This study was performed to improve the effectiveness of dietary education using a food ethics approach. Dietary education is a way of practicing food ethics based on Korean culture. The core values of dietary education and the keywords related to food ethics can be combined into environment · life, health · wisdom, and consideration · happiness. Sustainable dietary life comprises the value system of dietary education based on core values. To reach the ultimate goal of food ethics -sustaining the survival of the human race, the coexistence of humans and nature, the coexistence of humans and humans, and the fulfillment of food requirements are needed. These needs yield certain core principles, including respect for life, environmental preservation, justice, the priority of consumers, dynamic equilibrium, and the priority of safety. The extended ethical matrix with six core principles and three interest groups can be used for an ethical analysis either qualitative or quantitative. It is believed that if food ethics are introduced into dietary education programs, the effectiveness of education can be improved.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the operators' perception of the allowable price range and the optimal price of kindergarten meals by using the PSM (price sensitivity measurement) technique and provide basic data on calculating kindergarten meal costs reflecting realistic meals. From April to May 2021, 779 kindergartens in Seoul were surveyed, based on 246 (31.6%) of the respondents. According to the survey, kindergarteners spent 3,506 won for meals on average, followed by 3,822 won for kindergarten attached to elementary school, 3,316 won for public kindergartens, and 2,896 won for private kindergartens (p<0.001). The allowed price range for the kindergarten meal service workers was estimated at 3,447~3854 won, 3,447 won for PMC (Point of Marginal Cheapness), and 3,854 won for PME (Point of Marginal Expensiveness). The appropriate cost of the kindergarten meal service provider was 3,950 won for kindergartens attached to elementary school, 3,425 won for public kindergartens, and 3,546 won for private kindergartens.
This study was conducted to investigate the dietary adaptation and use of the university foodservice (UF) in Korea according to the residence period of foreign students. The average length of residence in Korea of t he subjects was 8.2 months. The period of residence was divided into quartiles: 1-4 months in the first quartile (average 2.2 months), 5-7 months in the second quartile (average 6.3 months), 8 months in the third quartile, and 9-66 months in the fourth quartile (average 18.3 months). The regularity of meals tended to be the highest in the 1st quartile and lowest in the 2nd quartile and then increased in the 3rd and 4th quartiles. The frequency of consumption of delivery food and convenience store food was lowest in the first quartile and highest in the second quartile and then decreased with the period of residence. The frequency of night eating increased according to the period of residence after the second quartile. The degree of adaptation to Korean foods was highest in the first quartile. The use of the university cafeteria was significantly higher in the 1st and 4th quartiles than in the 2nd and 3rd quartiles (p<0.05, p<0.01, respectively). The satisfaction with the UF decreased as the residence period increased. Based on these results, since international students are very positive and try to adapt to the dietary life in Korea in their early years of studying in Korea, it would be desirable to intensively support them to adjust to their dietary life at this time. In addition, since it takes about 18 months or more to assimilate the Korean food culture and show positive changes, it is necessary to continuously operate the Korean food culture adaptation program for international students over this period.
The present study was undertaken to investigate the quality characteristics of Korean Woori black pig (KWP) bellies and loins by different slaughter weight (SW) groups. The loin and belly samples collected from KWPs with different body weights (50, 75, 90, 105, and 120 kg) at 24 h post-mortem were used in the present investigation. The samples were analyzed for quality traits, fatty acid profiles, and volatile flavor compounds. Results showed that the fat content of the loin (8.64%) and belly samples (46.78%) was significantly higher in the 120 kg SW group compared to those of other SW groups (p<0.05). However, a lower protein content (12.20-12.67%) was found in the belly cuts of the heavier SW groups (105-120 kg) compared to those of the lighter SW groups (p<0.05). The lowest cooking loss (24.34%) was found in the loin cuts of the 120 kg SW group (p<0.05). Both the loin and belly cuts were observed to be redder in color with increasing SW (p<0.05). Higher oleic acid (C18:1, n9) and total monounsaturated fatty acid content and lower linolenic acid(C18:3, n3) and total polyunsaturated fatty acid content were observed in both cuts of the 120 kg SW group (p<0.05). Out of the flavor compounds identified, 11 and 17 compounds in the loin and belly, respectively, were associated with the SW. An increase in the SW resulted in increased concentrations of C18:1n9- and amino acid-derived flavor compounds. Overall, the meat samples of the heavier SW groups (120 kg) exhibited better quality and higher concentrations of volatile compounds associated with pleasant flavors. However, the meat of the 120 kg SW group also contained a much higher fat level (8.64 and 46.78% in the loin and belly, respectively) that may result in high trimming loss and hence a high rejection risk by consumers.
The number of vegans has increased rapidly due to religious and ethical beliefs, environmental concerns, health, etc. Also, as interest in healthy and safe food increases, the demand for organic products or nutrition-enhanced products is increasing. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the selection attributes and purchasing behavior for protein-fortified and vegan snacks. It is anticipated that the results would find use as basic data for developing protein-fortified snacks for vegans that can meet consumer needs and derive marketing strategies. A survey was conducted on 140 consumers. According to the analysis of their purchase behavior, the number of people who had purchased high-protein snacks and vegan snacks was higher than those who did not have prior experience. The reasons for the purchase of protein fortified snacks included ‘meal replacement’ at ‘offline-convenient store/supermarket’. Vegan snacks were purchased for ‘ethical beliefs, health, environment’ at ‘offline-vegan restaurant, bakery’. Both snacks showed above-normal preferences. However, it is necessary to improve taste and flavor when developing these products as these were the factors that negatively impacted the preferences. The attributes were factorized into the ‘showing off factor’, ‘sensory factor’, ‘credence factor’, and ‘functional factor’ and the ‘sensory factor’ was considered the most important.
