditional food. The older they are, the more eager to teach traditional food cooking, to preserve the traditional table setting, to give their children traditional snack and the more traditional dietary life behaviors are.
김치의 맛과 숙성에 중요한 영향을 미치는 절이는 시간, 첨가하는 젓갈 및 부재료의 종류를 달리한 김치를 담구어 각각 저장온도를 달리하여 숙성시키면서 각각에 대한 pH, 산도, 염도, 관능검사를 실시하여 맛있는 김치의 최적조건을 조사한 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 염도 16wt% 소금물에 절이는 시간을 3, 5, 8, 12시간으로 각각 달리 배추를 절여서 담근 김치를 20℃와 20℃에 24시간 숙성시킨 후 5℃에 숙성시키면서 시료로 사용하였다. 20℃에 숙성시킨 김치는 가식기간이 8일간이었으나, 20℃에 24시간 숙성시킨 후 5℃ 숙성에서는 가식기간이 42일간이었으며 적숙기간도 약 10일 연장되었다. 짠 맛의 관능평가는 3.0wt% 이하가 바람직한 짠 맛으로 나타났다. 숙성온도에 상관없이 가장 평가가 높은 김치는 16wt% 소금물에 5시간 절여서 담근 김치였다. 2. 김치에 젓갈의 종류를 멸치젓, 새우젓, 굴젓으로 각각 달리 첨가하여 담근 김치와 대조김치로 소금만으로 염도를 일정하게 한 김치를 비교한 결과 숙성이 진행됨에 따라 젓갈첨가김치의 숙성이 촉진되었으며, 그 중에서도 특히 굴젓첨가김치의 숙성이 가장 촉진 되었다. 저장온도가 낮을수록 숙성이 완만하게 진행되었으며, 적숙기간과 가식기간도 연장되었다. 관능검사 결과 20℃에 저장한 김치는 4일째 되는 날의 평가가 높았고, 5℃에서 저장한 김치는 11일째 되는 날의 평가가 높았다. 숙성초기에는 굴젓첨가김치의 평가가 높게 나타났으나, 숙성중기에는 멸치젓과 새우젓첨가김치의 평가가 높게 나타났다. 3. 기본양념외에 부재료로서 각각 부추, 무, 실파를 넣고 담근 김치와 대조김치로 아무것도 넣지 않은 김치에 대하여 같은 실험을 한 결과 pH, 산도에는그다지 큰 차이를 보이지 않았다. 그러나 20℃에 24시간 숙성시킨 후 5℃에 숙성시킨 김치 중에서 부추첨가김치는 숙성이 지연되고, 적숙기간도 약간 연장되었으나 실파첨가김치는 숙성 7일부터 급격하게 숙성이 촉진되었으며 적숙기간도 짧았다. 관능평가는 부추첨가김치가 가장 높았으며 그 다음 순서로 무를 첨가한 김치로 나타났다.
Infanthood is a crucial period when mental and emotional developments take place along with physical growth. Adequate supply of nutrition is essential during this period and there is an urgent need for proper education and guidance on balanced nutrition. Therefore, this study was designed to assess to current status of lactation and to investigate mothers' perspectives on human milk and formular milk. As random samples for this study, a total of 352 mothers having infant under the age of 4 were surveyed. 27.3% of mother surveyed were breast-feeding, 38.0% were formula-feeding and 34.7% were mixed-feeding. According to the result of this study, the percentage of breast feeding was on the decrease, while the dependence on formular milk was on the rise. The main reason of formula-feeding was insufficient secretion of human milk on mothers part. The major factors that affect to select feeding method were employment status, degree of education, family income and age. Also, the interviewees desired the product fortified with special ingredients that are hot contained in formular milk currently available in the market. The most concerned problem of formula milk was indigestion and the interviewees wanted the formular milk to be improved digestibility.
