Gwaebultaeng is a cultural property of painting, a large Buddhist painting used for special ceremonies in Buddhism. It is stored in an indoor temple environment, and there is a greater risk of contamination and damage due to environmental factors compared to other cultural properties. In 2021, the treasure Hanging Painting of Anguksa Temple and storage chest stored in Geungnakjeon Hall of Anguksa Temple in Muju-gun, Jeollabuk-do were investigated. As a result, one genus and three species fungi, one species bacteria were found on the surface of the painting. In addition, five genera and 11 species fungi, eight genera and 12 species bacteria were confirmed on the surface of the storage chest. Among them, the same three species of Aspergillus genus were identified in both Gwaebultaeng and the storage chest. These results suggest the possibility of introduction and spread from airborne fungi in the indoor air outside the chest. Among the identified microorganisms, one genus and two species fungi in Gwaebultaeng and three genera and four species fungi, four genera and five species bacteria were identified as those that could cause damage to the storage chest. In addition, it was confirmed that one species fungus in Gwaebultaeng and one genus and two species fungi could cause harm to the human body. The results of this study will serve as a basis for careful discussion and management regarding the storage of cultural properties in the future.
The study was aimed to investigate the operational meal costs by kindergarten size in Seoul and to analyze recognition for optimal meal prices. A survey (31.6% recovery rate) was conducted on all kindergartens (779 kindergartens) in Seoul on April 2021 using descriptive analysis, t-test, and dispersion method. A price sensitivity measurement (psm) method was used to determine optimal meal prices. Result showed an average food cost for kindergartens of 2,647 won, an average labor cost of 605 won, an average operating cost of 146 won, and the total meal cost of 3,506 won. Total meal cost decreased with increasing kindergarten size (p<0.001). On the other hand, kindergartens with more students decreased the ratio of food cost to total meal cost, and operating cost and labor costs (p<0.001) increased. The optimal price of kindergarten operators' meal cost (OPP) was KRW 3,673. Furthermore, the analysis showed the sensitivity of operators' meal costs to kindergarten size was insignificant.
In general, trans-membrane pressure (TMP), flux, filtration resistance are used as indicators to evaluate the degree of fouling in MBR. However, they have limitations in determining the level of EPS generation, which is known as an important factor of fouling. Therefore, a new evaluation method is required to monitor the amount of EPS generation. In this study, the applicability of capillary suction time (CST), which is used to measure the dewaterability of sludge, was evaluated as an indirect fouling evaluation index. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of EPS on CST, and to determine whether EPS has high similarity with representative fouling evaluation indicators and CST, and quantitatively compared them. As a result, the correlation coefficient between CST and bEPS was 0.7988, which was higher than the correlation coefficient between filtration resistance and bEPS. Since bEPS is a major factor inducing fouling by affecting the formation of the cake layer, it was evaluated that CST, which has a high correlation with bEPS, is suitable to represent EPS. In addition, it was evaluated that the correlation coefficient between filtration resistance and CST was high as 0.7187, which could be used as a fouling evaluation index.
This study tried to develop Jinmal dasik using pine nuts leaf powder with antibacterial and antioxidant properties. After preparing the Jinmal dasik in proportions of 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8% by varying the ratio of pine needle powder, the moisture, color, physical properties, antioxidant properties and sensory quality were measured. Except for the 8% Jinmal dasik, the L value of chromaticity significantly decreased as the amount of pine needle powder increased (p<0.001). In addition, the value significantly decreased with increased density (p<0.001). Based on our physical properties evaluation results, the hardness, cohesiveness, and elasticity decreased significantly as the amount of pine needle powder increased (p<0.001), but adhesion and chewiness increased significantly with an increase in the amount of pine needle powder (p<0.001). Total polyphenol content was significantly increased except for the 8% Jinmal dasik (p<0.001). DPPH and ABTS also increased significantly as the amount of pine needle powder increased (p<0.001). Our sensory evaluation, showed the 2% Jinmal dasik to have the highest degree of preference, however, there was no significant difference among the proportion groups (p=0.053).
