This study was performed to investigate the pattern of health food usage of the adults by food lifestyles pattern in contemporary Seoul. This study views health food consumption as a cultural practice in which people produce (and reproduce) diverse social relationships and cultural meanings. It also identifies food lifestyles and health food usage pattern of Korean adult in Seoul. This topics were discussed based on field research data collected by nutritional survey with questionnaire. To identify the relationships between pattern of health food and food lifestyles, 503 men and 437 women aged 18 to 65 years were divided into 5 groups of food lifestyles : Health Eaters, In-a-Dither, Traditional Eaters, Conscientious and People on the Go. As a substantial percentage of the subjects were used some kinds of nutrients supplement. The higher the age and family income were, the higher the percentage of health food usage was. There was the significant difference between sexes in usuage of health food. Health food usage was higher in the food lifestyle pattern of Health Eater than other food lifestyles.
Maternal stress was very common symptom that every pregnant women could have experienced during pregnant period. We found that the causative factors of stress for subjects were physical change(50.8%), family relationship(13.6%), change of body image(7.4%), concern baby(6.8%), economic difficulties(6.4%), depress(4.3%), morning sickness(3%), and miscellaneous(3.5%). According to our study, maternal stress during the first trimester negatively correlated with food and nutrients intake of pregnant women and gave low weight gain during pregnancy and low birth weight of infants. It also significantly correlated with monthly income(p〈0.001) and monthly food cost(p〈0.001) during pregnant period. Mean intake of Calcium and Iron were 47~60% of RDA and 35~48 of RDA, respectively. With the Iron supplement the total intake of Iron exceeded 100% of RDA. We also found majority of food items, except seaweeds, fruits and vegetables, were negatively correlated with maternal stress during three trimesters. Additional support system projected by professionals in health-care field could mediate maternal stress and lead to healthy pregnancy outcome.
The purpose of this study was to survey several aspects of health and food related behavior of college students in Wonju area. Questionnaires were delivered personally to 430 students. The 37.9% of subjects were self-boarded and 27.4% lived in their home in Wonju area. They spend 230,000 won in average per month. Male students spent money more than female students and self-boarding students spent money more than other residental type students. The 90% of subjects thought they were healthy and the 25% of subjects exercised regularly. The subjects self-recognized their body as fat were more concerning about their weight control and had more weight control experience. SeIf-boarding students tended to skip their meals and had unbalanced diet. Students who lived in dormitory tended to skip meal less. Female students showed higher scores at balanced diet, snack intake, and left meal than male students. Self recognized their body as medium showed lower scores at overeating and eating irregularly. The amount of consumption of carbonated beverage was the highest among several instant foods. The frequencies of intake of those instant foods were different by gender, residental types, and eating behaviors.
The purpose of this study was to know the conscious of eating habit of housewife. The data were collected from 250 housewives who were the age group of 20-60's in Sang-Ju. The survey was taken place from May to June in 2000. The result showed that there were significant differences in eating habit's consciousness according to housewife's age group: 1. As the age goes up, the housewife had less consideration herself when they purchased food and decided cooking method. 2. As the age goes down, the order in having meal was depended on conditions. But as the age goes up, they considered the order as important thing like followings; eating together, eating separately according to the sex, male first, senior first, housewives lastly. 3. The survey showed that there was distinction depending on sex in meal as age goes up. And The subject was conscious that the delicious and valuable meal served to male, senior and child before. 4. Regardless of senior, the consciousness for the skipping meal was high as the age goes down. 5. As the age goes up, female and seniors showed that leftover was not so good. 6. The consciousness that housewives were responsible for preparing the meal was high as the age goes up, but they had further difficulty in preparing meal as the age goes down. 7. In considering that male and senior should be participated in the kitchen work, they had high consciousness as the age goes down. 8. About role of cooking, the consciousness was hish in case of male as the age goes down, in case of female and housewife were high as the age goes up. 9. As the age goes up, The consciousness was high that Female must buy the food. 10. As the age goes up, they had high consciousness in considering that the meaning of meal was related to survival, that noodle and bread were not meal. And the consciousness about that eating out was not good for health was high as the age goes up.
