The purposes of this study were to : (a) investigate overall operating conditions of university residence hall foodservice, (b) compare them by the management systems. Questionnaires were hand delivered and mailed to 73 foodservice managers. A total of 56 were usable; resulting in 76.7% response rate. The survey was conducted between October, 1998 and May, 1999. Statistical data analysis was completed using the SAS/Win 6.12 for Descriptive Analysis, 2-test. Sixty-four percent of the foodservice operations were 'self-operated'; 23% were 'contracted'; and 13% were 'rented'. Eighty-three percent of operations provided 'single menu'; forty-six percent of foodservice operations with 'partially self-service'; and forty-one percent with 'complete self-service'. Forty-four percent of overall foodservice operations provided 1,000-2,000 meals per day; thirty-one percent provided less than 1,000 meals per day, and twenty-four percent provided more than 2,000 meals per day. The highest meal price was 1,950 won and the lowest was 700 won with average of 1,295 won. The mean number of employees was 12.2; the number of working hours was 59.7 hours per week.
The purposes of this study were to : (a) analyze university students' perception and patronage behaviors to the service quality dimensions, and (b) assist university residence hall foodservices in formulating improved managerial strategies. Questionnaires were hand delivered and mailed to 1,210 university students residing in the residence hall and 13 foodservice managers. A total of 1,011 was usable; resulting in 83.6% response rate. The survey was conducted between October, 1998 and May, 1999. Statistical data analysis was completed using the SAS/Win 6.12 for Descriptive Analysis, 2-test, T-test, ANOVA, and Stepwise Multiple Regression. Forty-seven percent of the respondents indicated that 'taste' was their first priority when choosing a menu. The reasons behind choosing residence hall foodservice were 'location', 'board plan', 'price', 'taste', 'opening hours', and 'menu variety'. The main reasons of dissatisfaction with the residence hall foodservice were 'board plan', 'taste', 'menu variety'. The overall satisfaction score was 2.99 out of 5. The satisfaction score of 「convenience」, 「food quality」 and 「menu variety」were 3.25, 2.94 and 2.76, respectively. Generally, male students were more satisfied than females. Graduate students and students living in residence halls over six semesters were the most dissatisfied with the residence hall foodservice. Residence hall students were dissatisfied with the variables 「menu variety」 and 「facilities」in 'self-operated' operations, whereas 「food quality」, 「menu variety」 and 「price」 in 'contracted' operations. Foodservice operations with 'less than 1,000 meals serving per day' was the highest satisfaction score(3.36) among other serving sizes. Meal price with 'less than 1,300 won' was most satisfied with students. When overall customer satisfaction and service quality dimensions were analyzed by Stepwise Multiple Regression 「food quality」(p〈.001), 「price」(p〈.001), 「facilities」(p〈.001), 「convenience」(p〈.001), 「menu variety」(p〈.001), 「manager's attitude」(p〈.0l), and 「atmosphere」(p〈.01), in decreasing order, significantly impacted on 「overall customer satisfaction」.
This study was attempt to improve the quality of rapid- and low salt-fermented liquefaction of sardine (Sardinops melanoslicta). Effect of pretreatment methods such as water adding, heating, and intermittent NaCl adding on fermented liquefaction of chopped whole sardine were investigated. The divisions of the experimental samples by pretreatment methods were as follows; Sample A (water adding and heating): chopped whole sardine adding 20% water and then adding 3 and 5% NaCl consecutively at the intervals of 3 and 6 hrs during heating for 9 hrs at 50℃ and then fermented at 33℃ for 90 days. Sample B (preheating): chopped whole sardine with 8% NaCl and heating at 50℃ for 9 hrs and then fermented at 33℃ for 90 days. Sample C (control): neither pretreatment methods of water adding nor preheating on chopped whole sardine with 13% NaCl and then fermented at 33℃ for 90 days. Comparison of the appropriate fermentation period, yield of hydrolysate, chemical composition of fermented liquefied products were carried out. The highest content of amino nitrogen appeared at 60 days in the sample A, 75 days in the sample B, and 90 days in the sample C during the fermentation period. The appropriate fermentation period of the sample A was shorten 15 days than the sample B and 30 days than the sample C in the processing of sardine. The product A was lower NaCl (8.5%) and lower histamine content (25mg/100g) than the sample B and C. Possibly, three kinds of pretreatment methods such as water adding, heating, and intermittent NaCl adding, might be recommend as the processing of rapid- and low salt-fermented liquefaction product of chopped whole sardine.
This study was carried out to investigate the consumer recognition and consumption of Misitgaru(the traditional powder of roast grain). Data were collected from the 605 housewives(average age, 42.9 years old) residing in Chonbuk area by the self-administered questionnaire. The results from this study were as follows. The respondants were generally concerned regarding Misitgaru as a between-meal snack(33%). And there were recognition on Misitgaru as a weaning food(17%), health food(16%), and substitute food(14%). Of the respondants, good consumers of the Misitgaru were high ratio in age below 30 years old and in number of family member between 6 to 7. Among the demographic variables, age, educational level and housing form especially affected the purchasing place and educational level affected the kinds of mixing cereals. The higher the educational level, the more the kinds of mixing cereals. The methods of storage were significantly different according to age and income level. The older in age and higher in income level, the higher the storage at room temperature.