The purpose of this study was to analyze the operators' perception of the allowable price range and the optimal price of kindergarten meals by using the PSM (price sensitivity measurement) technique and provide basic data on calculating kindergarten meal costs reflecting realistic meals. From April to May 2021, 779 kindergartens in Seoul were surveyed, based on 246 (31.6%) of the respondents. According to the survey, kindergarteners spent 3,506 won for meals on average, followed by 3,822 won for kindergarten attached to elementary school, 3,316 won for public kindergartens, and 2,896 won for private kindergartens (p<0.001). The allowed price range for the kindergarten meal service workers was estimated at 3,447~3854 won, 3,447 won for PMC (Point of Marginal Cheapness), and 3,854 won for PME (Point of Marginal Expensiveness). The appropriate cost of the kindergarten meal service provider was 3,950 won for kindergartens attached to elementary school, 3,425 won for public kindergartens, and 3,546 won for private kindergartens.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the perception of the quality of school meals by parents of kindergarten children in Seoul, analyze the acceptance price and the optimal school meal cost using PSM (price sensitivity measurement) techniques, and provide basic data for improving the quality of kindergarten meals. The survey was conducted using descriptive statistics and PSM analysis of the responses of 1,272 parents of 779 kindergarten children belonging to the Seoul Metropolitan Office of Education from April to May 2021 and prior research analysis related to kindergarten meals. 74.1% of the parents surveyed were women, with 61% of children attending kindergartens attached to elementary schools, followed by private kindergartens (28.9%) and public kindergartens (10.1%). According to a study of the quality of meals, private kindergarten parents are highly satisfied with all the quality attributes of meals, such as “sanitation of dining environment” and “nutritionally balanced food” (p<0.001, p<0.01). The analysis of the acceptance price range and the optimal price for school meals showed that there was no significant variation based on the type of kindergarten establishment, with parents' acceptance price range ranging from 3,596 won to 4,454 won with an optimal price of 3,948 won.
In MBR, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) is known as an important factor of fouling; soluble EPS (sEPS) affects internal contamination of membrane, and bound EPS (bEPS) affects the formation of the cake layer. The production of EPS changes according to the composition of influent, which affects fouling characteristics. Therefore, in this study, the effects of the F/M ratio on the sEPS concentration, bEPS content, and fouling were evaluated. The effects of F/M ratio on the amount and composition of EPS were confirmed by setting conditions that were very low or higher than the general F/M ratio of MBR, and the fouling occurrence characteristics were evaluated by filtration resistance distribution. As a result, it was found that the sEPS increased significantly with the increase of the F/M ratio. When the substrate was depleted, bEPS content decreased because bEPS was hydrolyzed into BAP and seemed to be used as a substrate. In contrast, when the substrate is sufficient, UAP (utilization-associated products) was rapidly generated in proportion with the consumption of the substrate. UAP has a relatively higher Protein/Carbohydrate ratio (P/C ratio) than BAP, and this means, it has a higher adhesive force to the membrane surface. As a result, UAP seems like causing fouling rather than BAP (biomass-associated products). Therefore, Rf (Resistance of internal contamination) increased rapidly with the increase of UAP, and Rc (Resistance of cake layer) increased with the accumulation of bEPS in proportion, and as a result, the fouling interval was shortened. According to this study, a high F/M ratio leads to an increment in UAP generation and accumulation of bEPS, and by these UAP and bEPS, membrane fouling is promoted.
무형적 예술의 변천 속에서는 인간이 예술을 만들고자 하는 생동하는 의지까지 포착해 낼 수 있다. 그 생동하는 예술의지를 본 연구자는 세계적인 아이돌 방탄 소년단(BTS)의 무대를 통해서 만날 수 있었으며 이에 본고는 그들의 성공 요인을 한국춤의 정체성으로 본 2018년 멜론 뮤직 어워드 무대의 재조명을 통하여 살펴보았다. 그 결과로는 첫째, 해당 무대는 세계적으로 선호하는 대중적 요소들 속에서 한국적인 호흡, 춤사위, 도구 등을 접목시켜 예술적으로 표현화 하였다. 둘째, 한국춤의 전통성과 현대성의 조화로 자신들만의 기운생동의 최고점을 선보이면서, 한국 문화의 정체성까지 효과적으로 알린 무대였다. 셋째, 어떠한 주제이든, 내용이든, 소재이든 그들만의 기운생동의 무대로 만들어 내는 주체적인 의지와 힘이 바로 BTS 성공의 핵심적인 요인이자, 그들의 정체성인 것이다. 더 나아가 BTS가 추구하는 방향이 옮고, 보다 의미 있는 곳으로 향할 때, 그들은 오랫동안 세계적인 스타이자 예술가로 우리 곁에 함께 할 수 있을 것이다.
