The purpose of this study was to measure respondent's demographic characteristics, respondent's attitudes toward chicken, and factor influencing on the level of perceived helpfulness of country of origin in predicting the quality of chicken. The data was collected through a consumer survey during the March 2006. A total number of 250 meat consumers living in Suncheon, the eastern part of Chonnam, were randomly selected as respondents. Eleven respondents did not complete the survey instrument, resulting in a final sample size of 239. All estimations were carried out using chi-square, correlation, and logistic procedure of SAS package. The results are as follows. The level of perceived helpfulness of country of origin in predicting the quality of chicken was significantly different by age and occupation of demographic variables, and was significantly correlated with respondent informed of attitude variables. The proportional odds assumption of model was not violated at p<0.05. The effects of income, occupation and respondent informed on the level of perceived helpfulness of country of origin in predicting the quality of chicken. The results from this study could be useful in developing marketing and health promotion strategies, as well as government trade policy.
This study was performed by questionnaire to investigate the dietary attitude and preference of native local foods for Ulsan citizens. The subjects were consisted of 500 citizens living in Ulsan area. The results of the survey are summarized as follows: On frequency of eating of local foods, 'one time per year' scored high as 40.8%. 'Labor-intensive' scored high as 35.6% in cooking methods. 'Rarely' scored high as 43.2% in frequency of cooking at home. A criteria of selection of Ulsan local foods was 57.2% in taste. The recognition score of native local foods was 'healthful food' (3.96 points), 'should be handed down to next generation' (3.94 points), and 'a lot of natural food ingredients' (3.88 points) and 'nutritious food' (3.87 points) in the order. The preferred native local foods of Ulsan area was 'Ulsa pear' (3.97 points), 'Eonyang, Bonggye Hanoobulgogi' (3.86 pionts), 'Raw Fish', 'Haemuljeongol', ‘Gangodeungojjim', 'Suknamsa SanchaeBibimbab' 'Gangdon Natural Brown Seaweed' in that other. On the other hand, the preference for 'Myeoljang', 'Whale Meat', 'Oksamju', 'Meonggejeon', 'Jepyipjangajji' and 'Kimchigam' was very low. Males liked 'Whale Meat', 'Raw Fish', Oksamju' and 'Dombaegi(Shark Meat)', while females liked 'Gandong Naural Brown Seaweed'. The most effectual food for developing tourism merchandising of Ulsan local foods was 'Eonyang, Bonggye hanoobulgogi' and the next is 'Eonyang Dropwort', 'Gangdong Natural Brown Seaweed', 'Myeoljang', 'Ulsan Pear', and 'Oksamju' in the order.
The object of this research is to assess both the preference and the recognition on commercial cream soup by gender and age group to design reliable proposals for better product. Of 461 questionnaires handed out to residents at Daegu, Busan and Gyeongju in youngnam area. The data were analysed by chi-square test, t-test and one way ANOVA. The results are summarized as following: (1) the response rate of 78.6 percent liked soup because of it's taste, (2) respondents in ages 20~30's showed higher preference than respondents in ages 40~50's (3) main ingredient is the most important consideration as purchase, (4) vegetable cream soup and mushroom cream soup are shown as highest ranking on the recognition of soup, (5) mushroom cream soup and corn cream soup are shown as highest ranking on the preference of soup.
The purpose of this study was to investigate university students' attitudes and interests for ethnic food. The questionnaire developed was distributed to 60 students majoring in food & nutrition and 260 students taking a liberal course related with food culture in world. A total of 271 questionnaires were usable ; resulting in 84.7% response rate. Among 12 kinds of ethnic food, a large number of students had an experience in Japanese, Chinese, American and Italian food. Also Chinese, American, Japanese and Italian food were familiar with them, but the hope to eat for French, Spanish, Mexican and German food was too strong. Students knew kinds, characteristics, table manners and etc. for Japanese, Chinese, and American food very well and wanted to know the information about French food. as result of positioning for ethnic food by correspondence analysis, Spanish, English, French, Germany and Mexican food had a strong image in want to eat, wanted to know information about food and got a good feeling. Students perceived Vietnamese, Thai and Indian food as having an experience, Japanese, American and Italian food as well-know about food or restaurants, and Chinese food as being familiar. The findings would indicate trends for ethnic foods and their cultures in Korea and forecast the possibility of change in foodservice market.