본 연구에서는 한국 전통 간장의 담금용기를 달리하였을 때와 메주의 농도를 상법보다 높게 하였을 때의 질소성분 함량과 향기성분을 분석하고 향미의 관능검사를 실시한 후 향기성분 패턴과의 통계적 해석을 통해 어떠한 성분이 간장의 관능 특성에 영향을 주는지 알아보았다. 본 연구에서 얻은 결과들을 요약하면 다음과 같다. 1. 간장의 맛에 가장 큰 영향을 미치는 요인으로 평가되고 있는 질소성분의 함량에서, 총질소의 경우는 메주의 농도와 상관없이 유리병이 항아리보다 높았으며 메주의 농도가 높은 경우 많은 양을 함유하는 것으로 나타났다. 그러나 유리병은 항아리보다 적은 양의 amino태 질소와 더 많은 양의 ammonia태 질소를 함유하고 있어 질적인 면에서 떨어지는 것으로 나타났다. 2. 유리아미노산의 함량을 조사한 결과, 총유리미노산의 함량은 150일 이후 최고치를 보였다. 지미와 감미를 내는 glutamic acid, aspartic acid, serine, alanine, Iysine의 함량이 높게 나타났고, 쓴맛에 관여하는 valine, phenylaalanine, leucine, isoleucine의 함량도 높게 나타났다. 3. 휘발성 유기산으로는 acetic acid가 가장 많이 함유되어 있는 것으로 나타났고 항아리가 유리병보다 함량이 높았으며 메주농도 1 : 4는 완만한 증가를 보이나 1.3 : 4는 숙성기간 150일에 급격한 증가를 나타냈다. 고린내의 주요성분으로 알려져 있는 butyric acid는 유리병 1 : 4와 항아리 1.3 : 4가 비슷한 경향을 보였으며 유리병 1.3:4에서는 급격하게 감소하였다. 그러나 모든 군에서 숙성기간이 경과할수록 감소하는 일정한 경향을 보였다. 이 외에 valeric acid와 capric acid가 소량씩 함유되어 있는 것으로 나타났다.
Sanitary management practices from 8 packaged meals (Dosirak) manufacturing establishments were surveyd during production and distribution and their microbiological quality of dosirak items marketed in CVS were analyzed. Correlation coefficients were calculated to deternine significant relationships between sanitary management practices and microbiological quality of packaged meals. The results of self evaluation on sanitary management practices indicated 'doing practice well' in personnel and equipment sanitation management but time-temperature control management were practiced satisfactorily only about 55% as compared with the managerial standard guidelines. Significant relationships between the status of actual sanitary management practices and microbiological quality of Dosirak items were not found, but general status of microbiological quality of Dosirak items revealed positive relationship with the size of operational structure and the status of time-temperature control management practices.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the foodservice management practices in child-care centers in order to provide basic information for the development of a model of a centralized food service information center. This approach was achieved using a variety of qualitative and quantitative information including general foodservice management practices and plate waste. A self-completed questionnaire survey of 651 child-care centers in Korea was undertaken and detailed information was carefully collected at 6 representative child-care centers. The results of the empirical survey were as follows: 1. Child-care centers categorized by location were in large cities (59.9%), medium cities (27.6%) and in provincial areas (12.5). 2. Private sector of child-care centers was 46.4% of the total followed by National/public (44.2%) and licensed home day-care programs (9.4%). 3. Total average number of children in child-care centers was 63.3±43.1 with a very significant difference (p〈0.001) in types of child-care centers. 4. The average space of kitchen and dining room was 5.0±3.8 and 10.8±11.0 pyung (1pyung=3.3058 cm2). 5. The average cost of interim snack in morning and afternoon in child-care centers were 345.9±459.3 won and 359.3±226.6 won respectively. The average cost of lunch was 644.0±481.1 won. There was a significant difference (p〈0.001) by types of child-care centers with a highest cost of 863.9 won in licensed home day-care programs. 6. Only a limited number of dietitian were employed, therefore most of food service management practice was not conducted by professional personnel. 7. The result of nutritional analysis of the food revealed that the level of energy and nutrients contained in the food was below the recommeded level (RDA/3).