Non-point source pollutants have characteristics the render them difficult to manage owing to the uncertainty of flow paths. As agricultural non-point sources account for more than 57% of non-point source pollutants, the necessity for management is increasing. This study examines the possibility of utilizing land cover maps to suggest a more appropriate method of setting management priority for agricultural non-point sources in the Daecheong Lake area and draws implications by comparing the results derived using the cadastral map, as mentioned in the TMDL Basic Policy. To define the prioritized areas for management, the pollution load was calculated for each subbasin using the formula from the TMDL technical guidelines. As a result, the difference in the average pollution load between the land cover map and cadastral map ranged from 11.6% to 21% among the subbasins. In almost all subbasins, there were differences in the ranking of management priorities depending on the land information that was used. In addition, it was found that it was reasonable to use the level 3 land cover map to calculate the load generated by the land system for examining the implementation goals and methods of each data and comparing them with satellite images.
Biological phosphorus removal is accomplished by exposing PAO(phosphorus accumulating organisms) to anaerobic-aerobic conversion conditions. In the anaerobic condition, PAO synthesize PHB(polyhydroxybutyrate) and simultaneously hydrolysis of poly-p resulting phosphorus(Pi) release. In aerobic condition, PAO uptake phosphorus(Pi) more than they have released. In this study, cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp., which is known to be able to synthesize PHB like PAO, was exposed to anaerobic-aerobic conversion. If Synechococcus sp. can remove excess phosphorus by the same mechanism as PAO, synergistic effects can occur through photosynthesis. Moreover, Synechococcus sp. is known to be capable of synthesizing PHB using inorganic carbon as well as organic carbon, so even if the available capacity of organic carbon decreases, it was expected to show stable phosphorus removal efficiency. In 6 hours of anaerobic condition, phosphorus release occurred in both inorganic and organic carbon conditions but SPRR(specific phosphorus release rate) of both conditions was 10 mg-P/g-MLSS/day, which was significantly lower than that of PAO. When converting to aerobic conditions, SPUR(specific phosphorus uptake rate) was about 9 mg-P/g-MLSS/day in both conditions, showing a higher uptake rate than the control condition showing SPUR of 6.4 mg-P/g-MLSS/day. But there was no difference in terms of the total amount of removal. According to this study, at least, it seems to be inappropriate to apply Synechococcus sp. to luxury uptake process for phosphorus removal.
이 글은 디지털 환경 속에서 코로나 시대를 맞이하게 된 우리들의 예상되는 미래를 언택트 디지털 인디펜던트Untact Digital Independent로 가늠해 보고, 콘택트 아날로그 인터디펜던트Contact Analog Interdependent 적인 한국춤의 미래적 대안으로서 트랜스미디어 스토리텔링에 주목하여 살펴보았다. 그 결과는 첫째, 한국춤은 한국이라는 지역적 공간 안에서 시간적인 확보를 가지고 끝없는 수용과 변용의 지속적인 전승으로 이어 온 예술적 진화의 가능성을 지닌 우리의 소중한 자산의 하나라고 할 수 있다. 둘째, 그 예술적 진화가 가능했던 것은 시대별 핵심적인 매체가 있었기 때문이며, 한국춤의 미래적 매체로서 트랜스미디어 스토리텔링을 적용해보았다. 이를 통해 트랜스미디어 스토리텔링이란 우리가 예상하는 미래의 시대에 유기적으로 대응이 가능한 미디어 플랫폼으로 지속적인 참여와 협력적인 창조까지 가능한 오픈형 융합 미디어 모듈 시스템이라는 주제적 개념을 이끌어냈다. 셋째, 트랜스미디어 스토리텔링으로 본 한국춤의 구조는 논리적·표층적·서사적·심층적 등으로 나눌 수 있고, 각종 미디어를 통해서 서사성, 분절성, 연속성 복합성, 확장성, 총체성의 방식으로 춤을 이야기할 수 있다. 본고에서는 ‘천을 들고 추는 춤’을 예시로 들었으며, 이러한 시도는 디지털 문화콘텐츠 및 미디어 문화 원형으로서의 한국춤의 새로운 가능성을 시사하는 것이다.