This study was to investigate the nutrition and cancer prevention knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and self-reported dietary changes. Data were collected from 903 parents whose children were attending an elementary school, a middle school, a high school, or a junior college in Kimcheon. Thirty-seven percent of the subjects reported that they had made dietary changes for their health. Respondents reported eating more vegetables(33.1%), fruit(24.1%), whole grains(19.9%), and lower-fat meats(14.5%) and less alcohol(17.2%), high-fat meat(16.4%), fats(13.8%), smoked foods(13.8%), snacks/cake/sweets(11.7%), salty foods(9.6%), and refined grain products(6.1%). Those who did not make any dietary changes most often said the reason was that they thought their diets were already healthful and therefore there was no reason to make a change. Eighty-nine percent of the subjects agreed that diet and disease were related and 89.5% knew that diet and cancer were related, yet 8% believed there was nothing a person could do to reduce the risk of getting cancer. In response to open-ended questions about foods that either increase or decrease cancer risk, vegetables, fruit, traditional fermented foods, etceteras, and whole grains were thought to decrease risk, and burned foods, salty foods, additives, high-fat meats/fats, and alcohol were thought to increase cancer risk. In this study, education levels to be the major demographic variable and residential district had an impact on cancer prevention knowledge and attitudes. People at lower educational levels and rural residents should be targeted for education about cancer risk reduction.
Korea market of food service industry has been increased greatly since early 90's with the emergence of professional catering business and the expansion of school food service. Because of the characteristics of food service establishment, feeding many people at a time, there is always a high potential of foodborne outbreak which requires special sanitary management to prevent. Currently, many catering businesses are interested in HACCP(Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points), a new sanitary management system, and are trying to develop HACCP Plans for their food service establishment. Microbiological hazard analysis, a most important step for developing HACCP Plan, provides also basic information for evaluating sanitary aspect of prepared foods and their materials. There are not extensive data of microbiological hazard analysis for food service operations, especially for prepared foods and raw materials, which are helpful for developing a HACCP Plan. The extensive microbiological hazard analyses for 65 prepared foods and 51 raw materials selected from a couple of food service establishment were performed in this research. These results will provide useful information to determine hazards for developing a HACCP plan, and also to understand sanitary status for prepared foods and raw materials in food service establishment.
A survey on the preference of kimchi and actual amounts of kimchi intake conducted from july to october 1999 to get basic information needed for the augmentation of kimchi intake. Total 1,241 of women and men aged 10~60 in kyung-nam area participated in this survey. Except people aged 20~30, all of subjects, especially in people aged 60 and over, liked fresh prepared kimchi best, and then fermented kimchi. But all of subjects disliked over fermented kimchi.(p〈0.001) And women(4.3±0.9) liked better fresh prepared kimchi than men(4.2±1.0), men(4.0±0.9) liked better fermented kimchi than women(3.9±1.1).(p〈0.05) In subjects aged above 40, as age grow up, the preference of fermented kimchi and over fermented kimchi grew lower. All of subjects best liked chinease cabbage kimchi, and then chonggak kimchi, kakdugi, yeulmu kimchi, dongchimi in order. And women liked better nabag kimchi, yeulmu kimchi, sesame leaf kimchi, bek kimchi, cucumber kimchi, godulppegi kimchi than men and men liked better chinease cabbage kimchi, kakdugi, dongchimi than women.(p〈0.05) People aged 10~20 and above 60 disliked chonggag kimchi. The preference of kakdugi were high in people aged 10~20, but as age grow up, the preference of kakdugi became lower.(p〈0.001) The preference of nabak kimchi and dongchimi with juice were significantly high in people aged 60 and over but people aged 10~20 disliked. Also subjects aged 10~20 disliked significantly yeulmu kimchi, sesame leaf kimchi, green onion kimchi, bek kimchi, cucumber kimchi, mustard leaf kimchi and godulppegi kimchi and subjects aged 20~30 disliked significantly yeulmu kimchi, mustard leaf kimchi, godulppegi kimchi(p〈0.001). But subject aged 30 and older liked all kinds of kimchi. The amounts of kimchi intake in Kyung-nam area were same level of average amount(100g) of korean intake but the amounts of kimchi intake of men(106.4±74.0) were more than women(96.9±69.5)(p〈0.05)
A survey on the preferences and notion about kimchi and kimchi products was conducted from july to october, 1999 to investigate basic information for increasing the consumption of kimchi for sale. 1,241 subjects of women and men aged 10 to 60 in Kyung-nam area participated in this survey. Most of the subjects made kimchi by themselves at home but this rate of making kimchi at home became lower than past, so increment of consumption of kimchi for sale will be expected in the future. When the people buy kimchi, they considered taste first, and then hygiene, nutrition in order. When they purchase kimchi, more men (69.1%) than women(56%) considered taste, but more women(36.1%) than men(20.6%) considered hygiene first. Subjects aged 30 or older groups considered more the hygiene of kimchi than the subjects of 10~20 age groups did.(p〈0.05) And people of household income over 3 million wons considered more hygiene than people of below 1 million wons income group did. People liked manufactured kimchi the packed with whole or partly transparent material in order to observe the contents.(p〈0.05) They liked better kimchi packed with bottle(46.1%) and vinyl(39.6%) than plastic(14.3%) and this tendency was more in the subjects of women(49.8%) and over 30 age groups.(p〈0.05) They prefered 200~500g packing unit of kimchi whether the family size were big or small. Among the processed kimchi products, men liked better a rice covered up with kimchi, a pot stew with kimchi or a soup with kimchi, On the other hand, women liked better a dumplings with kimchi, a grilled food with kimchi, a pizza with kimchi.(p〈0.05) Subjects aged 10 to 20 years old liked all kinds of kimchi products, but people aged 40 or older disliked them.(p〈0.001)