The study was aimed to investigate the operational meal costs by kindergarten size in Seoul and to analyze recognition for optimal meal prices. A survey (31.6% recovery rate) was conducted on all kindergartens (779 kindergartens) in Seoul on April 2021 using descriptive analysis, t-test, and dispersion method. A price sensitivity measurement (psm) method was used to determine optimal meal prices. Result showed an average food cost for kindergartens of 2,647 won, an average labor cost of 605 won, an average operating cost of 146 won, and the total meal cost of 3,506 won. Total meal cost decreased with increasing kindergarten size (p<0.001). On the other hand, kindergartens with more students decreased the ratio of food cost to total meal cost, and operating cost and labor costs (p<0.001) increased. The optimal price of kindergarten operators' meal cost (OPP) was KRW 3,673. Furthermore, the analysis showed the sensitivity of operators' meal costs to kindergarten size was insignificant.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the operators' perception of the allowable price range and the optimal price of kindergarten meals by using the PSM (price sensitivity measurement) technique and provide basic data on calculating kindergarten meal costs reflecting realistic meals. From April to May 2021, 779 kindergartens in Seoul were surveyed, based on 246 (31.6%) of the respondents. According to the survey, kindergarteners spent 3,506 won for meals on average, followed by 3,822 won for kindergarten attached to elementary school, 3,316 won for public kindergartens, and 2,896 won for private kindergartens (p<0.001). The allowed price range for the kindergarten meal service workers was estimated at 3,447~3854 won, 3,447 won for PMC (Point of Marginal Cheapness), and 3,854 won for PME (Point of Marginal Expensiveness). The appropriate cost of the kindergarten meal service provider was 3,950 won for kindergartens attached to elementary school, 3,425 won for public kindergartens, and 3,546 won for private kindergartens.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the perception of the quality of school meals by parents of kindergarten children in Seoul, analyze the acceptance price and the optimal school meal cost using PSM (price sensitivity measurement) techniques, and provide basic data for improving the quality of kindergarten meals. The survey was conducted using descriptive statistics and PSM analysis of the responses of 1,272 parents of 779 kindergarten children belonging to the Seoul Metropolitan Office of Education from April to May 2021 and prior research analysis related to kindergarten meals. 74.1% of the parents surveyed were women, with 61% of children attending kindergartens attached to elementary schools, followed by private kindergartens (28.9%) and public kindergartens (10.1%). According to a study of the quality of meals, private kindergarten parents are highly satisfied with all the quality attributes of meals, such as “sanitation of dining environment” and “nutritionally balanced food” (p<0.001, p<0.01). The analysis of the acceptance price range and the optimal price for school meals showed that there was no significant variation based on the type of kindergarten establishment, with parents' acceptance price range ranging from 3,596 won to 4,454 won with an optimal price of 3,948 won.
The objective of this study was to review and evaluate the growing subject of food tourism research, and thus identify the trend of food tourism research. Using a Text mining technique, this paper discovered the trends of the literature on food tourism that was published from 2004 to 2018. The study reviewed 201 articles that include the words ‘food’ and ‘tourism’ in their abstracts in the KCI database. The Wordscloud analysis results presented that the research subjects were predominantly ‘Festival’, ‘Region’, ‘Culture’, ‘Tourist’, but there was a slight difference in frequency according to the time period. Based on the main path analysis, we extracted the meaningful paths between the cited references published domestically, resulting in a total of 12 networks from 2004 to 2018. The Text network analysis indicated that the words with high centrality showed similarities and differences in the food tourism literature according to the time period, displaying them in a sociogram, a visualization tool. This study has implications that it offers a new perspective of comprehending the overall flow of relevant research.
The purpose of this study was to propose effective marketing communication strategies for overseas Korean restaurants through a multilateral comparison analysis of American, Chinese, and Japanese consumers' attitudes towards communication media and Korean restaurants. The survey was written in English, Chinese, and Japanese, with guideline for surveyors, and conducted using both online and offline methods. Samples were collected from five major cities - Los Angeles, New York, Tokyo, Beijing and Shanghai, which are the foothold for the globalization of Korean food. When it comes to attitudes towards communication media, word-of-mouth showed a high mean value, indicating it as the most useful and reliable media recognized by consumers who visited Korean restaurants. Furthermore, the necessity of recognizing the importance of visual communication in the physical environment of Korean restaurants and specialized websites, featuring restaurants and gourmet food, was observed. Consumers in all three nations chose word-of-mouth as the most useful and reliable media for learning about Korean restaurants. In addition, American consumers highly depended on signage and restaurant exteriors. Chinese consumers highly recognized the usefulness and reliability of offline media, such as newspapers, magazines, and events, while Japanese consumers considered online media, such as gourmet websites, blogs and social networks, as useful and reliable sources. A significantly positive attitude and high value was observed in all who had visited Korean restaurants. American and Japanese consumers had a significantly higher rate of intention to visit Korean restaurants in the future and to tell others about their satisfaction with Korean restaurants. Meanwhile, the average rate of prior preference for Korean restaurants (when choosing restaurants) was the lowest in all three countries. This study is useful for both the Korean government and food enterprises abroad to plan and develop marketing communication strategies properly for overseas Korean restaurants.