The purpose of this study were to investigate middle and high school students' food habits and food attitudes, and to assess student's nutrient consumption. A self-administered questionnaire was developed based on review of literature. The questionnaire consisted of three sections (food habits, food attitudes, and food consumption). The questionnaires were distributed to 4,050 students enrolled in 34 middle and high schools located in Seoul, Gyeonggi, and Gyeongnam provinces. A final response rate was 88.2% (3,570) excluding responses that had significant missing data. Data of the food habits and food attitudes were analyzed with descriptive analysis, 2-test, and t-test using SPSS WIN(ver.11.0). The student's self-reported food consumption data was converted into nutrient consumption using conversion factor. Many middle and high school students skipped breakfast and/or dinner. Approximately 29% of the students did not eat vegetables and fruits. Scores of the middle school student's attitudes(19.1) towards foods were significantly higher than those of the high school student's attitudes(18.7)(p〈.001). Student's nutrient intakes were estimated according to the student's self-reported food consumption data. The nutrient intakes were compared with DRIs(Dietary Reference Intakes: DRIs) for their age groups. The result of EAR(Estimated Average Requirement: EAR) cut-point method demonstrated 57.7% of middle school boys, 64.4% of middle school girls, 70.2% of high school boys, and 71.0% of high school girls did not meet EAR for Calcium. Additionally, it showed that 39.0% of middle school boys, 23.7% of middle school girls, 58.4% of high school boys, and 24.4% of high school girls did not consume EAR for Vitamin B1. 25.7% of middle school boys did not meet EAR for Vitamin B2, while 44.4% high school boys did not satisfy EAR for Vitamin B2.
This study was performed by questionnaire to investigate the preference and satisfaction on the menu of school foodservice of high school students. This study aims at providing useful information to establish subdivided menu developing direction. The subjects were consisted of 637 high school students(435 males and 202 females, 5 direct type schools and 5 trust type schools) in Gyeongju area. The results of this study were: The preferred school foodservice menu of subjects was 'seasoned roast chicken', 'steamed pork rib', 'beef rib soup', 'yogurt', 'sandwiches', 'boiled rice with assorted mixtures', 'boiled rice', 'watermelon', 'spaghetti' in that other. On the other hand, the preference for 'spinach soybean soup', 'steamed Mideodeok', 'boiled lotus root', 'roasted sweetpotato stalk', 'chopped and seasoned cucumber' was very low. Males favoured rice and meats, while females liked better noodles and vegetables. Direct type foodservice students' preference scores were higher than those of type foodservice students in side dish menu categories. The preferred and satisfied menu of subjects was meats and sweet foods, and but the preference and satisfaction for vegetables and tough foods was very low.
The purpose of this study was to divide into a few groups of Bibimbabs with distinctive menu patterns and accompaniments from 484 Bibimbab menus of 360 elementary school foodservices around Busan city and Gyeongnam province. The menus were collected from the internet(http://www.kdclub.com) and the home page of elementary schools from December, 2004 to September, 2005. Moreover, Bibimbabs with high frequency were analyzed by seasons and regions to give informations for menu planing and developing in elementary school foodservices. The serving frequency of Bibimbabs was significantly different among seasons, highest in summer and lowest in winter. Kongnamulbibimbab and Bomnamulbibimbab were highest in frequency in rural areas meanwhile, Sanchaebibimbab, and Chamchibibimbab were frequently served in Busan. The basic structure of Bibimbab meal based on main dish, soup, kimchi and one or two accompaniments consisted of 'side dish', 'fruit & beverage', or 'starchy food & dessert'. Thus, most of the Bibimbab meals were composed of 4~5 dishes. Five groups of Bibimbabs were suggested by the menu patterns and kinds of soups. Soups, fruit & beverage, and kimchi were included in the menu patterns of nearly all groups of Bibimbab. However, side dishes and strachy foods & desserts were included of excluded according to the groups of Bibimbabs. Some kinds of soups and side dishes were different among the groups of Bibimbab. These results suggest that the cost, avaliable labor and seasonal constraints contributed mainly to the numbers and kinds of accompainments in the Bibimbab meals. However, taste and sensory balance were also considered in the Bibimbab menus in the School Lunch Program.
The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating role of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control on the relationships between past behavior and customers' intention to engage in voice of dissatisfaction responses. Results of the study demonstrated that the inclusion of past behavior improved the predictability of the voice of dissatisfaction response intentions. Furthermore, the mediating analyses indicated that the influence of past behavior was mediated by mediator. In the contests of voice behavior, the effect of past behavior on intention was not mediated by attitude and perceived behavioral control. Meanwhile, subjective norm mediated the relationship between past behavior and the intention to engage in voice behavior.
