This study evaluated the quality of school milk programs and analyzed the relative importance of school milk program selection attributes using conjoint analysis. The survey was conducted on students from middle and high schools in metropolitan cities that provide school milk programs. Responses were received from 414 students and the data was subjected to frequency analysis, t-test, and conjoint analysis using the SPSS Statistics Package. While evaluating white milk in the school milk program, middle school students rated ‘packaging condition’ (4.23) the highest, high school students rated ‘nutrition’ (4.64) the highest, and their evaluation of all the quality attributes was significantly different from that of middle school students (p<0.001). Overall satisfaction scores too, showed a significant difference between high school (4.46) and middle school students (4.01) (p<0.001). Processed milk & dairy products had the highest satisfaction score in the attribute of ‘serving time’ (4.57). The relative importance of the choice attributes of the school milk program was in the order of ‘number per item’ (62.260%), ‘temperature’ (25.708%), and ‘serving method’ (12.032%) for all students. The school milk program most preferred by all students and middle school students was to provide milk at a refrigerated temperature, select white milk three times a week, processed milk, fermented milk, and cheese twice a week, and provide it at the desired time.
The study was aimed to investigate the operational meal costs by kindergarten size in Seoul and to analyze recognition for optimal meal prices. A survey (31.6% recovery rate) was conducted on all kindergartens (779 kindergartens) in Seoul on April 2021 using descriptive analysis, t-test, and dispersion method. A price sensitivity measurement (psm) method was used to determine optimal meal prices. Result showed an average food cost for kindergartens of 2,647 won, an average labor cost of 605 won, an average operating cost of 146 won, and the total meal cost of 3,506 won. Total meal cost decreased with increasing kindergarten size (p<0.001). On the other hand, kindergartens with more students decreased the ratio of food cost to total meal cost, and operating cost and labor costs (p<0.001) increased. The optimal price of kindergarten operators' meal cost (OPP) was KRW 3,673. Furthermore, the analysis showed the sensitivity of operators' meal costs to kindergarten size was insignificant.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the operators' perception of the allowable price range and the optimal price of kindergarten meals by using the PSM (price sensitivity measurement) technique and provide basic data on calculating kindergarten meal costs reflecting realistic meals. From April to May 2021, 779 kindergartens in Seoul were surveyed, based on 246 (31.6%) of the respondents. According to the survey, kindergarteners spent 3,506 won for meals on average, followed by 3,822 won for kindergarten attached to elementary school, 3,316 won for public kindergartens, and 2,896 won for private kindergartens (p<0.001). The allowed price range for the kindergarten meal service workers was estimated at 3,447~3854 won, 3,447 won for PMC (Point of Marginal Cheapness), and 3,854 won for PME (Point of Marginal Expensiveness). The appropriate cost of the kindergarten meal service provider was 3,950 won for kindergartens attached to elementary school, 3,425 won for public kindergartens, and 3,546 won for private kindergartens.
The purpose of this study was to predict educational transformation in the post pandemic era and address a new agenda for participants in both education and academia of Korean EFL. First of all, this article calls attention to rapid societal changes due to technology for the last few decades, particularly in facets of language use, knowledge building, and learning paradigm. Second, this study attempted to articulate unprecedented challenges of English education in Korea for adapting to educational reform in the digital society: 1) defining digital literacy from the second language (L2) perspective, 2) relocating English curriculum within digital learning ecology, and 3) achieving normalization of Korean school English curriculum. For successful transition, this paper finally suggests that a united voice is needed from participants and that new governance should be established in English education to connect educators, researchers, and policy makers to each other empowered by major academic associations such as KATE.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the perception of the quality of school meals by parents of kindergarten children in Seoul, analyze the acceptance price and the optimal school meal cost using PSM (price sensitivity measurement) techniques, and provide basic data for improving the quality of kindergarten meals. The survey was conducted using descriptive statistics and PSM analysis of the responses of 1,272 parents of 779 kindergarten children belonging to the Seoul Metropolitan Office of Education from April to May 2021 and prior research analysis related to kindergarten meals. 74.1% of the parents surveyed were women, with 61% of children attending kindergartens attached to elementary schools, followed by private kindergartens (28.9%) and public kindergartens (10.1%). According to a study of the quality of meals, private kindergarten parents are highly satisfied with all the quality attributes of meals, such as “sanitation of dining environment” and “nutritionally balanced food” (p<0.001, p<0.01). The analysis of the acceptance price range and the optimal price for school meals showed that there was no significant variation based on the type of kindergarten establishment, with parents' acceptance price range ranging from 3,596 won to 4,454 won with an optimal price of 3,948 won.