This study investigated the life cycle of menus and made suggestions on the appropriate time for when new menus should be developed. For this purpose, a total of 636 customers who visited ‘T’ Restaurant more than 25 times in the past three years were used for analysis. After estimating product life cycles based on sales and selling period, an empirical study was conducted. In terms of product life cycle, a growth stage was observed in the category of pasta and pizza in both stores A and B, whereas sales in the rice category stayed constant. Regarding trend in seasonal sales, a big difference was detected between the two stores. While store A was already in the decline stage of the life cycle in all menu categories, store B remained in the growth stage. In terms of menu life cycle, the product life cycle of long-lived products was observed in the pasta category in both stores A and B. While the pizza category was in the growth stage, the product life cycle of long-lived products was observed in the rice category. It is expected that the results of this study could be useful in development of new menus and product life cycle management to fulfill diverse customer needs in the dining-out business.
The purpose of this study was to analyze methods and contents of global Korean food marketing. In-depth interviews were conducted from July to October in 2010 using a qualitative research approach. Government agencies and restaurant companies emphasized well-being and healthy aspects as a Korean food identity. Regarding the marketing contents, government agencies commonly included standard loanword orthography and recipes. On the other hand, restaurant companies contained their own contents differentiated from other brands. Government agencies used CF, video, book and newspaper as communication channels but restaurant companies did not have systematic communication channels. Government agencies attempted to use holding, supporting and participating expositions as communication methods, whereas restaurant companies mainly used sales promotion and point-of-purchase as communication methods.
The purpose of this study was to analyze usage frequency and importance of competencies which are required to restaurant industry professionals. For this purpose, opinions of restaurant industry professionals on the competency were surveyed using questionnaires. To develop a questionnaire, a total of 27 competency variables which are required to restaurant industry professionals were drawn through literature review. Questionnaires were distributed to 300 professionals in restaurant industry with different positions using random sampling. Out of 300 questionnaires, 221 questionnaires were used for analysis. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS 10.0, including descriptive analysis, ANOVA and t-test. Reliability test and factor analysis were also conducted to evaluate the reliability and validity of the questionnaire. As a result, 'attitude and personality' factor was recognized as the most frequently used and the most important competency factor of restaurant industry professionals. Therefore, the competency such as 'sincerity', 'responsibility', 'sense of honesty', 'positive attitude', 'tolerance and justice', should be more emphasized in restaurant management education. The level of current usage and importance of each competency were different according to age, education level, working experience, position, number of employees, type of restaurant and type of management.
The purposes of this study were 1) to analyze the correlation between Word-of-Mouth(WOM) message sender credibility and WOM effect and 2) to analyze the differences of WOM message sender creadibility and WOM effect in off-line and on-line WOM communication. The messages were created as a form of scenario for this study. Respondents were asked to evaluate the message sender credibility and predict WOM behaviors after reading given scenario. The questionnaires were distributed to 200 customers and a total of 175 questionnaires were used for analysis(87.5%). The statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS Win(12.0) for descriptive analysis, paired t-test, factor analysis, correlation analysis. The positive off-line WOM message sender was considered as more credible(p<.001) than on-line WOM message sender. 'Message sender credibility' is correlated with 'attitude formation' in both channels, but 'reliable' factor of 'credibility' variable is not significantly correlated with 'attitude change'.
The purposes of this study were to measure price elasticities of menu items of a family restaurant, identify differences of price elasticity between subgroups, and provide a comprehensive understanding on price elasticity. 3 menu items of a salad buffet family restaurant in Seoul were selected for analyses, and a questionnaire was developed through literature review and modified after pilot test. The questionnaires for main survey were distributed to 250 customers on their visit to the restaurant, and a total of 139 questionnaires were used for analyses (55.6%). Statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS Win (12.0) for descriptive analyses, t-test, ANOVA, and the main results of this study were as follows. The demands were expected very elastic to the changes in prices of all 3 menu items, and there were significant differences between groups of different company types. In addition, the changes in use were less affected by the changes in menu price when customers were satisfied with each menu item. On the basis of these results, it was concluded that price increases of menu items should be companied by quality improvement of products and services, and differentiated marketing strategy for each segments of customers would be helpful to profitability of the restaurant. Overall, measurement of price elasticity could help to predict customer behaviors on price changes, and give much useful information for managers and marketers of foodservice organizations in development of price strategies.
The purpose of this research is to develop the management strategy for a take-out specialty sore on the basis of SWOT analysis which requires analysis of internal and external environmental informations. The survey was performed in order to gather the internal and external customer informations for a take-out specialty store. The questionnaires developed were distributed to customers (N=188) and employees (N=23) at 5 take-out specialty store branches from April 25, 2002 to April 29, 2002. The statistical data analysis was completed by SPSS WIN 10.0 for descriptive analysis, factor nalaysis, and Pearson's correlation. IPA(Importance-Performance Analysis) was applied in order to identify the critical management issues which would be explained with the organization's weakness or strength. SWOT analysis was performed through identifying the organizational strength and weakness as internal environment factors and external environmental opportunity and threat as uncontrollable external factors.