This study was to analyse the eating out behaviors of customers who visit a Koran restaurant especially focused on CNR(cold noodle: naengmyun restaurant) and to find out the marketing promotion points. Through the snowball sampling, 423 customers data were surveyed in summer and winter as respects of seasonal variation. The collecting data were analysed descriptive data and statistical different using the Statistical Package for the Social Science(SPSS version 10.0). The results were as follows; The participants of the study were composed of 209 man(49.4%) and 204 woman(50.6%). Most customers were 30's(36.2%), office worker(27.5%) and spend 5,000~10,000 won(46.3%) for eating out. The consumer more preferred a specialty restaurant, the reason was to expect better taste(37.1%). In visiting CNR, the customer frequently ordered complement menu(90.1%) with cold noodle, complement menu should be developed periodically. The important factor to visiting CNR was the accessing convenience for the shop and desirable taking time was within 15 minutes. The buckwheat noodle in broth(mulnaengmyun) was the most favorite selecting menu. And the noodle texture was key evaluation factor in all types of cold noodle and the other factor was different according to the types of cold noodle. The visiting frequencies of CNR were not significantly different according to seasonal variation and sociodemographic variable. Above the half of customers visited at CNR with his/her family. This study find out the suggestion that consumer eating concepts about CNR was family eating therefore the cold noodle. specialty restaurant should be create more delight atmosphere and developed menu for families' eating out place.
Four dietary fiber enriched menus for the aged were developed and physicochemical were analyzed. Major foods enriching the dietary fiber were as following; kimchi & bean sprouts soup and sweet potato for menu 1, chamcheunamul and grape for menu 2, mushroom and kimchi for menu 3, dried radish leaves and green pepper for menu 4. One portion of calorie, carbohydrate, protein and fats for the aged were calculated as 567 kcal, 92.8 g, 21.3 g and 12.6 g, respectively based on recommended daily allowances for adults. Dietary fiber content increased in the menus 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 17.27%, 20.84%, 16.91%, and 23.64%, respectively. The menu 1 had significantly the highest acceptance scores among the rice, soups, side dishes and overall desirability with the acceptance sores of 4.77, 4.58, 4.62 and 4.69, respectively(p<0.05). Female showed significantly the higher acceptance scores of all of the enriched fiber menu than those of male. Moisture contents of the boiled rice with barely in menu 3 had significantly the highest value of all(p<0.05) and the side dishes of all menus did not show any significant differences at p<0.05. The pH value of boiled rice with barely in menu 3 was significantly the highest and menu 1 of kimchi & bean sprouts soup had significantly the lowest pH values(p<0.05). Hunter L value was significantly the highest in boiled rice with barley. The dietary fiber enriched menus were successfully developed for application and standardization in the meal service planning for the aged as one of trials of basic data collection.
The purpose of this study was to identify the differences of cognitive responses, emotional responses, customer satisfaction, and service loyalty about service encounter quality by types of restaurants and to analyse emotional responses, customer satisfaction, and service loyalty in accordance with level of service encounter quality. The questionnaire were collected from customers (N=812) who had used restaurants in Seoul, aiming at 15 or more-year-old customers from October 24, 2005 to November 6, 2005. The main results of this study were as follows: Statistically significant difference was showed in importance and performance of interaction quality, importance and performance of physical environment quality, performance of outcome quality depending on types of restaurants, while significant difference was not indicated in importance of outcome quality by types of restaurants. Positive emotional response was significantly high by types of restaurants in order of fine-dining restaurants, family restaurants, and fast-food restaurants, while negative emotional responses were significantly higher in fast-food restaurants than in the other two types. As far as Customer satisfaction are concerned, fine-dining restaurants showed higher customer satisfaction than the other two types. Attitudinal service loyalty was high in fine-dining restaurants, family restaurants and fast-food restaurants in order and behavioral loyalty was not significantly different with each type of restaurant. In accordance with level of service encounter quality, cluster analysis was conducted and the clusters were divided into 'high-valuation' and 'low-valuation'. 'High-valuation cluster' and 'low-valuation cluster' showed significant difference depending on types of restaurants that customers used(p<.001). The customers who used fine-dining restaurants and family restaurants valued the performance of service encounter highly. However, in fast-food restaurants, a lot of low-valuation customers existed. Therefore, fast-food restaurants have to improve performance of interaction quality, outcome quality and physical environment quality in service encounter. In addition, in 'high-valuation cluster' who valued service encounter quality highly showed higher scores in positive responses, customer satisfaction, service loyalty than in 'low-valuation cluster', and showed low negative responses.