총담관으로의 클립 이동은 복강경 수술의 드문 합병증이다. 저자들은 4년 전 복강경 담낭절제술과 복강경 총담관탐색술을 동시에 받은 66세 남자에서 Hem-o-lok 클립 이동으로 인한 담관 결석 1예를 문헌고찰과 함께 보고하고자 한다. 상복부 통증을 주소로 내원한 환자의 복부 전산화단층촬영에서 담관의 확장과 다량의 담관 결석 및 담관을 침범한 이물질이 의심되었다. 내시경역행담췌관조영술을 하여 다량의 담관 결석과 함께 이물질을 제거하였다. 이물질의 정체는 Hem-o-lok clip이었다. 복강경 담낭절제술과 복강경 총담관탐색술을 받은 환자가 상복부 통증을 호소한다면, 드물지만, 클립 이동에 의한 담관 결석 가능성도 염두에 두어야 한다.
The quality characteristics of sugar-reduced green tea cookies were tested, and there was no significant differences in density, spreadability, loss rate, and pH in all experimental groups (p<0.05). The sugar content of the sample with 100% sugar replaced was 0.96oBrix, which was significantly higher than the 0.80 °Brix of the control (p<0.05). The sample with 75% sugar substituted was 0.76oBrix, which was similar to that of the control (p>0.05). The calories per 100 g of cookies were reduced from 482 to 433 kcal in the sample groups, where the sugar content was reduced from 0 to 100%. Carbohydrates also decreased with decreasing sugar content. The protein was 5g in the sugar sample group reduced by 0- 25%, and 6 g in the sugar sample group reduced by more than 50%. Dietary fiber was three times higher in the sugar sample group reduced by 75% than the control, and four times higher in the sugar sample group reduced by 100% than the control. No significant differences in the sweet sensory intensities were observed between the control and the 75% reduced sugar sample group (p>0.05). The brightness, savory, sweet, and aftertastes were similar in all experimental groups (p>0.05). Overall, high value-added green tea cookies with a more than 75% reduction in sugar were successfully developed with added functions of immunity, anti-cancer, antioxidant functions, preventing constipation and obesity, without deteriorating the sensory and physicochemical qualities tested.
The physicochemical and antioxidant properties of cookies prepared using powders of barley sprout (BS), lemon balm (LB), and green tea (GT) were studied. The same dough density was maintained in all the sample groups. The experimental group to which the natural ingredients containing antioxidants were added did not show any significant change in the appearance of cookies compared to the control. LB and GT cookies showed significantly lower hardness compared to the control (p<0.05). Control showed the lowest antioxidant effect when assessed with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. (DPPH) and this gradually increased in the order of BS, LB, and GT. The antioxidant activity of GT was 7 times higher as compared to the control (p<0.05). The antioxidant activity assessed using 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) also showed results similar to that seen with DPPH. GT showed a significantly higher total phenol content, about 2-3 times higher compared to the control (p<0.05). GT had significantly higher total flavonoid content than that of the control (p<0.05). Thus, the addition of natural antioxidant ingredients such as sprout barley, lemon balm and specifically green tea, in the preparation of cookies, resulted in excellent antioxidant activity with similar physicochemical quality characteristics. The study suggests that it is possible to develop cookies that are competitive in terms of nutritional and physiologically active functions.
This study was performed to examine the physicochemical and antioxidative properties of the sponge cakes with different contents (0, 2, 4, 6, 8%, w/w) of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) powder (LBP). An increase in LBP content in the cake led to a significant increase in the baking loss rate, specific volume, DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical scavenging activity, total phenol contents and total flavonoid contents of the cakes (p<0.05). As the LBP content increased, significant decreases were shown in the specific gravity of batter, sugar contents, pH, lightness, redness and yellowness of the cakes (p<0.05). Ash contents, uniformity index and other textural properties of hardness, springness, cohesiveness, and brittleness did not show any significant differences between the sample groups (p>0.05). These results suggest that LBP can be applied to sponge cakes to achieve positive textural properties such as uniform pore formation and increased volume with increased antioxidant properties.
이 연구는 교정용 성격평가 질문지(PAI-PS)를 이용하여 여성 수형자의 심리적 특성 을 확인하였다. 이를 위해 PAI-PS 표준화 연구 시 수집된 자료와 PAI 증보판 표준화 연구 시 수집된 자료를 활용하였다. 수형자 집단은 범죄유형비율을 고려한 층화임의 표본추출 과정을 거쳐 총 249명(여성= 83명, 남성= 166명)으로, χ²검증 및 독립표본 t-검증을 실시하여 성별에 따른 심리적 특성의 차이를 확인하였다. 일반 여성 집단 또 한 무작위 추출과정을 거쳐 83명을 선별하여, 여성 수형자집단과 독립표본 t-검증을 실시하였다. 그 결과, 여성 수형자들은 남성 수형자들에 비해 더 많은 우울, 불안 등을 지니고 있었다. 여성 수형자가 남성 수형자 및 일반 여성에 비해 차이나는 특성은 부 정적 대인관계의 지속과 그로 인한 부정적 영향이었다. 또한 여성 수형자집단 내에서 도 PAI-PS 프로파일 특성에 따라 ‘약물관련문제 집단’, ‘불안과 우울 호소 집단’, ‘긍 정적 인상관리 집단’, ‘평균 집단’으로 구분되었다. 이 연구는 기존에 부족한 여성 수형자의 심리적 특성에 대해 연구하였으며, 특히 남성수형자 및 일반 여성과의 비교 뿐 아니라 수형자집단 내에서의 심리적 특성을 유형별로 구분하여 폭넓은 이해를 제공하 였다는 점에서 의의가 있다. 이를 통해 추후 여성 수형자의 특성을 고려한 차별적인 교정 및 처우 대책 수립에 기초적인 자료로 활용될 수 있을 것이다.
