This study aimed to analyze the periodic prevalence of the vegetables during the Joseon era with JoseonWangjoSilrok as a reference. The JoseonWangjoSilrok articles were collected from the Guksapyeonchanwewonhwe site, using web-crawling techniques to extract the relevant information. Out of 384,582 search results, 9,560 articles with vegetable-related keywords were found. According to the annual average vegetable recordings during the regimes of various kings, there were two peaking curves in the 15th and 18th centuryJoseon. The found was: 2,750 in the 18th century, 2,529 in the 15th century, 1,424 in the 16th century, and 1,018 in the 19th century. A Variable Interest Index was designed to ascertain the interestin vegetables of the 27 Joseon kings. The king most interested in vegetables was the 19th king Sookjong. The second most interested king was Youngjo. There were 5,105 vegetable-related findings within the JoseonWangjoSilrok related to specific species and categories of vegetables. Among the words found: 1,194 were stem-leaves vegetables (23.39%), 1,017 were root vegetables (19.92%), 1,148 were flower-fruit vegetables (22.49%), 1,144 were spice vegetables (22.41%), 95 were mushrooms (1.86%), and 507 were seaweeds (9.93%). Statistical analysis using ANOVA revealed the chronological factors that affected the vegetables’ prevalence index.
This study evaluated the degree of harmony of food pairing with Korean traditional liquors according to the taste and flavor. In-depth interviews were performed with eight experts from May 7 to 17, 2016, to screen Korean traditional liquor and food. For traditional liquor, Sanseong-makgeolli, Hansansogokju, Damsol, Gamhongro, and Andong Soju were chosen. For foods, pan-fried beef, squid with vinegar dressing, clam soup, honey-filled rice cake, prune, grilled mushroom, Swiss cheese, pistachio, honey, and chocolate cake were chosen. Harmonization of the analytical results Sanseong-makgeolli, between honey and Pan-fried Beef achieved the most harmonious results. Hansansogokju with honey and prune were harmonious. Damsol and Gamhongro, which are distilled liquor and containing added ingredients, were perfect matched with chocolate cake and squid with vinegar dressing. In the degree of harmony between Andong Soju and food, it was confirmed that squid vinegar and Swiss cheese were the most harmonious. Through the results of this study, it was found that the degree of harmony with food was different depending on the characteristics of alcoholic beverages. In addition, it is believed that not only taste and flavor, but also the alcohol content of alcoholic beverages will play an important role in the harmony with food.
Using the big data analysis of the Choseonwangjosilrok, this research aimed to figure out the fruits’ types, prevalence, seasonal appearances as well as the royalty’s perspective on fruits during Choseon period. Choseonwangjosilrok included nineteen kinds of fruits and five kinds of nuts, totaling 1,601 cases at 72.8% and 533 cases at 24.2% respectively. The text recorded fruits being used as: tributes for kings, gifts from kings to palace officials, tomb offerings, county specialties, trade goods or gifts to the foreign ambassadors, and medicine ingredients in oriental pharmacy. Seasonally the fruits appeared demonstrating an even distribution. Periodic characteristics were observed in decreasing quantity chronologically. From fifteenth century to nineteenth century, the fruits with timely features were seen: 804 times at 36.6%, 578 times at 26.3%, 490 times at 22.3%, 248 times at 11.3%, and 78 times at 3.5% respectively. In fifteenth century: citrons, quinces, pomegranates, cherries, permissions, watermelons, Korean melons, omija, walnuts, chestnuts, and pine nuts appeared most frequently. In sixteenth century: pears, grapes, apricots, peaches, and hazelnuts appeared most frequently. In seventeenth century: tangerines and dates appeared most frequently. In eighteenth century, trifoliate orange was the most frequently mentioned fruit.
This study investigated the recognition and utilization status of food labeling and nutrition labeling, according to the body type recognition of university students. In a total of 351 subjects, the male subjects comprised of 25.8% belonging to the underweight awareness group, 46.3% normal weight awareness group, and 27.9% overweight awareness students. Among the female students, 29.2% belonged to the underweight awareness group, 36.6% were normal body weight, and 34.2% were the overweight group. When purchasing processed foods, the price (4.05 points), expiration date (4.03 points), and gross weight (3.88 points) were the most considered factors of the food labeling content (5 points) for all body shape recognition groups. The food labeling of canned foods was checked most by the underweight awareness group (p<0.05). For bread and snacks, the contents of food labeling were confirmed most by the normal weight awareness group and the overweight awareness group (p<0.001). For beverages, the normal weight awareness group checked more food labels (p<0.01). The underweight awareness group (55.2%) hardly checked the nutritional labeling, and 22.9% of these subjects did not check at all. Our results may provide the necessity to improve the incorrect eating habits of students, by evaluating differences between the cognitive body type and the actual body type by BMI.