This study was conducted to find out the bakery processing suitability of maca and to develop rice-based processed foods. We investigated the antioxidant activity and physicochemical properties of rice cookies prepared with the addition of maca (Lepidium meyenii) powder (1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% of the total materials). We observed an increase in the total polyphenol and flavonoid content, and DPPH-ABTS+ radical scavenging activity of the rice cookies as the proportion of added maca powder increased (p<0.05). The quality characteristics such as the “a” value, “b” value, and the hardness of the cookies increased with an increase in the proportion of maca powder (p<0.05) in the cookie, whereas the moisture content, pH of the dough, spread ratio, loss rate, leavening rate, and “L” values showed a significant decrease (p<0.05). In the sensory evaluation results, consumer acceptability showed a significantly higher value in the 2% maca cookie group (p<0.05), and the characteristic intensity rating (color, flavor, bitterness) increased as the proportion of maca added to the cookie increased (p<0.05). Therefore, this suggests that adding 2% maca powder as the functional ingredient in rice cookies can result in rice bakery products with excellent qualities.
With the globalization of Korean education and the rise in the average level of education, the number of international students in Korea, especially those from China, is rapidly increasing every year. This study aimed to provide the basic information for healthy dietary education by evaluating the dietary and nutritional status of Chinese students living in Gwangju province of Korea. Data from 468 subjects who met the study participation criteria and who had given their written informed consent were used for analysis. Of the total subjects, 52.4 and 80.1% were non-drinkers and non-smokers, respectively (p<0.01). It was observed that women were more stressed than men when they did not have convenient access to a Chinese food market near their place of residence (p=0.032). The subjects with a high cultural adaptation consumed kimbap (p<0.001) and pizza (p=0.017) more frequently than the subjects with a low cultural adaptation. An analysis of the nutrient quotient revealed that male scores were higher than those of the females with regard to water intake (p=0.035) and exercise level (p=0.021). For Chinese students living in Korea to maintain proper dietary habits, it is necessary to educate them on how to purchase convenience foods and improve their lifestyle, including limiting drinking and smoking. It is also necessary to develop emotional support programs for stress management and cultural adaptation.
Diet is important for muscle health and offers a protective effects against the loss of skeletal muscle mass and physical functions with advancing age. We analyzed the relationship between diet, metabolic disease risk, and sarcopenia in Korean female adults using the 2009-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A total of 2038 adult women aged 50-64 years were classified into four groups based on the diagnosis of menopause and sarcopenia. The groups were the non-menopause and non-sarcopenia group (NMNS, n=249), the non-menopause and sarcopenia group (NMS, n=14), the menopause and non-sarcopenia group (MNS, n=1,653), and the menopause and sarcopenia group (MS, n=122). The socio-demographics, anthropometrics, blood profile, and dietary data of the subjects were collected. Those who were in both the sarcopenia groups were more obese (p<0.001), had greater waist circumferences (p<0.001), higher body mass index (p<0.001), and higher obesity rates (p<0.001) after adjustment for covariants. Both the sarcopenia groups also had higher plasma levels of total cholesterol (p<0.001), HbA1c (p=0.001), and vitamin D (p=0.020) than both the non-sarcopenia groups. Both the sarcopenia groups demonstrated a decreased intake of calcium (p=0.05), potassium (p=0.008), and niacin (p=0.008) than both the non-sarcopenia ones. Among the four groups, the NMS group showed the highest levels of total cholesterol, obesity, and lowest intake of micronutrients such as calcium, niacin, and potassium. Thus, muscle mass maintenance through weight control and adequate nutrient intake appears to demonstrate a potential association with preventing sarcopenia in Korean middle-aged women.
This study aimed to assess the association between the weight status and dietary behavior of preschool children. The survey included 412 preschool children aged 2-5 years in 31 childcare facilities in Gwangju. General characteristics of children and their mothers, weight, height, feeding type, complementary feeding, food allergy, and dietary behavior of children based on the Nutrition Quotient for preschoolers (NQ-P) questionnaire were considered. Children were classified into 4 groups by weight status; underweight, normal, overweight, and obese, based on the 2017 Korean National Growth Charts. The percentage of children in the respective groups was 5.3, 70.9, 10.7, 13.1%. Weight status was not related to breast feeding duration nor the starting time of complementary feeding. The NQ-P scores of underweight, normal, overweight, and obese groups were 55.4, 60.0, 60.8, 60.0. Among the three factors covered by the NQ-P, ‘balance’ and ‘environment’ scores of the underweight group were lower than that of other groups. Underweight children consumed beans, fish, and white milk less frequently. The ‘moderation’ scores of the overweight/obese group were lower than those of the normal or obese groups. Obese children more frequently ate processed meat and fast foods. Proper nutrition education is thus needed for not only obese children but also underweight children based on their age, along with their parents, and caregivers.