본 연구는 2017년 국내에서 유통되는 유산균을 함유한 건강기능식품과 가공식품 120건에 대하여 프로바이오틱스 함량, pH와 산도를 분석하였다. 또한, 건강기능식품 중 프로바이오틱스 5개 제품에 대한 보존방법에 따른 변화를 조사하였다. 프로바이오틱스 제품 85건 중 2건이 표시량 이하였고, 가공식품 35건은 모두 적합이었다. 프로바이오틱스 제품의 프로바이오틱스수, pH, 산도 평균은 각각 1.2 × 1010 CFU/g (표시량: 3.4 × 109 CFU/g), 5.35, 1.29%이었으며, 가공식품 중 유산균 함유량 표시 식품 17건의 유산균수 평균은 5.8 × 108 CFU/g이었다. 프로바이오틱스 5제품의 보존온도(−20℃, 4℃, 20℃, 40℃)와 보존기간(1, 3, 6개월) 경과에 따른 프로바이오틱스 함량 변화를 관찰한 결과, 보존기간 1개월에서 6개월 후 프로바이오틱스수 감소율은 평균 59%이었고, 4℃에서 가장 낮은 감소율과 40℃에서 가장 높은 감소율을 나타내었다. 또한, 5개 제품 중 3제품에서 보존기간 1개월에서 3개월 경과 후 40℃에서 70%이상 급격한 균수 감소를 관찰할 수 있었다. 따라서 프로바이오틱스 제품의 보존온도와 보관기간에 따른 변화를 고려할 때 프로바이오틱스 제품은 냉장보관을 권장하며 구입 후 되도록 단기간에 섭취하는 것이 바람직한 것으로 판단된다.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the antioxidative and physical properties of finger food type rice snacks and pumpkin rice snacks for infants aged 6 to 12 months old. The addition of rice germ did not affect density or porosity, and there was no significant difference when compared with commercial products. The addition of rice germ to the rice snack group did not reduce the longitudinal expansion quality of the rice snack. The WAI of RW and SW values were 9.83 and 8.93, respectively, which were significantly higher than those of other samples (p<0.05). The results of this study show that the addition of rice germ to rice snack resulted in reduced density and porosity of rice snacks and maintenance of a high water absorption index, which are more desirable characteristics for products. The products with rice germ showed significantly higher antioxidative activities among all samples (p<0.05).
The purpose of this study is to investigate in-depth high school students’ strategy use in reading English texts of College Scholastic Ability Test (KSAT). This study employed a think-aloud method to look into the reading process by task types and by reading proficiency. Six high school students, three high-level and three low-level readers, were asked to perform reading tasks of three types, ‘finding a theme’, ‘filling the gap’, ‘finding an irrelevant sentence & inserting a sentence’, thinking out loud after training. The results are as follows. First, the participants used varied types of reading strategies regardless of top-down/bottom-up. ‘Guessing from the context’ and ‘paraphrasing in L1’, were most frequently used, and ‘using schema’ and ‘sensing the logical organization’ were least used.’ Second, different strategy use patterns were shown by task types: Far more strategies were used in ‘finding a theme’ than the others, especially, attending to keyword. Third, the high-level readers employed more reading strategies than the low-level counterparts. Furthermore, the strategy use pattern was very different between groups: The low-level readers seldom used ‘checking discourse markers,’ ‘synthesizing information,’ and ‘questioning’ that the high level readers commonly used.
This study was conducted to investigate the microbial loads in mulberry fruits depending on cultivation environment and fruit ripeness. The population levels of total aerobic bacteria in mulberry fruits collected from open field orchards were higher than those from three plots protected within plastic green houses. In regards to fruit ripeness, the levels of total aerobic bacteria in ripe black fruits were higher than those in unripe green and red mulberry. From the farms into where livestock animals were allowed to enter, Escherichia coli was detected in soil at a level of 4.26~4.94 log CFU/g and in mulberry fruits at 5.03~6.07 log CFU/g, while no coliform and E. coli were detected from where the intrusion of livestock was prevented. We also examined the density change of inoculated E. coli in mulberry fruits as they were becoming mature. While E. coli did not increase in green fruits, two and four log CFU/g increases at 20oC and 37oC, respectively, were observed with red and fully mature black mulberries during 48 hours incubation. To ensure the food safety of mulberry, it is suggested that the introduction of E. coli into a farm through livestock should be prevented and more hygienic caution should be taken especially when the fruits are ripe.