This study examined the dietary habits and nutrition quotient (NQ) scores according to leftover food during school meal services among middle school students in the Gyeonggi region. A survey on the dietary habits was conducted among 405 male and female middle school students located in Seongnam City, Gyeonggi Province. The amount of leftover food in the school meals was surveyed using the visual method through a questionnaire over two days. The survey was conducted from July 8, 2019, to July 12, 2019. After calculating the average total leftovers of each student over the two days, they were categorized into the following three groups: the top third was the large leftover group. The middle third was the medium leftover group, and the lower third was the small leftover group. The characteristics of the groups that had leftovers were analyzed. Female, normal-weight, and underweight students accounted for a greater proportion of the large leftover group than male, overweight, and obese students. The rates of selective eating and compliance with new food intake were significantly lower in the large leftover group than in the small leftover group. A comparison of the nutrition quotient for the adolescent (NQ-A) scores of each group revealed significantly lower scores of the large leftover group for all factors (balance, moderation, food diversity, practice, and environment) than the small leftover group. Therefore, there are statistically significant differences in the dietary habits, nutritional quality, and eating behaviors of middle school students that are associated with the amount of leftover food during school meals.
This study evaluated the biological activity and cytoprotective effect of guava (Psidium guajava L.) branch against oxidative stress. The contents of vitamin C, beta-carotene, total carotenoids, quercetin and catechin determined were 26.783, 43.676, 65.083, 58.245, and 8.309 mg/100 g, respectively. To measure antioxidant activity, the guava branch was extracted using various concentrations of ethanol (60, 80, or 100%) and water. The highest content of polyphenols (0.245 mg gallic acid equivalent/mg residue) and flavonoids (0.128 mg cathechin equivalent/mg residue) was found in the 100% ethanol extract of the branch (E100). Moreover, E100 also possessed the highest radical scavenging activities and showed the highest inhibition rate of α-glucosidase (77.692%). E100 was the most effective extract to impart cytoprotectant activity against oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. Taken together, our results determine the promising antioxidant activity of guava branch, and indicate the potential to be applied as a natural antioxidant.
The quality characteristics of sugar-reduced green tea cookies were tested, and there was no significant differences in density, spreadability, loss rate, and pH in all experimental groups (p<0.05). The sugar content of the sample with 100% sugar replaced was 0.96oBrix, which was significantly higher than the 0.80 °Brix of the control (p<0.05). The sample with 75% sugar substituted was 0.76oBrix, which was similar to that of the control (p>0.05). The calories per 100 g of cookies were reduced from 482 to 433 kcal in the sample groups, where the sugar content was reduced from 0 to 100%. Carbohydrates also decreased with decreasing sugar content. The protein was 5g in the sugar sample group reduced by 0- 25%, and 6 g in the sugar sample group reduced by more than 50%. Dietary fiber was three times higher in the sugar sample group reduced by 75% than the control, and four times higher in the sugar sample group reduced by 100% than the control. No significant differences in the sweet sensory intensities were observed between the control and the 75% reduced sugar sample group (p>0.05). The brightness, savory, sweet, and aftertastes were similar in all experimental groups (p>0.05). Overall, high value-added green tea cookies with a more than 75% reduction in sugar were successfully developed with added functions of immunity, anti-cancer, antioxidant functions, preventing constipation and obesity, without deteriorating the sensory and physicochemical qualities tested.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in the content of functional components and the antioxidant activity of cooked rice and porridge composed of selected grains. The results of the study showed that brown rice and oat contained considerable amounts of γ-oryzanol (78.099~238.566 mg/100 g). However, cooked rice showed a decreased content of the same. The highest content of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was observed in brown rice from Samgwang. The contents of biotin in all samples also decreased in cooked rice compared to raw cereal grains. The highest content of total polyphenols and flavonoids were observed in Heukjinmi rice, and the highest radical scavenging activity was also found in this variety. The cooking process led to a decrease in the content of functional components including γ-oryzanol, GABA, biotin, polyphenols, and flavonoids versus the corresponding raw cereal grains. These results may be useful in the development and application of home meal replacements using cereal grains.
Lindera glauca Blume has been used in Korean traditional medicine to treat the symptoms of paralysis, abdominal pain, speech disorders, extravasations, contusions, and pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis. We investigated the effect of L. glauca Blume extracts on the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells in vitro using HCT116 human colorectal cancer cell lines. We also investigated its mechanism of action. For this purpose, we used the MTT assay, western blotting, DNA fragmentation analysis, and flow cytometry. HCT116 cells were cultured in several concentrations of ethanol extracts of L. glauca Blume root (0, 50, 100 μg/mL). In this study, colon cancer cell growth was inhibited by L. glauca Blume root extract in a dose-dependent manner. It was associated with induction of apoptosis as assessed by nuclear fragmentation and cell cycle analysis. Apoptosis was assessed using western blotting for TNF-α, IL-6, NF-κB, Caspase-3, PARP, Bax, Bcl-2, and SIRT1. The extract also dose-dependently upregulated the expression Bax, the pro-apoptotic gene and downregulated the expression of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2. Furthermore, the extract enhanced Caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings provide evidence that L. glauca Blume extract may mediate its anti-proliferative effect via the modulation of apoptosis.