These days, costumes of Korean creative dancing performances have been changed to be modernized and to be out of traditional regulation, as the representation of the Korean styles were replaced by other props and art devices. In this article, we have applied the emotions expressed in Jin-Yi Hwang’s sijos (Korean traditional poems), to Korean creative dancing costumes in modern style. chose three typical sijos from her six pieces, titled “Green mountain is like what I’ve meant”, “To Byeokgyesoo in Cheongsan-ri” and “Dongjibam ginaginbam”. In brief, Jin-Yi Hwang expressed her “everlasting love and emptiness”, “temptative conciliation” and “eager waiting” these three sijos, respectively. The character of Jin-Yi Hwang was shown in many TV soap operas and films, and the costumes were either much modernized, and not accurately based on the sijos she had written. Thus, we designed, made flat sketched, and fabricated three Korean creative dancing costumes from the three sijos, listed. We tried to highlight the aesthetic impression and the activeness of the dancing costumes, using both traditional and modern Korean fabrics. Since Korean dance costumes had not yet been inspired from Jin-Yi Hwang’s sijos, we discussed the importance of the fabric items, as well as the visual, auditory, and tactile characteristics of the costumes and dancers to emphasize Jin-Yi Hwang’s expressed emotions.
영남육괴 북동부에 위치하는 춘양화강암은 비알칼리계열 중 칼크-알칼리계열에 해당하는 I-type의 화강암류이며, 고알루미나질이다. 주성분원소 및 미량원소의 함량변화는 체계적인 연속성을 보이며, 일반적인 남한의 쥐라기 화강암류 의 분화경향과 유사하다. 미량원소 중 유동성을 가지는 LILE (Sr, K, Rb, Ba)는 부화되어 있는 반면, 비유동성을 나타 내는 HFSE 중 Ta, Nb, P, Ti의 함량은 상대적으로 결핍되어 있다. HREE에 대한 LREE의 강한 부화((La/Lu)CN=41.8-73.2)와 Eu 부(-)이상[(Eu/Eu*)CN=0.89-1.10]은 남한에 분포하는 쥐라기 화강암류의 패턴과 매우 유사하다. 이러한 춘양 화강암을 암체의 서쪽에 위치하며 영주저반의 대부분을 차지하는 부석심성암체와 비교하면 주성분원소 및 미량원소의 Harker 성분변화도에서 SiO2 함량에 따른 상관관계를 인지할 수 없어 두 암체는 성인적으로 무관한 별개의 암체로 사 료된다. 춘양화강암은 지구조 판별도에서 화산호 환경에 도시되고 따라서 춘양화강암의 지화학적 특성을 종합해보면 쥐 라기 고태평양판이 섭입하는 활동성 대륙주변부 환경에서 생성되었을 것으로 사료된다.
This study presents the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) as a potential decision-making method for obtaining the relative weights of alternatives through pairwise comparison in the context of hierarchical structure. The aim of this study was to elicit prior strategies for brand communication for Korean restaurants overseas. We created a questionnaire and surveyed experts at government agencies, restaurant companies, and universities from October to November 2011. By applying the pairwise comparison matrix, relevance was perceived as a more important strategy evaluation criteria than effectiveness or urgency. The highest-ranked strategy was the 'Identification of the BI and positioning of Korean restaurants' followed by 'Development of Korean food content for overseas promotion', 'Development of locally customized Korean food recipes and new Korean menus', 'Development of marketing communication strategies for Korean restaurants by countries', and 'Development of Korean restaurant differentiation strategies'. The results of this study can be used for effective Korean food globalization by enhancing the competitiveness in the world market.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cytokine-induced osteoclastogenesis on tooth movement related to orthodontic force. We evaluated the cytotoxicity as well as the expression of OPG and RANKL, which influence the homeostasis of bone metabolism. Titanium particles were applied to human periodontal ligament cells and subcultured fourth generation cells. The ALP assay and the MTT assay were used to assess changes in cytotoxicity. After 48 hours, cytotoxicity increased proportionally with the concentration of titanium. With 20 mg, the cytotoxicity was the lowest. R T-PCR was u sed for assessing m R NA l evels of O PG a nd R ANKL; after 96 hours, t he m R NAs of O PG a nd R ANKL increased steeply. A western blot analysis showed that with 20 mg of titanium, the protein expression of OPG increased linearly with time, especially a fter 96 hours, while t he p rotein e xpression o f RANKL d id n ot s how significant changes with titanium processing. Given the increase in OPG expression after the initial cytotoxicity, changes in cytotoxicity with titanium may be attributable to the antagonistic effect of OPG on cytotoxicity