The purposes of this study were 1) to analyze the correlation between Word-of-Mouth(WOM) message sender credibility and WOM effect and 2) to analyze the differences of WOM message sender creadibility and WOM effect in off-line and on-line WOM communication. The messages were created as a form of scenario for this study. Respondents were asked to evaluate the message sender credibility and predict WOM behaviors after reading given scenario. The questionnaires were distributed to 200 customers and a total of 175 questionnaires were used for analysis(87.5%). The statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS Win(12.0) for descriptive analysis, paired t-test, factor analysis, correlation analysis. The positive off-line WOM message sender was considered as more credible(p<.001) than on-line WOM message sender. 'Message sender credibility' is correlated with 'attitude formation' in both channels, but 'reliable' factor of 'credibility' variable is not significantly correlated with 'attitude change'.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the antioxidative effect and quality characteristics of cookies made with Sea tangle powder(STP). The cookies were at 30℃ for 45 days. The 3% STP had higher pH value compared to the other groups and control. As more STP was added, the L-value and b-value decreased, and the a-value increased for the color values. The results of sensory evaluation and acceptance test showed that the cookies with 3% STP was significantly more preferable in overall acceptability than the others. The acid value, peroxide value, and thiobarbituric acid value were lower in cookies with 3% and 6% STP than in those cookies made 9% STP and the control cookies.
We developed a kind of soy-based sauce for stews using three recipes and sensory evaluation processes, and examined the biological activities such as antioxidative, fibrinolytic and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of hot water extract of Cornus officinalis S. et Z in order to use as functional ingredient. The developed stew was composed of soy sauce 1½ Tbsp, sugar 114 Tbsp, garlic, small green onion, powdered sesame and sesame seed oil ½ tsp, respectively, ginger extract 14 tsp, black pepper 18 and water ⅔C per 300 g of main ingredients(pork rib, chicken and dried pollack). It was evaluated more highly acceptable than the original recipes by sensory test. Replacement of water in the recipe of the developed stew sauce with hot water extract of Cornus officinalis S. et Z did' nt affect the sensory quality. From the above results. we concluded that hot water extract of Cornus officinalis S. et Z might be a excellent source to provide health functionality.
This study was done for the determination of ginsenosides contents of Korean ginseng and ginseng products as well as the development of analytical method for ginsenosides. It is known that perfect segregation of ginsenoside Rg and Re is not easy, but in this study almost perfect segregation can be possible by the control of concentration between acetonitrile and water. Among Korean ginseng, ginseng powdered tea and red ginseng powdered tea, the highest ginsenosides content of sum of each 7 kind o ginsenoside was found in red ginseng powdered tae as 23,211μg per 1g/dw The ginsenoside content of ginseng powdered tea was lower than red ginseng powdered tea as 15,217μg per 1g/dw Total ginsenoside content in the root of ginseng was 29,268μg per 1/dw Each amount of ginsenoside contained in ginseng root was in the order of Rb1, Rg1, and Rc. It was shown that there was difference in constitutional element of ginsenosides in ginseng powdered tea and ginseng root.
This study was to investigate the effect of Jubak(Sulchigegie) on the physicochemical properties of pork. A pork was cooked in a pot opening the lid with the Jubak for 20 min and then covering the lid without Jubak for 20 min at 100℃. Effect of the added amounts of Jubak on the pork was examined by principal component analysis and electronic nose consisting of six metal oxide sensors. As a pork was cooked with 30g Jubak, ratio of resistance was increased. This condition removed unpleasant smell of pork. Effect of the pork with Jubak is better the end location than middle of pork. Also, first principal component score increased as the pork cooking time was increased. In the texture properties, hardness, chewiness, gumminess, and springness of the pork with 30g Jubak were significantly lower than others processed in this study. With sensory evaluation, the pork with 30g Jubak obtained the best score in taste, texture and overall acceptability. It could be concluded that the pork(400g) with 30g Jubak reduces the pork odor, increase the tenderness and improve the flavor and taste of pork.