Chemical properties of the different parts of watercress(Oenanthe javanica D.C.) grown and harvested from the culture fields under different cultivating methods were studied. In proximate analyses of watercress in parts, moisture contained more in stem than in root or in leaf, but crude protein and crude lipid contents were lower in stem than in root or in leaf. Crude ash in root contained up to about double amount in leaf or stem. Major mineral elements detected in watercress were Fe, Mg, Ca, and K, and their contents in root was higher than those in stem or leaf. Especially, Fe in root was significantly higher than that in stem or in leaf. Total free sugar composed mainly with fructose and glucose, was the highest in watercress from Hwasoon and followed the watercress from Jeonju and Donggok in order. Free sugar content was highest in leaf and the lowest in root. Major water-soluble vitamins were vitamin C, thiamin and biotin and the content of vitamin C was higher than others. These vitamins contained more in leaf than in stem or root. Niacin contained 6.09 mg/100 g in leaf of watercress from Hwasoon, which was much higher than others, but it was not detected in stem of watercress from Jeonju. Organic acids detected were oxalic acid, citric acid and malic acid and other 12 organic acids were not detected. In fatty acid composition, there were significant differences among watercresses from different parts and different culture fields. Linoleic acid, linolenic acid and palmitic acid were major fatty acids contained in watercress and it took about 80% of the total content. Amino acid content in leaf was higher than that in root and in stem. Glutamic acid and proline were major amino acids in stem of watercress from Jeonju and in stem of watercresses from Hwasoon and Donggok, respectively. In leaves of all three watercresses glutamic acid content was the highest.
Antibacterial activities in each part of watercress(Oenanthe javanica D.C.) grown under different culture conditions were measured to determine the possibility to use watercress as a resource to develop the antibacterial substance. The leaves of watercress were extracted with methanol and the methanol extract was further fractionated with various organic solvents. Antibacterial activities against Shigella dysenteriae ATCC 9361 in all fractions were determined according to the agar diffusion method using paper disc. Methanol extract of watercress leaves was more effectively inhibited the growth of the tested bacteria than the extracts of roots or stems at the concentration of 0.5 g eq./disc, and the extract of watercress from Hwasoon was the most effective one as compared to others. Phenolic and neutral fractions fractionated from methanol extract of watercress had a considerable inhibiting activity on the growth of the bacteria, but acidic and basic fractions did not show any inhibitory effect. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of phenolic and neutral fractions against Shigella dysenteriae ATCC 9361 were 400 μg/disc and 550 μg/disc, respectively.
This study was peformed to investigate the use of preprocessed foods, satisfaction on using them, and the plausibility to extend its use in 134 elementary school foodservices in Incheon by questionnaire from December 11th to 28th in 1999. The percentages of school foodservices to purchase and use preprocessed foods were 99.06% in seed, 97.64% in fishes and poultry, 87.74% in meats, 57.55% in eggs, 55.32% in fresh vegetables, 51.42% in dried vegetables and 34.90% in beans. Dietitians were satisfied with having used preprocessed foods, and the reduction in cooking time was listed as the biggest advantage which could be obtained by using preprocessed foods. However, dietitians showed relatively negative attitudes for the plausibility to expand use of preprocessed foods.
This study was conducted to investigate the physicochemical characteristics of Sunchang traditional kochujang(fermented hot pepper-soy bean paste) for quality standardization. The kochujang samples, which have been fermented for 8 months in 1999, were collected from 20 firms at folk village in Sunchang area and analyzed their chemical compositions and color reference. The mean value of moisture, amino-type nitrogen, pH, acidity and salt content of the samples collected were 44.62±1.79%, 132.66±21.67 mg%, 4.52±0.08, 15.77±1.62 and 8.76±1.55%, respectively. The moisture, pH, acidity and salt content of each sample did not show much differences among samples. The Hunter values(L, a and b) of Sunchang traditional kochujang were 25.72±1.58, 23.26±1.71 and 9.86±0.94, respectively. The mean content of amino-type nitrogen of Sunchang traditional kochujang was 132.66±21.67 mg%, and there were a little difference between the minimum(100.33 mg%) and the maximum(164.56 mg%). The main free sugars of Sunchang traditional kochujang were fructose(1.86±1.01%), dextrose(4.29±2.06%), sucrose(0.54±1.21%), and maltose(1.48±0.77%). The contents of fructose, dextrose, and maltose had little difference among samples. The fatty acids in Sunchang traditional kochujang were composed of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, octadecatetraenoic, arachidonic and behenic acid. The linoleic acid(18:2) showed the highest, occuping 59.37% of the total fatty acids.